Ethiopia

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Ethiopia is part of:
Africa · Eastern Africa ·
Water Basins of Ethiopia:
Awash · Gash · Juba-Shibeli · Lake Turkana · Lotagipi Swamp · Nile ·
Facts & Figures edit
flag_Ethiopia.png
Capital Addis Ababa
Neighbouring Countries Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan
Total Area 1,127,127 km2
  - Water 7,444 km2 (0.66%) / 66 m2/ha
  - Land 1,119,683 km2
Coastline 0 km
Population 78,986,000 (70 inhab./km2)
HDIA 0.389 (2007)
Gini CoefficientA 30 (1995)
Nominal GDPB $25,080 million
GDP (PPP) Per CapitaB $800
National UN Presence FAO, UNDP, UNHCR, WHO, UNICEF, WB, UNESCO, UN-Habitat, UNIDO, UNEP, IFAD, UNECA
Land UseC
  - Cultivated Land 119,358 km2 (10.66%)
     - Arable 112,080 km2 (10.01%)
     - Permanent Crops 7,278 km2 (0.65%)
     - Irrigated 2,900 km2
  - Non cultivated 92,816 km2 (89.34%)
Average Annual RainfallD 848 mm
Renewable Water ResourcesE 110 km3
Water WithdrawalsF 5.558 km3/yr
  - For Agricultural Use 94%
  - For Domestic Use 6%
  - For Industrial Use 0%
  - Per Capita 81 m3
Population with safe access to
  - Improved Water Source 22%
     - Urban population 81%
     - Rural population 11%
  - Improved Sanitation 13%
     - Urban population 44%
     - Rural population 7%
References & Remarks
A UNDP Human Development Report
B CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia
C CIA World Factbook Country Profiles
D Aquastat - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
E CIA World Factbook
F Earthtrends

> Articles | Projects & Case studies | Publications & Web resources | Who is who | Maps
> Sector Assessment | Sector Coordination | Donor Profile

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Contents

News

Country Profile: Climate, Geography, Socio-Economic Context

Country Profile: Water Bodies and Resources

Ethiopia’s 81 million people have one of Africa’s lowest rates of access to water supply, sanitation, and hygiene despite abundant surface and groundwater resources. According to the government in 2005, 40 percent of the population had access to safe water; however, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and local nongovernmental organizations, the figure was closer to 22 percent. The WHO estimated that only 13 percent of the population had access to sanitation. Ethiopia’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for improved water and sanitation access are 70 percent and 56 percent respectively. To reach the MDG targets, the government will need to help ensure local water supply and sanitation (WSS) service providers continue to develop their capacity to manage operations. The government will also need to encourage consumer advocacy and hygiene awareness.

Country Profile: Legal and Institutional Environment

Until recently, the Ethiopian government was responsible for identification, planning, and implementation of WSS improvements. Consistent with the government’s policy on decentralization, many of these responsibilities shifted to the regional and local governments under the National Water Resources Management Policy and Strategy (NWRMPS). Implementation of these policies and strategies has ultimately fallen on the local service providers with support from regional offices of the Ministry of Environment (MoE) and the Ministry of Health (MoH). Considering the dual nature of the national and regional direction from the MoE and MoH, the government has developed clear coordination of water and health functions between the two ministries under a national memorandum of understanding in 2006.

Key Agencies in Ethiopia's Water Sector

The Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR) - Sets policies, strategies, regulations and standards; supports regional water bureaus.
The Ministry of Health (MoH) - Through the Hygiene & Environmental Health Dept. (HEHD) develops & implements health policies related to sanitation & hygiene; coordinates with MoE on sanitation.
The Ministry of Environment (MoE) - Shares responsibility of MoH sanitation functions in developing and implementing policies & strategies through MOU agreement.
Regional Water Bureaus - Made up of 9 regional bureaus and the Dire Dawa area; program planning, management, coordination, & capacity building at regional scale; approve Woreda programs and targets technical assistance as needed to WWD & Town Water Boards.
Woreda Water Desks (WWD) - Planning, managing, monitoring & evaluation of local service providers set-up at Woreda & community level; Decentralization; Coordinates NGOs.
Town Water Boards - Planning & administration of town WSS services; Operations are contracted out using performance or service contracts.
Addis Ababa Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (AAWSA) - Manages and operates the Addis Ababa system.
Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Committees (WatSan) - Responsible for WSS service at community level.

Urban Sub-sector

Ethiopia’s urban sub-sector has experienced the most benefit from the county’s concerted efforts to reform the WSS sector and donor participation in WSS improvement programs. As a result, urban water providers have been adequately capitalized in oto take on system improvements and capacity building initiatives. These improvements have resulted in high levels of access to drinking waterurban populations (96 percent), but much fewer resources have been directed towards sanitation facilities. Significant barriers to achieving the MDG targets for sanitation exist based on current funding gaps. The government will need to reduce this attracting larger sums of donor financing. This financing would be appropriately directed towardefforts to improve a market for excreta removal, treatment and disposal; enhancing urban sanitatiofinancing mechanisms; and engaging the private sector in service provision, technical assistance, and other services to improve operation and management capacity.

Rural Sub-sector

Access to improved drinking water is particularly lacking in Ethiopia’s rural sub-sector with coverage levels estimated to be less than the 31 percent due to inoperable equipment and poor maintenance budgets. During the dry season more traditional sources of water are placed under pressure as shallow wells or other perennial sources dry-up. Thissituation worsens as these sources of water supplyare shared with livestock. Taken together, rates of morbidity and mortality in rural areas is particularly high since few have access to improved water supply, sanition facilities, and awareness of hygienic practices.


WSS service has been fully decentralized to towns and local Woreda Water Desks (WWD); however, decentralization has also redistributed vital equipment and staff throughout rural areas to the extent that poorer areas now have even less access to technical assistance. Although the government has established technical training institutes and is now training adequate personnel, the WSS sector’s financing and stock of equipment supplies and services still need improvement. Mutliple opportunities exist to support the National Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Program, especially in local capacity building, legalization of WatSan committees for borrowing purposes, and facilitating the involvement of the private sector in financing and equipment sales and maintenance.

Country Profile: Water Sector Coordination

See Sector coordination sub-page for detailed description

Country Profile: Trends in Water Use, Management and Sanitation

Country Profile: Challenges and Opportunities

Strong national WSS policies exist and Ethiopia's water sector is well-organized with key agencies having clear roles and strategies to implement WSS sector improvements. The next step in Ethiopia’s WSS sector development must be focused on local WSS service provider capacity building so that national policies and strategies are effectively implemented and sustainable service expands to semi-urban and rural populations. In addition, the shortage of adequate funding to meet the MDG targets have loomed as a significant barrier to improvements without increasing donor assistance. In response, Ethiopia is placing more emphasis on low-cost strategies to extend allocations to the sector and emphasizing hygiene education programs as a precursor to poverty eradication.

Sector financing is especially important to meet the MDG targets by 2015. Government, community investments, and donor allocations and commitments were projected at $103 million a year in 2006, leaving a gap of $197 million per year in additional financing required to meet the MDG targets. It is not known whether Ethiopia has the capacity to effectively and efficiently utilize even the current available amounts, much less any additional allocations, although additional capacity to absorb new funding is being scaled up through donor coordination. Further, the government needs to involve and legalize local WatSan committees so that they can leverage government funding and their revenues with private investment. This focus on raising capital through the service providers is premised on the NWRMPS’ requirement that urban providers cover investments, operation and maintenance (O&M) while rural providers cover O&M cost with some limited cost sharing of large capital outlays. The National Sanitation Strategy has re-focused government strategies on pro-poor, low-cost practices, namely sanitation promotion and leveraging of additional resources, and it requires local sanitation providers to cover the cost of installing and maintaining sanitation facilities.

Articles

Recently updated articles on Ethiopia
  1. Nile Basin Initiative ‎(5,323 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Ethiopia/projects ‎(1,626 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Ethiopia/publications ‎(1,430 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Ethiopia/who is who ‎(1,291 views) . . WikiBot
  5. Ethiopia/articles ‎(1,240 views) . . WikiBot
  6. Ethiopia/Maps ‎(1,095 views) . . WikiBot
  7. Political Actors in Ethiopia's Water Sector ‎(2,921 views) . . Katy.norman


See the complete list of WaterWiki articles on Ethiopia

Projects and Case Studies

Projects in or about Ethiopia

(this is a list of the 15 most recently updated entries. To see all projects click here)

  1. Mainstreaming Groundwater Considerations into the Integrated Management of the Nile River Basin ‎(7,033 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Nile Transboundary Environmental Action Project (NTEAP) ‎(3,727 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Water Resources Development and Utilization ‎(2,245 views) . . WikiBot


Case studies in or about Ethiopia

(by popularity)

  1. Water Conflict and Cooperation/Nile River Basin ‎(55,076 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. The Importance of Political Context in Achieving MDG7 in Ethiopia: An Essay ‎(14,341 views) . . WikiBot
  3. The Nile: Moving Beyond Cooperation ‎(10,788 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Improving the water situation in Ethiopia ‎(10,126 views) . . WikiBot
  5. Improving the water situation in Ethiopia/Map ‎(4,678 views) . . WikiBot


See the complete list of WaterWiki documented projects in Ethiopia

Publications

5 most recently updated publications on Ethiopia
  1. Water Conflict and Cooperation/Nile River Basin ‎(55,076 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. The Nile: Moving Beyond Cooperation ‎(10,788 views) . . Katy.norman


5 most popular publications on Ethiopia
  1. Water Conflict and Cooperation/Nile River Basin ‎(55,076 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. The Nile: Moving Beyond Cooperation ‎(10,788 views) . . Katy.norman


See the complete list of WaterWiki documented publications on Ethiopia

Who is Who

People working in Ethiopia

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See the complete list of Waterwiki users working in Ethiopia

Organizations working in Ethiopia

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See the complete list of WaterWiki documented organizations in Ethiopia

References

See also

External Resources

"Water Supply and Sanitation in Ethiopia" on Wikipedia

Attachments

 USAIDWatSanProfileEthiopia.pdf

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