Conflict and Cooperation in the Management of International Freshwater Resources: A Global Review

From WaterWiki.net

Revision as of 17:40, 19 October 2009 by WikiBot (Talk | contribs)
(diff) ←Older revision | Current revision (diff) | Newer revision→ (diff)
Jump to: navigation, search
edit  ·  ToolkitWater Conflict and Cooperation
History of Humanity and Water | Shared Waters and Ethics | Legal and Institutional Approaches | Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms
Emerging Trends | Public Participation | Indicators | Means and Tools | Basin Management | Lessons Learned
Organisations and Projects | Publications | Glossary | Bibliography
Case Studies: Incomati | Nile | Columbia | Lempa | Lake Titicaca | Mekong | Aral Sea | Rhine | Jordan I | Jordan II
Events | Contacts

Publication Title

Conflict and Cooperation in the Management of International Freshwater Resources: A Global Review

Publication Type

UNESCO-IHP, PCCP Series Publication, 63 p.

Author(s)

Eric Mostert

Publication Date

2003

ISBN-ISSN-EAN

Publication URL

Contact

Contents

Summary

This report contains the results of a desk study on conflict and cooperation in international freshwater management. The study was conducted as part of the UNESCO PCCP project. The PCCP project, which stands for "From Potential Conflict to Cooperation Potential", examines and fosters the potential for international water resources to become a catalyst for regional peace and development through dialogue, cooperation, and participative management of the resource. It tries to find an answer to why with some international freshwater resources conflicts develop, and with others there is cooperation.


The aim of the desk study was threefold:

  • to complement the in-depth case studies prepared in the PCCP project by a more in-breadth coverage of international freshwater management
  • to show the wide variety of issues, contexts, and solutions chosen
  • to identify general "lessons" on conflict prevention/resolution and cooperation.


First, in order to obtain an overview of the solutions chosen, nineteen institutions for managing international freshwaters were described. The individual descriptions were made by the FAO and are reported in a separate report by Melvin Spreij, titled Institutions for International Freshwater Management. Section 4 of this report contains an overview. The overview shows that most institutions studied have a broad scope in terms of water uses covered. Many also have a broad geographical scope and cover complete basins. The organizations set up range from extremely simple to very elaborate. They usually have no broad ranging decision-making powers and decision making in the organizations is usually by unanimity; countries apparently want to keep control. In many cases conflict resolution procedures have been established, but there is not much evidence that they are actually used; often they do not have to be used because cooperation is good. Public participation is with a few significant exceptions still very limited.


Second, a literature study was made of the question of how institutions for international freshwater management actually develop and how effective these institutions are. Some twenty-three freshwater resources or groups of resources were covered. In these cases it usually took ten years or more to develop effective institutions. The main obstacles were conflicting interests, bad international relations and lack of trust, and sometimes controversies over the facts. Several strategies were used to overcome these differences, such as issue linkage. The most common and most effective strategy was to develop and maintain good relations and to compromise on the basis of reciprocity on points that were important for the other countries. In the long run such a strategy benefits all parties concerned (see Section 3).


Relatively little information could be found on the effectiveness of the institutions. Nonetheless, the picture is relatively positive. Some international agreements are not complied with and others are simply not implemented, but many are implemented correctly. In a few cases serious negative side effects occurred because the interests and knowledge of the local population had been ignored when developing the institution concerned. In other cases significant improvements in the basin took place, and the institutions are at least partly responsible for this. It has proved possible to resolve many contentious issues in the framework of international commissions that have been set up, which - if not actually improving international relations - at least prevented deterioration (see Section 5).

Content

References

  • ACC/ISGWR 1992. The Dublin Statement and Report of the Conference. International Conference on Water and the Environment: Development issues for the 21st century, January 26–31 1992, Dublin, Ireland. Geneva, United Nations Administrative Committee on Coordination Inter-Secretariat Group for Water Resources.
  • ACUERDO 1973. Acuerdo entre la República Argentina y la República Oriental del Uruguay para reglementar el Convenio del 30/12/194. (Adopted in 1973; came into force on February 12 1974.)
  • Adams, A. s.d. (2000). Social Impacts of an African Dam: Equity and Distributional Issues in the Senegal River Valley. Working Paper (World Commission on Dams) Thematic Reviews, Social Issues. 49 pp. http://www.damsreport.org/docs/kbase/contrib/soc193.pdf
  • AGREEMENT NSA 2000a. Agreement on Monitoring and Exchange of Groundwater Information of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System. Signed at Tripoli on October 3–4 2000. Source: FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm
  • AGREEMENT NSA 2000b. Agreement on Monitoring and Data Sharing. Signed at Tripoli on October 3–4 2000. Source: FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/ index.htm
  • Amare, G. 1997. The Nile Issue: The Imperative Need for Negotiation on the Utilization of the Nile Waters. Addis Ababa, Ethiopian International Institute for Peace and Development (EIIPD).
  • Assetto, V. J. and Mumme, S. P. 2000. Decentralization, Public Participation, and Transboundary Water Management in Hungary and Mexico. In: J. Gayer, Participatory Processes in Water Management (PPWM): Proceedings of the Satellite Conference to the World Conference on Science (Budapest, Hungary June 28–30 1999), pp. 41–60. IHP-V. Technical Documents in Hydrology. No. 30, Paris, UNESCO.
  • Ast, J. Van. 2000. Interactief Watermanagement in Grensoverschrijdende Riviersystemen. (Interactive Water Management in Transboundary River Basins.) Delft, Eburon. 568 pp.
  • Avruch, K. and Black, P. W. 1993. Conflict Resolution in Intercultural Settings: Problems and Prospects. In: D. J. D. Sandole and H. van der Merwe, Conflict Resolution Theory and Practice: Integration and Application, pp. 131–45. Manchester and New York, Manchester University Press.
  • Bazerman, M. H.; Wade-Benzoni, K.; and Tenbrunsel, A. E. 2001. Psychological Difficulties in Resolving Water Disputes. In: U. Shamir, Negotiation Over Water: Proceedings of the Haifa Workshop, 1997, pp. 6–15. IHP-V/Technical Documents in Hydrology, No. 53. Paris, UNESCO. pp. 6–15.
  • Bernal, J. M. and Solis, A. H. 2000. Conflict and Cooperation on International Rivers: The Case of the Colorado River on the US–Mexico Border. Water Resources Development, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 651–60.
  • Bernauer, T. and Moser, P. 1996. Reducing Pollution of the Rhine River: The Influence of International Cooperation. WP-96-7. Laxenburg, IIASA.
  • Biswas, A. K. 1992. Indus Water Treaty: the Negotiating Process. Water International, Vol. 17, No. 4. pp. 201–9.
  • –––– (ed.) 1994. International Waters of the Middle East: From Euphrates-Tigris to Nile. Bombay, Oxford University Press. 221 pp.
  • ––––. 1996. Water for Sustainable Development of South and Southeast Asia in the Twenty- First Century. In: A. K. Biswas and T. Hashimoto, Asian International Waters: from Ganges– Brahmaputra to Mekong. Bombay, Oxford University Press.
  • Botto, M. P. 1999. The Amazon Cooperation Treaty: A Mechanism for Cooperation and Sustainable Development. In: A. K. Biswas, N. V. Cordeiro, B. P. F. Braga and C. Tortaradja. Management of Latin American River Basins: Amazon, Plata, and Sao Francisco, pp. 68– 100. Tokyo, United Nations University Press.
  • Boundary Convention. 1889. Boundary Convention, signed at Washington on March 1 1889 (Source: United Nations. 1963. Legislative Texts and Treaty Provisions Concerning the Utilization of International Rivers for Other Purposes Than Navigation, New York: United Nations Legislative Series, pp. 229–31.)
  • Boundary Waters Treaty. 1909. Treaty Relating to Boundary Waters and Questions Arising Between the United States and Canada. Signed at Washington on January 11 1909 Source: FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm
  • Braga, B.; Salati, E.; and Mattos De Lemos, H. 1999. Sustainable Water-Resources Development of the Amazon Basin. In: A. K. Biswas, N. V. Cordeiro, B. P. F. Braga and C. Tortaradja. Management of Latin American River Basins: Amazon, Plata, and Sao Francisco, pp. 3–48. Tokyo, United Nations University Press.
  • Brehmer, B. 1993. Cognitive Dimensions of Conflicts over New Technology. In: C. Vlek and G. C. Cvetkovich, Social Decision Methodology for Technological Projects, pp. 61–77. Dordrecht/Boston, Kluwer.
  • Brunnée, J. and Toope, S. J. 2002. Changing Nile Basin Regime: Does Law Matter? Harvard International Law Journal, Vol. 43. p. 105–59.
  • Burchi, S. 1985. Different Types of River Basin Entities: A Global Outlook. In: J. Lundqvist, U. Lohm, and M. Falkenmark, Strategies for River Basin Management: Environmental Integration of Land and Water in a River Basin, pp. 293–8. Dordrecht, Boston and Lancaster, D. Reidel.
  • Caflisch, L. 1998. Regulation of the Uses of International Watercourses. In: S. M. A. Salman and L. Boisson de Chazournes, International Watercourse; Enhancing Cooperation and Managing Conflict. World Bank technical paper No. 414. Washington: World Bank. pp. 3–16.
  • Cairo, R. A. 1998. Dealing with Interstate Water Issues: The Federal Interstate Compact Experience. In: R. Just, and S. Netanyahu, Conflict and Cooperation on Trans-Boundary Water Resources, pp. 115–30. Boston, Dordrecht and London, Kluwer Academic.
  • Caponera, D. A. 1987. International Water Resources Law in the Indus Basin. In: M. Ali, G. E. Radosevich, and A. Ali Khan, Water Resources Policy for Asia, pp. 509–15. Rotterdam: Balkema.
  • Caru Statute. 1976. Estatuto de la Comisión Administradora del Río Uruguay, hecho por el Gobierno de la República Argentina y el Gobierno de la República Oriental del Uruguay e Gualeguaychú, el 18 de Septiembre de 1976.
  • Chad Basin Convention. 1964. Convention and Statutes Relating to the Development of the Chad Basin. Signed at N’Djamena on May 22 1964 (Source: FAO, Treaties Concerning the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Africa, Legislative Study 61, Rome, 1997, pp. 10–15, and FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm).
  • Chemicals Convention. 1976. Convention on the Protection of the Rhine Against Chemical Pollution. Signed at Bonn on December 3 1976 (Source: FAO, Treaties Concerning the Non- Navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Europe. Legislative Study 50, Rome, 1993, pp. 29–36).
  • Chenoweth, J. and Bird, J. 2000. Public Participation in Multi-Jurisdictional River Basins: the Murray-Darling and Mekong. Paper for 10th World Water Congress, Melbourne, March 12– 16 2000. http://www.iwra.siu.edu/melbourne.html
  • Chenoweth, J. L. and Feitelson, E. 2001. Analysis of Factors Influencing Data and Information Exchange in International River Basins: Can Such Exchanges be used to Build Confidence in Cooperative Management? Water International, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 499–512.
  • Chenoweth, J. L. and Malano, H. M. 2001. Decision Making in Multi-jurisdictional River Basins. Water International, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 301–11.
  • Chlorides Convention. 1976. Convention on the Protection of the Rhine Against Pollution by Chlorides. Signed at Bonn on December 3 1976 (Source: FAO, Treaties Concerning the Non- Navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Europe, Legislative Study 50, Rome, 1993, pp. 29–36).
  • Cohen, R. 1993. An Advocate’s View. In: G. O. Faure and J. Z. Rubin, Culture and Negotiation, pp. 22–37. Newbury Park, Sage.
  • Collingridge, D. and Reeve, C. 1986. Science Speaks to Power: The Role of Experts in Policy Making. New York, St. Martin's Press, 175 pp.
  • Corell, E. and Swain, A. 1995. India: The Domestic and International Politics of Water Scarcity. In: L. Ohlsson, Hydropolitics: Conflicts Over Water as a Development Constraint, pp. 123– 48. London and Dhaka, Zed Books and University Press.
  • Correia, F. N. 1999. The Portuguese–Spanish River basins. In: E. Mostert, River Basin Management and Planning: Institutional Structures, Approaches, and Results in Five European Countries and Six International River Basins, pp. 128–39. RBA series on River basin Management, Research Report No. 10. Delft, RBA Centre.
  • Cosgrove, W. J. and Rijsberman, F. R. 2000. World Water Vision: Making Water Everybody’s Business. London, Earthscan, 108 pp.
  • Crabb, P. 2001. Australia’s Murray-Darling Basin Initiative: Correcting the Record. Water International, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 444–7.
  • CTM. 1981. Salto Grande: Documentos y Antecedentes.
  • CTM Agreement. 1946. Agreement Relating to the Utilization of the Rapids of the Uruguay River in the Area of Salto Grande. Signed at Montevideo on December 30 1946 (entry into force: August 27 1958). (Source: CTM, Salto Grande: Documentos y Antecedentes, 1981.)
  • Danube Convention. 1994. Convention on Cooperation for the Protection and Sustainable use of the River Danube. Signed at Sofia on June 29 1994. (Source: FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm).
  • Declaration Of The Hague 2000. Ministerial Declaration of The Hague on Water Security in the 21st Century. Agreed to at The Hague, March 22 2000.
  • Deng, F. M. 1993. Northern and Southern Sudan: The Nile. In: G. O. Faure and J. Z. Rubin, Culture and Negotiation, pp. 62–96. Newbury Park, Sage.
  • Diawara, S. A. (n.d.) L’OMVS, Une Expérience de Gestion de Cours d’eau Partagés. Submission to the World Commission on Dams http://www.dams.org/kbase/submissions/showsub.php?rec=ins118
  • Dieperink, C. 1997. Tussen Zout en Zalm: Lessen uit de Ontwikkeling van het Regime Inzake de Rijnvervuiling. (Between Salt and Salmon: Lessons from the Development of the Regime Concerning Rhine Pollution.) Ph.D. Thesis, University of Utrecht. Amsterdam, Thesis Publishers, 425 pp.
  • ––––. 1998. From Open Sewer to Salmon Run: Lessons From the Rhine Water Quality Regime. Water Policy, Vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 471–85.
  • Faure, G. O. 2001. Negotiation over water rights: Cultural issues. In: U. Shamir, Negotiation Over Water: Proceedings of the Haifa Workshop, 1997, pp. 16–26. IHP-V/Technical Documents in Hydrology, No. 53. Paris, UNESCO.
  • Faure, G. O. and Rubin, J. Z. (eds.) 1993. Culture and Negotiation. Newbury Park, Sage. 264 pp.
  • Finnish–Norwegian Agreement. 1980. Agreement on the Establishment of a Finnish–Norwegian Boundary Waters Commission. Signed at Helsinki on November 5 1980. (Source: FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm).
  • Finland–Soviet Union. 1964. Agreement Between Finland and the Soviet Union Concerning Frontier Watercourses. Signed at Helsinki on April 24 1964.
  • Finnish–Swedish Agreement. 1971. Agreement Concerning Frontier Rivers. Signed at Stockholm on September 16 1971 (Source: FAO, Treaties Concerning the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Europe, Legislative Study 50, Rome, 1993, pp. 186– 215).
  • Fisher, R. and Ury, W. 1981. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 163 pp.
  • Frankena, F. 1988. The Emergent Social Role and Political Impact of the Voluntary Technical Expert. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 73–82.
  • Frontier Watercourses Agreement. 1964. Agreement Concerning Frontier Watercourses. Signed at Helsinki on April 24 1964 (Source: FAO, Treaties Concerning the Non-Navigational uses of International Watercourses: Europe, Legislative Study 50, Rome, 1993, pp. 226–32).
  • Ganoulis, J., L. Duckstein and P. Literathy. 1996. Transboundary Water Resources Management; Institutional and Engineering Approaches. NATO ASI Series, 2. Environment, Vol. 7. Berlin, Springer.
  • Godana, B. A. 1985. Africa’s Shared Water Resources: Legal and Institutional Aspects of the Nile, Niger, and Senegal River Systems. London, Frances Pinter; and Boulder, Colo., Lynne Rienner. 370p.
  • Golub, J. 1996. Why Did They Sign? Explaining EC Environmental Policy Bargaining. EUI Working Paper RSC No. 96/52. San Domenico, European University Institute. 28 pp.
  • Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. 1978. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. Signed at Ottawa on November 22 1978, between Canada and the United States. Source: FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm
  • Gruen, G. E. 2000. Sharing Turkish Waters: Moving From Conflict to Regional Cooperation. Paper presented at the Tenth World Water Congress, March 10–16 2000. Melbourne.
  • Grünfeld, H. 1999. Creating Favorable Conditions for International Environmental Change Through Knowledge and Negotiation: Lessons from the Rhine Action Program and the Second Sulfur Protocol, Implications for Climate Change. Ph.D. Thesis, Delft University of Technology. Delft: Delft University Press. 203 pp.
  • Hari Man Shrestha and Lekh Man Singh. 1996. The Ganges Brahmaputra System: A Nepalese Perspective. In: A. K. Biswas, and T. Hashimoto, Asian International Waters: From Ganges– Brahmaputra to Mekong. Bombay, Oxford University Press.
  • Hashimoto, T 1996. Regional Cooperative Development for the Salween River. In: A. K. Biswas and T. Hashimoto, Asian International Waters: From Ganges–Brahmaputra to Mekong. Bombay, Oxford University Press.
  • Hey, E. 2000. International Water Law Placed in a Contemporary Context: The Gabcíkovo- Nagymaros Case. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 303–8.
  • Hofstede, G. 1991. Allemaal Andersdenkenden; Omgaan met Cultuurverschillen, 5th impression, Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Contact. (Translation by the author of Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London, McGraw-Hill.) 353 pp.
  • Howell, P. P. and Allan, J. A. 1994. The Nile, Sharing a Scarce Resource: An Historical and Technical Review of Water Management and of Economical and Technical Issues. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. 408 pp.
  • Huisman, P.; Jong, J. De; and Wieriks, K. 2000. Transboundary Cooperation in Shared River Basins: Experiences From the Rhine, Meuse and North Sea. Water Policy, pp. 83–97.
  • Hultin, J. 1995. The Nile: Source of Life, Source of Conflict. In: L. Ohlsson, Hydropolitics: Conflicts Over Water as a Development Constraint, pp. 29–54. London and Dhaka, Zed Books and University Press.
  • Indus Water Treaty. 1960. The Indus Waters Treaty. Signed at Karachi on September 19 1960 (entry into force: April 1 1960). (Source: United Nations 1963. Legislative Texts and Treaty Provisions Concerning the Utilization of International Rivers for Other Purposes Than Navigation, pp. 300–65. United Nations Legislative Series, New York.)
  • International Court Of Justice. 1997. Judgment of September 25 1997 in the Case Concerning the Gabcíkovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia). <http://www.icj-cij.org>
  • International Law Commission. 1976. Yearbook 1974 (Volume II, Part Two). New York, United Nations.
  • International Workshop. 2000. Guidelines and Recommendations on River Basin Management. In: E. Mostert, River Basin Management: Proceedings of the International Workshop (The Hague, October 27–9 1999), pp. 10–20. UNESCO, IHP-V, Technical Documents in Hydrology, No. 31. Paris: UNESCO.
  • Jasanoff, S. 1990. The Fifth Branch; Science Advisers as Policymakers. Cambridge, Mass., and London, Harvard University Press. 302 pp.
  • Johnson, R. W. 2000. The Colorado River: History and Contemporary Issues of a Complex System. In: E. Mostert, River Basin Management: Proceedings of the International Workshop (The Hague, October 27–9 1999), pp. 114–25. UNESCO, IHP-V, Technical Documents in Hydrology, No. 31. Paris: UNESCO.
  • Joint Declaration. 1967. Joint Declaration of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Countries of the River Plate Basin. Signed at Buenos Aires on February 27 1967.
  • Joint Finnish–Soviet Commission. 1983. The Joint Finnish–Soviet Commission on the Utilization of Frontier Watercourses. In: Experiences in the Development and Management of International River and Lake Basins. Proceedings of the United Nations Interregional Meeting of International River Organizations, Dakar (Senegal), May 5–14 1981. Natural resources/Water series No. 10. New York, United Nations, Department of Technical Cooperation for Development. pp. 252–65.
  • Just, R. and Netanyahu, S. (eds.) 1998. Conflict and Cooperation on Transboundary Water Resources. Boston, Dordrecht, and London, Kluwer Academic. 432 pp.
  • Kagera Agreement. 1978. Agreement Establishing the Organization for the Management and Development of the Kagera River Basin. Signed at Rusumo on August 24 1977 (entry into force: February 5 1978). (Source: FAO, Treaties Concerning the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Africa. Legislative Study 61, Rome, 1997, pp. 35–42, and FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm
  • Keith Pitman, G. T. 1998. The Role of the World Bank in Enhancing Cooperation and Resolving Conflict on International Watercourses: the Case of the Indus basin. In: S. M. A. Salman and L. Boisson de Chazournes, International Watercourse: Enhancing Cooperation and Managing Conflict, pp. 155–65. World Bank technical paper, No. 414. Washington, World Bank.
  • Kibaroglu, A. 2000. Institutions for Effective Use of the Euphrates–Tigris Waters. Paper presented at 10th World Water Congress, March 10–16 2000, Melbourne. Kliot, N.; Shmueli, D.; and Shamir, U. 2001. Institutions for Management of Transboundary Water Resources: Their Nature, Characteristics, and Shortcomings. Water Policy, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 229–55.
  • Kosk, A. 1999. Management Issues of the Lake Peipsi/Chudskoe Region. www.ctc.ee.
  • Lakh, M. (n.d.) Organisation pour la Mise en Valeur du fleuve Senegal <http://www.oieau.fr/ciedd/contributions/atriob/contribution/omvs.htm>
  • LeMarquand, D. G. 1977. International Rivers: The Politics of Cooperation. Vancouver, Westwater Research Center. 143 pp.
  • Libiszewski, S. 1995. Water Disputes in the Jordan Basin Region and their Role in the Resolution of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. ENCOP Occasional Paper No. 13, Zürich, ETH. 105 pp.
  • Llamas, M. R. 1997. Transboundary Water Resources in the Iberian Peninsula. In: N. P.
  • Gleditsch, Conflict and the Environment, pp. 335–53. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic.
  • Lopes, P. 2000. The Iberian Water: Portuguese and Spanish Perspectives. Paper for 10th World Water Congress, March 12–16 2000, Melbourne. http://www.iwra. siu. edu/melbourne.html
  • Lwehabura, D. K., 1983. Cooperation in the Management and Development of the Kagera River Basin. In: Experiences in the Development and Management of International River and Lake Basins. Proceedings of the United Nations Interregional Meeting of International River Organizations, Dakar (Senegal), May 5–14 1981. Natural resources/Water series No. 10. New York, United Nations, Department of Technical Cooperation for Development. pp. 172–83.
  • Maia, R. 2000. Sharing the Waters of the Iberian Peninsula. Paper for 10th World Water Congress, March 12–16 2000. http://www.iwra.siu.edu/melbourne.html
  • Marty, F. 2001. Managing International Rivers: Problems, Politics, and Institutions. Bern, Peter Lang. 409 pp.
  • McCaffrey, S. 1998. The UN Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Prospects and Pitfalls. In: S. M. A. Salman and L. Boisson de Chazournes, International Watercourse; Enhancing Cooperation and Managing Conflict, pp. 17–28. World Bank technical paper No. 414. Washington, World Bank.
  • Mastenbroek, W. F. G. 1996. Onderhandelen (Negotiating). 10th imp. Utrecht, Spectrum/ Marca. 240 pp.
  • Meijerink, S. V. 1999. Conflict and Cooperation on the Scheldt River Basin: A Case Study of Decision Making on International Scheldt Issues Between 1967 and 1997. Ph.D. Thesis. Delft University of Technology. Dordrecht, Kluwer. 371 pp.
  • Mekong Cooperation Agreement. 1995. Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin. Signed at Chiang Rai on April 5 1995 (Source: FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm).
  • Milich, L. and Varady, R. G. 1999. Openness, Sustainability and Public Participation: New Designs for Transboundary River-Basin Institutions. Journal of Environment and Development, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 258–306.
  • Moe, C. 2000. From Scorched Earth to Flooded Earth: The Generals’ Dam on Burma’s Salween River. Norwegian Burma Council/Salween Watch coalition. www.soros.org/ burma/salweenjuly00.html.
  • Mostert, E. 1998a. River Basin Management in the European Union: How it is Done and How it Should be Done. European Water Management, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 26–35.
  • ––––. 1998b. A Framework for Conflict Resolution. Water International, December 1998, pp. 206–15.
  • ––––. (ed.) 1999. River Basin Management and Planning: Institutional Structures, Approaches and Results in Five European Countries and Six International Basins. RBA Series on River Basin Administration, Research Report No. 10. Delft, RBA Centre. 183 pp.
  • ––––. 2000. The Management of International River basins: How Can the Public Participate? In: J. Gayer, Participatory Processes in Water Management (PPWM): Proceedings of the Satellite Conference to the World Conference on Science (Budapest, Hungary June 28–30 1999). IHP-V. Technical Documents in Hydrology. No. 30. Paris, UNESCO. pp. 61–76.
  • ––––. 2001. International Cooperation in the Scheldt and Meuse Basins. Case study for the Toolbox Integrated Water Management, Global Water Partnership. http://www.gwpforum.org
  • ––––. 2002. The Challenge of Public Participation. Accepted for publication in Water Policy.
  • Nishat, A. 1996. Impact of Ganges Water Dispute on Bangladesh. In: A. K. Biswas and T. Hashimoto, Asian International Waters: From Ganges–Brahmaputra to Mekong. Bombay, Oxford University Press.
  • Öjendahl, J. 1995. Mainland Southeast Asia: Cooperation or Conflict? In: L. Ohlsson, Hydropolitics: Conflicts over Water as a Development Constraint. London and Dhaka, Zed Books and University Press. pp. 149–77.
  • Okacom Agreement. 1994. Agreement on the establishment of a Permanent Okavango River Basin Water Commission (OKACOM). Signed at Windhoek on September 15 1994 (entry into force: September 15 1994). (Source: FAO, Treaties Concerning the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Africa, Legislative Study 61, Rome, 1997, pp. 142–5, and FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm
  • OMVS Convention. 1972: Convention Establishing the Organization for the Development of the Senegal River (OMVS). Signed at Nouakchott on March 11 1972, as Amended (information on its entry into force is not available). Source: FAO, Treaties Concerning the Non- Navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Africa, Legislative Study 61, Rome, 1997, pp. 24–31, and FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm
  • Painter, A.1995. Resolving Environmental Conflict Through Mediation. In: A. Dinar and E. T. Loehman, Water Quantity/Quality Management and Conflict Resolution: Institutions, Processes and Economic Analyses, pp. 249–57. Westport, Conn. and London, Praeger.
  • PEIPSI CTC. 1996–2001. Activities Reports. www.ctc.ee Pires, N. A. 1995. Law of International Watercourses, Case Study: Portugal and Spain. M.Sc. Dissertation, King’s College, London.
  • Plate Committee Statute. 1968. Statute of the Intergovernmental Coordinating Committee of the River Plate Basin Countries. Adopted at the Second Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, held in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, May 18–20 1968 (as amended). (Source: FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm).
  • Plate Treaty. 1969. The River Plate Basin Treaty. Signed at Brasilia on April 23 1969 (Source: FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm).
  • Raj Onta, P.; Das Gupta, A.; and Loof, R. 1996. Potential Water Resources Development in the Salween River Basin. In: A. K. Biswas and T. Hashimoto, Asian International Waters: From Ganges–Brahmaputra to Mekong. Bombay, Oxford University Press.
  • Regulation NSA. 1992. Regulation of the Joint Authority for the Study and Development of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer. Adopted in 1992 (information on its entry into force is not available). (Unofficial translation from Arabic into English; source FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm).
  • Revised Convention NBA. 1987. Revised Convention Creating the Niger Basin Authority. Signed at N’Djamena on October 29 1987 (information on its entry into force is not available). (Source: FAO, Treaties Concerning the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Africa, Legislative Study 61, Rome, 1997, pp. 62–70, and FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm).
  • Rhine Protection Convention. 1999. Convention on the Protection of the Rhine. Signed at Berne on April 12 1999 (Source: FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm).
  • Roberts, R. 1995. Public Involvement: From Consultation to Participation. In: F. Vanclay, and D. A. Bronstein, Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, pp. 221–46. Chichester, John Wiley.
  • Salacuse, J. W. 1993. Implications for Practitioners. In: G. O. Faure and J. Z. Rubin, Culture and Negotiation, pp. 199–208. Newbury Park, Sage.
  • Salto Grande Technical Commission. 1983. The Binational Multi-purpose Development Project. In: Experiences in the Development and Management of International River and Lake Basins, pp. 217–44. Proceedings of the United Nations Interregional Meeting of International River Organizations, Dakar (Senegal), May 5–14 1981. Natural resources/Water series No. 10. New York, United Nations, Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.
  • Savenije, H. G. and Van Der Zaag, P. 2000. Conceptual Framework for the Management of Shared River Basins, With Special Reference to the SADC and EU. Water Policy, Vol. 2, pp. 9–45.
  • Schulz, M. 1995. Turkey, Syria, and Iraq: A Hydropolitical Security Complex. In: L. Ohlsson, Hydropolitics: Conflicts Over Water as a Development Constraint, pp. 91–122. London and Dhaka, Zed Books and University Press.
  • Senegal River Statute. 1972. Convention Concerning the Statute of the Senegal River. Signed at Nouakchott on March 11 1972 (Source: FAO, Treaties Concerning the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Africa, Legislative Study 61, Rome, 1997, pp. 19–23, and FAOLEX database http://faolex.fao.org/faolex/index.htm).
  • Shamir, U. (ed.) 2001. Negotiation Over Water: Proceedings of the Haifa Workshop, 1997. IHP-V /Technical Documents in Hydrology, No. 53. Paris, UNESCO. 167 pp.
  • Shiklomanov, I. A. 1999. World Water Resources and Their Use. Paris, SHI/UNESCO.
  • Slim, R. M. 1993. Turkey, Syria, Iraq: The Euphrates. In: G. O. Faure and J. Z. Rubin, Culture and Negotiation, pp. 135–55. Newbury Park, Sage.
  • Spreij, M. 2002. Institutions for International Freshwater Management. PCCP report.
  • Sults, U. 1999. Integrated Monitoring on the Lake Peipsi. www.ctc.ee.
  • Tanzeema, S. and Faisal, I. M. 2001. Sharing the Ganges: a Critical Analysis of the Wate Sharing Treaties. Water Policy, Vol. 3, pp. 13–28.
  • Thompson, M.; Ellis, R.; Wildavsky, A. 1990. Cultural Theory. Boulder, Colo., Westview. 296 pp.
  • Torrijos Quintero, F. 1999. The Amazon Policy of Colombia. In: A. K. Biswas et. al., Management of Latin American River Basins: Amazon, Plata, and Sao Francisco, pp. 49–67. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
  • UN. 1983. Experiences in the Development and Management of International River and Lake Basins. Proceedings of the United Nations Interregional Meeting of International River Organizations, Dakar (Senegal), May 5–14 1981. Natural resources/Water series No. 10. New York, United Nations, Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.
  • ––––. 1997. Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. United Nations Document A/51/869, also published in International Legal Materials, Vol. 36, No. 3, May, pp. 700–20.
  • UN-ECE. 1992. Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. Helsinki, March 17 1992.
  • ––––. 2000. Draft Guidelines on Public Participation in Water Management. MP.WAT/2000/6.
  • Uruguay River Boundary Treaty. 1961. Treaty on the boundary formed by the Uruguay River. Signed at Montevideo on April 7 1961 (information on its entry into force is not available). (Source: CARU. 1981. Documentos y Antecedentes).
  • Uruguay River Statute. 1975. Statute of the Uruguay River. Adopted at Salto on February 26 1975 (entry into force: September 18 1976). (Source: CARU. 1981. Documentos y Antecedentes).
  • US Department Of Labor. 2000. 2000 Update on Forced Labor and Forced Relocations. http://www.dol.gov/dol/ilab/public/media/reports/ofr/burma/forced.htm.
  • Van Dam, J. C. and Wessel, J. (eds.) 1993. Transboundary River Basin Management and Sustainable Development. Proceedings of a symposium, Delft (the Netherlands), May 18–22 1992. Paris, UNESCO. 253 + 272 pp.
  • Várkonyi, A. 1990. A Monster Born of Politics. NHQ; The New Hungarian Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 120, pp. 68–80.
  • Verghese, B. G. 1996. Towards an Eastern Himalayan Rivers Concord. In: A. K. Biswas and T. Hashimoto, Asian International Waters: From Ganges–Brahmaputra to Mekong. Bombay, Oxford University Press.
  • Verweij, M. 2000. Transboundary Environmental Problems and Cultural Theory: The Protection of the Rhine and the Great Lakes. Basingstoke, UK, and New York: Palgrave. 260 pp.
  • Victor, D. G.; Raustiala, K.; and Skolnikoff, E. B. 1998. The Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments: Theory and Practice. Cambridge, Mass. and London, MIT. 737 pp.
  • Vlachos, E., Webb, A. C.; and Murphy, I. L. (eds.) 1986. The Management of International River Basin Conflicts. Proceedings of a Workshop held at the Headquarters of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria, September 22–5 1986. Washington, D.C., George Washington University.
  • Vlek, C. and Cvetkovich, G. C. (eds.) 1989. Social Decision Methodology for Technological Projects, Dordrecht and Boston, Kluwer. 338 pp.
  • Water Utilization Treaty. 1944. Treaty Relating to the Utilization of the Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande. Signed at Washington on February 3 1944 (Source: UNITED NATIONS. 1963. Legislative Texts and Treaty Provisions Concerning the Utilization of International Rivers for Other Purposes Than Navigation, pp. 236–58. New York, United Nations Legislative Series.)
  • WCD. 2000. Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making. The Report of the World Commission on Dams. London, Earthscan.
  • Webler, T.; Renn, O. 1995. A Brief Primer on Participation: Philosophy and Practice. In: O. Renn, T. Webler, and P. Wiedeman, Fairness and Competence in Citizen Participation: Evaluating Models for Environmental Discourse, pp. 17–33. Dordrecht, Boston, and London, Kluwer Academic.
  • Woerkom, C. van. 1997. Communicatie en interactieve beleidsvorming (Communication and interactive policymaking). Houten and Diegem, Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.
  • Wolf, A. T. 1997. International Water Conflict Resolution: Lessons from Comparative Analysis. Water Resources Development, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 333–65.
  • ––––. 1998. Conflict and Cooperation Along International Waterways. Water Policy, Vol. 1, 251–65.
  • Wolf, A.; J. Natharius; Danielson, J.; Ward, B.; Pender, J. 1999. International River Basins of the World. International Journal of Water Resources Development, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 387– 427.
  • World Bank. 2001. Senegal River Basin Water and Environmental Management Project. (Global Environment Facility project brief. http://www.gefweb.org/Documents/Council_Documents/GEF_C18/Regional_Senegal_River_Basin.pdf
  • Yin, R. K. 1986. Case Study Research. Applied Social Research Method Series, Volume 5. 4th Impression. Beverly Hills, Sage. 160 pp.

See also

External Resources

Attachments

 PCCP E.Mostert Desk Study A global review.pdf

8835 Rating: 2.3/5 (17 votes cast)