Ferghana Valley Water Resources Management Project

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Project ID

WB: P084035

Project Title

Ferghana Valley Water Resources Management Project



Focus Areas

Sector: Irrigation and drainage (80%);General Water, Sanitation and Flood protection sector (20%)

Geographic Scope

Lead Organization(s)

Project Partners

Implementing Agency: Ministry of Melioration and Water Resources Management, Attn.: Mr. Ahad Ahrorov, Coordinator of the Project Preparation Unit, 5/1 Shamci Street Dushanbe, Tajikistan 734054, E-mail: a.ahrorov@mail.ru


Total: $14.17m;

Sources of Financing: World Bank loan


2005 - 2016 (11 years, start date 26 July 2005)


Under implementation

Project website(s)


Christophe Bösch

WB Contact: Usaid I. El-Hanbali, Sr. Water Resources Engineer, Email: Uelhanbali@worldbank.org



The defined overall project objectives are (i) to improve the capacity of irrigated agriculture and the income of the rural population in the Ferghana Valley by improving land and water management, and (ii) to improve Kayrakkum dam and reservoir safety and regulation thereby contributing to enhanced water management security and efficiency at the basin level. The vast majority of water resources available for irrigation in Central Asia originate from Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, both of which have large reservoir structures and dams where water is to be collected from snow melt for release during the dry summer season to riparian countries for whom this water is the only source. This project, focused on the northern region (Sughd Oblast) of Tajikistan, the easternmost portion of the multi-national Ferghana Valley, aim to combine purely national benefits in terms of improving local irrigation and drainage systems, while simultaneously reestablishing the safety and improve operations of Kayrakkum Dam and Reservoir, thereby, benefiting riparian, as well as Tajikistan herself.

Expected Outcomes

The four project components that have been formulated to meet the project objectives are as outlined below:

Component 1

Irrigation and Drainage System Rehabilitation and Improvements. This component finances design and works for rehabilitation or improvement of (i) main off-farm irrigation and drainage gravity and/or pumped water supply, conveyance, delivery, removal, evacuation infrastructure systems, and (ii) selected inter-farm and on-farm irrigation and drainage distribution and collection systems related to the irrigation of some 30,000 ha of farm land in the Kanibadam and Bobojon Gafurov rayon not in immediate proximity and operating independently from the Kayrakkum reservoir and dam structures. These include both surface and subsurface water control and usage systems.

Component 2

Strengthening Kayrakkum Reservoir Dykes and Related Drainage Control Works. This component finances design and works related to limited rehabilitation of the Kayrakkum reservoir structures so as to increase operational performance and improve management of reservoir related water issues. Investment include works for rehabilitation of dykes at the upper end of the reservoir, repairing, replacing and installation of tube well pumps along the dykes that reduce water logging of land area in proximity of dykes, including electromechanical controls and necessary pipelines and canals.

Component 3

Institutional Development and Technical Assistance. This component will fund the necessary institutional capacity building for (i) establishment of water users associations, (ii) improving agricultural productivity and more efficient water use patterns, (iii) ensuring proper environmental mitigating activities, and most importantly, (iv) provide the necessary TA to improve reservoir and dam operations as well as developing effective safety and emergency procedures for the Kayrakkum dam. Activities will include training, demonstration activities as well as information dissemination exercises and technical assistance from international and local specialists.

Component 4

Project Management. This component will fund assistance to the CPMU and RPIU established for project implementation. Items to be covered include (i) establishment and support of two project implementation entities, namely a Central Project Management Unit (CPMU) in Dushanbe within the MMWRM and a Regional Project Implementation Unit (RPIU) in Khujand, (ii) local and international technical assistance for managerial, technical, financial and administrative supervision of implementation activities, (iii) setup and operation of a project monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system, and (iv) a supportive institutional strengthening program including relevant training and study tours.

Achievements: Results and Impact

Lessons for Replication

Lessons Learned from Past Operations in the Country/Sector

The conceptualization and design of the project draws on Bank experiences with similar projects implemented in ex-Soviet countries and internationally. The particularly relevant lessons learned and reflected are outlined below.

(a) Integrated and all-inclusive approach. Development interventions that improve only physical infrastructure systems have been shown to be generally unsustainable over the long term. The potential for long-term sustainability is improved by also attending to key associated social, environmental, institutional and financial development aspects. The project addresses this issue through an approach that covers both physical and non-physical improvements to the irrigated agriculture sector in an integrated manner.

(b) Flooding, waterlogging and high groundwater levels. For water source security reasons, rehabilitation of Kayrakkum reservoir pumping stations for improved irrigation water delivery capacities is a high priority for the GOT. However, much of the project area is adversely affected by flooding, waterlogging and high groundwater levels. International experience shows that irrigation and drainage problems need to be resolved jointly. Water and environmental management factors, and economic considerations, also dictate that water abstraction and disposal volumes should be minimized. In addition to physical system interventions there are to be studies and initial implementation activities relating to non-physical water management improvements.

(c) Power systems. It has been a common finding in ex-Soviet countries that both power and water infrastructure systems are greatly deteriorated. Because both the irrigation and the drainage systems are heavily dependent on power systems for their adequate functioning, it follows that a program for their rehabilitation needs to also address power system deficiencies, to provide the conditions for proper long-term operation. The project therefore includes support for securing needed reliable power supplies for the electromechanical installations to be rehabilitated.

(d) WUAs. Much experience has been gained internationally on the instituting of water user organizations for the management of irrigation and drainage systems by the beneficiary farmers and rural communities. This is to be applied for the development of such organizations under the project. Two particular lessons learnt that are to be followed are that (i), for successful democratic functioning, individual WUA members need to be system users who are owners, or who have secure and long-term tenancy of the lands being serviced, and (ii), for sustainable viability in terms of financial self-reliance, WUAs would normally need to be of a certain minimum size, assumed to be in the order of 3,000 to 6,000 ha. Land privatization is being addressed under a Bank project that is expected to be effective by the time activities under FVWRM project will be implemented.

(e) Agricultural production and socio-economic conditions. The ultimate determinants of sustainability of the irrigation and drainage systems to be managed in part by WUAs are the levels of agricultural output and farm incomes that can be achieved, since the resources for proper systems O&M are to originate largely from these. Therefore, as in the case of many similar development projects elsewhere, suitable agricultural enhancement, training and extension programs are to be carried out and supported under the project.


See also

Other projects in Ferghana Valley and Tajikistan
  1. A Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA) to Improve Water Governance in Europe & CIS
  2. A comprehensive study on glacial melting in Central Asia
  3. Amu Darya Assessment of Environment and Security Linkages and Impact
  4. Amu Darya Water Quality Assessment and Management
  5. An Action Plan for Improving Weather and Climate Service Delivery in High-Risk, Low Income Countries
  7. Canal Automation in Ferghana Valley
  8. Central Asia – Regional and National Water Sector Review
  9. Community Agriculture & Watershed Management GEF Project
  10. Community Agriculture & Watershed Management Project
  11. Cross Border Impacts of Vahksh River Basin Development
  12. Dam safety in Central Asia: capacity building and sub-regional cooperation
  13. Dushanbe Water Supply Project
  14. ENVSEC/UNEP - Environment & security assessment and capacity-building in the Amu-Darya river basin
  15. Enhancing regional exchange of water resource information (CAREWIB phase II)
  16. Establishing a dialogue involving all key stakeholders to improve implementation and sustainability of rural drinking water projects in Tajikistan
  17. Ferghana Valley Water Resources Management Phase-I
  18. Fostering Transboundary Dialogue by Developing and Implementing National IWRM and Water Efficiency Strategies in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan
  19. Harmonization and Approximation of Water Standards and Norms in Central Asia
  20. IWRM and transboundary dialogue in Central Asia
  21. Improved Management of Water Resources in Central Asia II
  22. Integrated Water Resources Management Ferghana Valley
  23. Municipal Infrastructure Development Project
  24. National IWRM and Water Efficiency Planning in the Central Asian Region
  25. Poverty Reduction Through Social Safety Net, Agriculture and Water Management in Sughd Oblast
  26. Promoting IWRM and Fostering Transboundary Dialogue in Central Asia
  27. Regional Environment Programme
  28. Regional Research Network Water in Central Asia (CAWa)
  29. Regional Rural Water Supply Project (SDC)
  30. Rehabilitation of Rural Water Supply Systems, sanitation facilities and hygiene promotion through schools in Khatlon Region, Tajikistan
  31. SDC - Central Asia Mountain Programme, phase II, Central Asia 2003-2004
  32. Setting up a Project Formulation and Coordination Support group for sustainable transboundary management of radioactive waste in Central Asia
  33. Support to Community Development
  34. Tajikistan - UNDP/GTZ: Sustainable Water Use and Management in Tajikistan
  35. Tajikistan WSS Strategy
  36. Tajikistan Water Management Improvement
  37. The Swiss Support to Hydro-meteorological Services in the Aral Sea basin Project
  38. UNDP Communities Programme
  39. UNEP Support Programm for CA Countries on Johannesburg Plan and IWRM Plan by 2005
  40. Utilities Reform Study
  41. Water Flume Metres for Water User Associations
  42. Water Governance in Central Asia
  43. Water Productivity Improvement at Plot Level
  44. Water-Energy Nexus in Central Asia
  45. Water/Energy Dialogue

External Resources


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