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Angola is part of:
Africa · Middle Africa ·
Water Basins of Angola:
Chiloango · Congo-Zaire · Cuvelia-Etosha · Kunene · Okavango · Zambezi ·
Facts & Figures edit
Capital Luanda
Neighbouring Countries Congo, Namibia, Zambia,
Total Area 1,246,700 km2
  - Water 0 km2 (0.00%) / 0 m2/ha
  - Land 1,246,700 km2
Coastline 1,600 km
Population 15,941,390 (12.8 inhab./km2)
HDIA 0.484 (2007)
Gini CoefficientA n/a (1995)
Nominal GDPB $95,950 million
GDP (PPP) Per CapitaB $9,100
National UN Presence
Land UseC
  - Cultivated Land 35,905 km2 (2.88%)
     - Arable 33,038 km2 (2.65%)
     - Permanent Crops 2,867 km2 (0.23%)
     - Irrigated 800 km2
  - Non cultivated 342 km2 (97.12%)
Average Annual RainfallD 1010 mm
Renewable Water ResourcesE 184 km3
Water WithdrawalsF 0.35 km3/yr
  - For Agricultural Use 60%
  - For Domestic Use 23%
  - For Industrial Use 17%
  - Per Capita 25 m3
Population with safe access to
  - Improved Water Source 53%
     - Urban population 75%
     - Rural population 40%
  - Improved Sanitation 31%
     - Urban population 56%
     - Rural population 16%
References & Remarks
A UNDP Human Development Report
B CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia
C CIA World Factbook Country Profiles
D Aquastat - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
E CIA World Factbook
F Earthtrends



Country Profile: Climate, Geography, Socio-Economic Context

Country Profile: Water Bodies and Resources

Angola has abundant water resources and does not have a scarcity of surface or groundwater, although there are regional and seasonal differences in availability. The county has nine major hydrological basins that drain into the major river systems of central-western-southern Africa, including the Congo, Zambezi, and Cuanza rivers. The Cubango River originates in Angola’s central plateau and flows in the Okavango Delta in Botswana, a globally significant wetland. The southern region of the country has limited surface water and relies on groundwater resources. The total volume of internal annual renewable water resources is 148 cubic kilometers. Irrigation accounts for 60% of water use, followed by domestic use (23%), and industry (17%).

Angola’s water supply systems were constructed during colonial times, and those still functioning were damaged by the war. Much of the population displaced by the war fled to urban and peri-urban areas, stressing already inadequate systems. Water supply is limited and unequally distributed, with the poorer sections of cities paying high prices to private vendors for 3 to 5 liters a day per person while wealthier areas have access to 80 liters per person a day from publicly provided infrastructure. Water is contaminated and storm drainage systems inadequate, resulting in high rates of water-related disease. The years of conflict precluded development and enforcement of environmental regulations governing Angola’s petroleum and mining industries, and water in industrial regions is polluted. Angola also lacks infrastructure and enforced regulation of treatment of domestic and industrial waste, which is discharged directly into the rivers and ocean. Rural rivers, on which local populations rely as their sole source of water, are often unsafe for drinking and bathing. Only 38% of the population has access to safe drinking water.

Angola has the highest rate of diarrheal disease in the world with 114 years of life lost to diarrheal diseases for every 1,000 Angolans. Contaminated water, inadequate storm water drainage, and lack of even minimal sanitation facilities have resulted in high, and steadily increasing, rates of water and excreta-related diseases. Angola’s water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector has until recently remained the least developed in Africa due to four decades of persistent civil conflict. For example, some of the worst sanitation in Angola can be found in its capital, Luanda, as well as in the hillside refugee camps surounding the city where more than a million internally displaced persons still reside.

The sprawling growth of peri-urban populations continues to put stress on already feeble WSS infrastructure, which is probably not captured by statistics on urban and rural access to improved water sources or sanitation. Although Angola is on track to meet MDG targets for water supply, it is unlikely to meet targets in the rural sanitation sub-sector by 2015. Nevertheless, the Angolan government has committed to implementing an aggressive capital investment program to expand and rehabilitate WSS infrastructure as well as implement much needed institutional reforms.

Country Profile: Legal and Institutional Environment

Key Agencies in Angola's Water Sector
Key Agencies in Angola's Water Sector
Legal Framework

Angola’s Water Law (Lei de Aqua, Law No. 6/02) was enacted in 2002. The law provides for government ownership of the country’s water resources, and the state’s responsibility for development, control, and preservation of water resources. Regulations are not yet promulgated. The Biological Water Resources Law (Law No. 6-A/04) promotes the protection of Angola’s water resources and ecosystems. The law imposes an environmental impact statement requirement on projects that may affect biologic water resources.

Significant WSS sector transformations began with the passage of Angola’s General Water Law in 2002 and the formation of the 2003 Water Sector Development Strategy. The Water Strategy and Law called for decentralization of WSS service delivery to autonomous provincial water and sanitation utilities (PWSUs), especially in peri-urban and rural areas. While the streamlining of institutional reforms has fostered momentum in WSS sector development, constraints on further reforms and sustainability are due to the lack of financial, managerial, and technical capacity in the sector.

Tenure Issues

Angola’s Water Law provides landholders with use-rights to subsurface water and water passing through the landholding, subject to recognition of the state’s ultimate rights to all water, and the requirement that landholders cannot obstruct any water course. The law promotes water-user participation in water management and intersectoral coordination. Under customary law, landholders have similar rights of use of water passing through their land parcel with the attendant obligation to restrict use as necessary to preserve the resource for the community as a whole.

Institutional Framework

The institutional framework for WSS is undergoing significant change. Currently, the Ministry of Energy and Water (MINEA ) and Ministry of Finance (MINFIN) share responsibility of regulating WSS services, including the establishment of tariffs. MINEA handles sector planning through the National Water Directorate (DNA). A component of the new reforms calls for the creation of a regulatory agency to develop and enforce PWSU delivery standards and establishment of public enterprises for WSS service provision.

The Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for irrigation systems and development. The Ministry of Planning is responsible for coordinating the overall planning of the technical activities of planning, the elaboration of strategies, plans for economic and social development and the technical monitoring their implementation. As such, the Ministry may collaborate with MINEA and other ministries in strategy development and projects relating to the development and distribution of water resources.

Government Reforms, Interventions and Investments

In 2003, the Ministry of Water and Energy adopted a strategy for development of the water and sanitation subsector. Phase I included actions to rehabilitate existing water systems, with Phase II devoted to further development of the policy and regulatory framework and institutional development. Under the 2003 Water Strategy (which covers the period until 2016) Angola’s primary focus is on urban areas. The principles of cost recovery are included in both the Law and the Water Policy, yet the current system still relies on provincial budget and direct subsidies from the central government.

The Ministry of Energy and Water initiated a Water for All project in 2008. The project is planned to provide a 20% increase in water supply each year, with the goal of ensuring that at least 80% of the country’s population has access to water by 2012. The UN joined the government’s effort in 2009 to assist with implementation. As of mid-2010, no comprehensive report on progress had been published, but progress is reported at the provincial level. In Cunene, for example, officials state that project funds paid for rehabilitation of 124 boreholes and drilling of 70 new holes.

Country Profile: Water Sector Coordination

See Sector coordination sub-page for detailed description

Country Profile: Trends in Water Use, Management and Sanitation

Country Profile: Challenges and Opportunities

Donor Interventions and Investments

The World Bank is supporting the Ministry of Energy and Water and Ministry of Planning with a 7-year (2009–2014) US $113.2 million project to develop Angola’s water sector. The project is designed to strengthen institutional capacity of water-sector agencies to improve access and reliability of water-service delivery, rehabilitate water supplies, and provide capacity-building. The governments of China, Brazil, Spain, and Germany will support complementary activities. Two World Bank emergency recovery projects have included water-sector components and, at the close of FY09 reporting, had successfully rehabilitated water pipes and improved house connections in N’Dalantando and rehabilitated half the water network in N'Dalantando, with similar rehabilitation work underway in Malanje.

USAID funded the NGO Development Workshop in its effort to provide water and sanitation services to returnees in Huambo Province in the years following the end of civil war. The project funded the construction of new wells, dry pit latrines and borewells, and established water committees to manage the water points and water resources.


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Projects and Case Studies

Projects in or about Angola

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Case studies in or about Angola

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5 most recently updated publications on Angola

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Who is Who

People working in Angola

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Organizations working in Angola
  1. Permanent Okavango River Basin Water Commission ‎(1,982 views) . . WikiBot

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See also

External Resources



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