HRBA2WatGov/methodology

From WaterWiki.net

Jump to: navigation, search
edit  ·  Toolkit Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA) to Water Governance
UNDP Regional HRBA to Water Programme for Europe & CIS

Detailed documentation: Background | Regional aspects | Regional Programme | Methodology
PHASE 1: Checklist (Bosnia and Herzegovina | Georgia | Moldova | Tajikistan | Turkey | Ukraine)
PHASE 2: Country Sector Assessments and Proposed Projects (Bosnia and Herzegovina | Tajikistan | Kosovo | Serbia) | Bibliography

Legal Framework: The Rights to Water and Sanitation in International Law | Regional Law | National Law
WaterWiki-resources:Rights to Water and Sanitation: A Handbook for Activists | UN Human Rights Council Resolution on Water and Sanitation | UN Recognises Access to Clean Water as a Basic Human Right | Human Rights-Based Approach | Applying a HRBA to Water:A Case Study | Water-related Legislation and Conventions | The Right to Water - WHO Publication | A UN Convention on the Right to Water - An Idea Whose Time Has Come | International Conference on the Right to Water and Sanitation in Theory and Practice | Q&A: The Right to Water | General Comment 15 (2002) | Q&A: Water Governance | Water and Health | Equitable Access to Water and Human Rights | European Union Water Framework Directive | Essay: What exactly is “The Right to Water”? | Protocol on Water and Health | Protocol on Water and Health/Q&A | Lessons Learned From Rights-Based Approaches in the Asia-Pacific Region | Human Rights-Based Approach Strategies adopted by UNICEF Laos | Utility Privatisation through the Lens of Human Rights | The Right to Water - From Concept to Implementation | The Human Right to Water:Translating Theory into Practice | Report of the Seminar on Human Rights and MDGs, May 2009
External resources: HRBA and Water Governance Fast Facts - UNDP | Applying a HRBA to Developing Cooperation and Programming (UNDP, 2006) | COHRE Manual on the Right to Water and Sanitation | Protocol on Water and Health - Full Document) | COHRE Monitoring Implementation of the Right to Water: A Framework for Developing Indicators | Sub-commission guidelines for the realisation of the right to drinking water and sanitation (2005) | UNFPA - A HRBA to Programming, Practical Implementation Manual and Training Materials (2010) | Operational Guidelines for Implementing a Rights-Based Approach in Water and Sanitation Programming (CoHRE,2008) | COHRE Monitoring Implementation of the Right to Water: A Framework for Developing Indicators | FAQs on a HRBA to Development Cooperation | The Human Rights-Based Approach to Development - The Right to Water | UN Independent Expert Report on the issue of human rights obligations related to water and sanitation 2009 | UN Independent Expert Report on MDGs and right to water and sanitation 2010
Websites: The Rights to Water and Sanitation Information Portal | UN Independent Expert on Right to Water and Sanitation Webpage
Developing a methodology for a Human Right Based Approach to Water Supply and Sanitation and Water Governance at Country Level
A human rights-based approach to WSS and water governance aims at
  1. looking at water management from a holistic, integrated perspective (Integrated Water Resources Management - IWRM) and
  2. mainstreaming the water issue into Poverty Reduction Strategies, National Development Plans, or similar instruments.

The cross-cutting nature of “water as development driver” further suggests close links with areas such as gender and promotion of vulnerable groups, conflict prevention, capacity building and participation, climate change and adaptation, and of course the promotion of human rights. This emphasis on human rights allows for a more innovative approach to water governance in the region, which has so far focused on water-related projects of a more technical nature.

To-date, a HRBA to WSS and water governance has mainly been approached from a theoretical rather than a practical point of view. However, human rights standards and principles are effective tools to address the practical challenges of WSS and water governance and are important for achieving the MDGs regarding WSS. The regional programme thus tries to adopt a more practical approach to implement a HRBA to WSS and water governance.

Contents

BACKGROUND

The new UNDP Water Governance Strategy, which follows up on the findings and recommendations of the Development Report 2006: Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and the Global Water Crisis- in particular the main recommendation to “make water a human right; and mean it” – highlights the importance for UNDP to focus on the issues of “deprivation in access to water”. It also confirms the important contribution that human rights offer in efforts to enhance access to water and sanitation to all. Mainstreaming human rights into development through the adoption of a human rights-based approach is a cross-cutting priority for UNDP. It is also an explicit driver for the first two (out of its five) strategic priorities, namely national strategies for equitable management and governance of water and local action on water and sanitation.

This methodology rests within the framework definition of a human rights-based approach to programming as captured in the “UN Common Understanding on a Human Rights-based Approach to Development”.

The UN Common Understanding of the Human Rights Based Approach to programming
  1. All programmes of development co-operation, policies and technical assistance should further the realisation of human rights as laid down in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments.
  2. Human rights standards contained in, and principles derived from, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments guide all development cooperation and programming in all sectors and in all phases of the programming process.
  3. Development cooperation contributes to the development of the capacities of ‘duty-bearers’ to meet their obligations and/or of ‘rights-holders’ to claim their rights.


This methodology aims to support the operationalisation of a human rights based approach to Water Supply and Sanitation and Water Governance by making practical recommendations for translating this framework into concrete action and results. The UNDP Bratislava Regional Centre(BRC)is committed to develop a programme on “Water Governance and Human Rights” to be implemented through Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) projects in selected countries in Europe and CIS countries and this methodology is one of the key elements to implement such a programme.

This exercise should also take into account commitments undertaken under Article 12 of the 1999 Protocol on Water and Health. This provision calls for joint and coordinated international action to develop commonly agreed national and/or local targets and indicators for the standards and levels of performance that need to be achieved or maintained for a high level of protection against water-related diseases, as provided for by Article 6 of the Protocol. Close coordination should be ensured with the activities of the Task Force on Indicators and Reporting set up under the Protocol.

THE REGIONAL PROGRAMME AND THE METHODOLOGY FOR IMPLEMENTATION AT COUNTRY LEVEL

A human rights-based approach to WSS and water governance aims at (a) looking at water management from a holistic, integrated perspective Integrated Water Resources Management- IWRM and (b) mainstreaming the water issue into Poverty Reduction Strategies, National Development Plans, or similar instruments. The cross-cutting nature of “water as development driver” further suggests close links with areas such as gender and promotion of vulnerable groups, conflict prevention, capacity building and participation, climate change and adaptation, and of course the promotion of human rights. This emphasis on human rights allows for a more innovative approach to water governance in the region, which has so far focused on water-related projects of a more technical nature.

To-date, a HRBA to WSS and water governance has mainly been approached from a theoretical rather than a practical point of view. However, human rights standards and principles are effective tools to address the practical challenges of WSS and water governance and are important for achieving the MDG regarding WSS . The regional programme thus tries to adopt a more practical approach to implement a HRBA to WSS and water governance.


General Approach to implement the regional programme

The regional programme identified gaps and challenges (priorities and cross-cutting opportunities) in adopting a HRBA to WSS and water governance in the region. On the basis of these gaps and challenges, four key areas of concern were identified that are to be used as a basis to define priority actions and potential projects. These areas are:

  1. Accessibility - infrastructure: accessibility covers physical accessibility and focuses primarily on the quality of the services provided (e.g., infrastructure and facilities, physical access to water points, and systems to separate waste water or human faeces from main drinking water catchment areas). It implies that WSS infrastructure and facilities are developed in a way that provides access to poor, marginalised and vulnerable groups.
  1. Affordability – water pricing: water tariffs should be set at such a level that while ensuring cost recovery, a standard volume of water is provided at affordable prices (or free if necessary) to everyone and with special consideration to poor, marginalised and vulnerable groups. This may require differentiated pricing of water services.
  1. Quality and Availability (resource allocation): water supplied should be safe and acceptable for all different uses and meet minimum quality standards set up in legislation. Water quantity is a matter of availability and is traditionally differentiated from accessibility as such. It involves establishing a balance among competing needs while giving priority to human consumption.
  1. Transboundary Cooperation: cooperation between all countries sharing a watercourse is necessary in order to reconcile the different and possibly conflicting interests and needs for water of the States concerned. Again it is important to give priority to human consumption.

The first three key areas constitute basic elements of the human right to water, according to General Comment 15. The fourth key area (transboundary cooperation) reflects one of the key issues for the region and is directly linked to water governance.

Structuring the regional programme around these areas of concern facilitates generating elements for national projects and supports “thinking grid” to discuss with stakeholders at the end of the complete country assessment options for concrete interventions. These four key areas should not be seen separately but as interrelated elements which should be taken into account in programming and implementation. The ideal project will therefore be one that although focused on tackling problems associated to a specific area of concern, integrate elements of the other three areas.

Potential programmes and projects linked to each of the key areas of concern were identified in this the regional programme. Those projects are meant to guide experts carrying out the country assessment but in no case should be considered as the only projects that could serve to implement the regional programme. The assessment of the national situation and the identification of the national needs and priorities are the essential point of departure to identify and design specific projects and programmes. (See country assessments for Bosnia and Herzegovina and Tajikistan).

Specific methodology for implementing the regional programme at country level

Applying a HRBA to water governance and WSS requires a methodology which can be adapted to different scenarios. The methodology proposed starts with initial assessments of the baseline situation. Check lists have been developed to help assess the baseline conditions and to map a country’s situation. The check lists have been developed as a support tool to conduct full country assessments which main objectives are to identify gaps, needs and opportunities as a basis to define concrete projects and programmes. The check lists for assessment were tested via desk studies of six pilot countries.

Figure 1: Development of concrete Projects within the framework of the Regional Programme
Figure 1: Development of concrete Projects within the framework of the Regional Programme

The check list will also help a country in the implementation of the national programme and to monitor the completion of benchmarks or milestones in the implementation of the elements of the programme. Finally, the check list will serve to conduct a new assessment of the situation in-country, coming back to the first step. In other words, the check-list can be used along the project cycle in order to ensure that a HRBA is being followed and to evaluate corresponding progress.

The country assessment will identify the main issues and recommend the relevant elements for each key are of concern in view of national conditions and priorities. (See country assessments for Bosnia and Herzegovina and Tajikistan).

Specific actions will then be designed to address those problems, taking into account cross-cutting issues based on compliance with and implementation of key human rights principles. These cross-cutting issues are:

  1. equality and non-discrimination;
  1. participation and inclusion; and
  1. accountability and the rule of law. These three cross cutting issues are described in detail in the section below.

An essential aspect of this methodology therefore is that entry points for integrating a HRBA to WSS and water governance programmes shall be sought as early on as possible in the project cycle. A HRBA should be adopted from the first assessment and continue during the planning phase, whatever is the considered project main focus e.g., development of planning document, legislation, infrastructure financing, etc.

The methodological approach for the implementation of the regional programme at national level is structured in four phases:

  1. Definition of the country situation and enabling environment (country assessment)
  2. Identification of relevant programmes areas and specific projects (planning phase)
  3. Procurement and contracting
  4. Implementation of projects


These phases are described in detail below.

The actions identified in phase 2 would be launched in the following year. For each country, two projects per year could be envisaged based on the prioritisation carried out. In addition, after the completion of each project, an evaluation of results should take place. After three years of implementation of the national programme, an evaluation of progress in implementing WSS and water governance from the human rights perspective should be carried out.

The actions/projects will take place at one or more of three levels:

  • Local (sub-national) level: for example, with respect to a locality’s water services or a small river basin;
  • National level: for example, a WSS investment strategy;
  • Regional level: for example, transboundary exchange of experience and good practice on HRBA and water governance, in line with the UNECE Protocol on Water and Health (Article 6(2)(f)).

Moreover, the actions/projects would fall under two main categories:

  • Mainstreaming activities that would work in parallel to existing national activities or projects supported by other organisations or donors (for example, legislative reform or water service restructuring, revision of poverty reduction strategies);
  • Stand-alone projects

Figure 2 shows the methodology for the implementation of a HRBA to WSS and Water Governance at country level. Figure 2. Methodological approach and steps

Cross-cutting issues

During the assessment phase and all subsequent phases of a project or programme, it will be essential to take into account cross-cutting issues, based on compliance with and implementation of key human rights principles, namely:

  1. Equality and Non-Discrimination;
  2. Participation and Inclusion; and
  3. Accountability and Rule of Law

These principles and associated cross-cutting issues linked to their application should be considered and integrated all along the implementation of a HRBA to WSS.


Equality and Non-Discrimination

Equality and non discrimination require specific effort to identify vulnerable and marginalised groups in regard to access to public services, such as women, minorities, migrants, elderly and indigenous groups, persons living with disabilities and persons living with HIV/AIDS, persons living in small settlements or rural areas. These groups need to ensure that their rights are taken into account in the development process.

In order to include them in the process, an analysis of the reasons for their discrimination or marginalisation needs to be carried out. The identification of the causes, and whether these are structural or punctual, requires an analysis of the political, legal and social framework of the country. This is particularly important in post-conflict countries and countries with ethnic minorities (e.g., nomads, Armenians, Kurds). Direct discrimination would be easier to spot than indirect discrimination, which tends to be subtle. Data on composition of the population, geographic distribution in the country, economic stratus etc is needed.

To identify indirect discrimination, different elements should be considered such as access to information (national language/s); projects that lead to displacement of people belonging to a specific group (dams in Anatolia); water infrastructure projects (e.g., updating infrastructure, wastewater plants) only carried out in specific areas or in specific parts of a city.

Concerns linked to these vulnerable and marginalised groups should be integrated in any project and programme, along with measures to ensure their involvement.


Participation and Inclusion

The communities have to see themselves as responsible right-holders. As a consequence, it will be essential to enhance their capacity and raise their awareness on their rights under international and national legislation, including the right to water supply and sanitation, as well as other related rights such as right to participation, access to information or access to justice. A first step is to identify the relevant stakeholders in the country at national, regional and local level (depending on the focus of the action).

Awareness among institutions needs also to be raised to create the adequate enabling environment for the adoption of a HRBA to WSS. This would include Ministries with competence on water issues as well as other institutions with policy or regulatory powers on water, local and regional authorities, authorities with competence in areas that may have an impact on water policies (authorities in charge of granting industrial permits, authorities with competence on agricultural matters) and so on.

Participation in the implementation of the water policy and water development programmes is crucial. For this participation to be possible, civil society (NGOs, vulnerable groups, marginalised groups, and minorities) need to be empowered. These groups must be informed of their rights and included in any consultation process (see below). Participation also includes the private sector (e.g., industry), farmers and water services providers. Participation will be particularly important at local level when deciding the management system to be followed. Stakeholders should be aware of their right to access to information, in particular on water related information such as water status or water quality, to ensure an active and effective participation.

Stakeholder workshops are important at different stages of the process to discuss findings as well as when designing and implementing specific plans, programmes and projects.

Stakeholders’ participation and awareness raising are essential elements to obtain a buy-in solution at the end of the process and for the successful implementation of programmes and projects and the long-term sustainability of solutions. In an initial workshop, stakeholders contribute with their views on problems and needs in their country with respect to adopting a HRBA to WSS and water governance. It also helps to identify capacity needs of the main stakeholders identified. The workshop should just focus on WSS and the issues around that- but using a HRBA in the way the workshop is carried out and designed- for example, who is included, bringing in the issue of the human right to water and relevant national, regional and international human right frameworks, etc, depending on the type of programme or project at stake.


Accountability and Rule of Law

Water strategies and plans must be accompanied by immediate targets and benchmarks (milestones) to monitor State’s “duty bearers” compliance with its political commitments and obligations and the implementation of these strategies and plans. These benchmarks include indicators, which should be agreed with the government and stakeholders. The government has the obligation to take steps towards the realisation of the human rights in treaties which the country is party to. Local communities also play a key role in the implementation of the strategies and plans. For more details of the responsibilities of different key players see the Discussion paper which serve as a background to the regional programme.

METHODOLOGICAL STEPS

This sections will analysed more in detail the phases for implementing a HRBA to WSS and water governance at country level.

Defining the country situation and the enabling environment (Country Assessment)

This first phase is essential to determine the starting point and defining the enabling environment in the country to adopt a HRBA. The steps should not be considered as independent boxes but rather as part of an interwoven analytical process. The three steps will normally run simultaneously and will serve to fulfil the objectives of the projects and programmes. It is recommended to carry out such an analysis in each of the Europe and CIS countries. Such analysis can be developed over time. Coordination is essential with other international (or national) projects and programmes pursuing the same or close objective.


Step 1:

The first step consists of carrying out the mapping and identifying baseline conditions in the country. This mapping exercise includes the assessment of the legal and regulatory framework, the institutional framework, the political and social context, as well as resources available at national and international level. These resources include economic resources, e.g., budget, human and technical, and projects developed in the country. In step 1, the human rights issues in the country that impact access to WSS and water governance will also be identified.

The check lists developed in Annex I will help with this initial mapping although more data will be needed to assess the socio-political context in the country. In many cases, statistics and sociological information may be lacking. In these cases, a qualitative (sensitiveness) rather than a quantitative assessment can be carried out. The development of data gathering plans also help to carry out this first assessment of the situation in the country. During this phase it will be important to determine any institutional or political obstacles that may need to be addressed. These can range from lack of political will within key ministries as well as conflicts between different agencies or personalities that may hamper the implementation of a HRBA to WSS and water governance.

Projects to implement the HRBA at country level should include local consultants that will be primarily responsible to carry out the data gathering and analysis. International consultants are better placed as mediators or facilitators to support the national teams and improve inter-institutional cooperation and dialogue.

In this phase it will be important to look at all previous projects and studies that may be relevant to determine whether WSS have already been taken into account, including any relevant UNDP, UNEP, OECD, EU and World Bank reports such as the national poverty reduction programmes and their priorities, which should be already linked to the MDGs. There may already be specific priorities in the poverty reduction strategies where WSS and water governance are already or could be mainstreamed (this exercise is linked to step 3 below). It is also essential to coordinate with planned and on-going projects in order to avoid duplication and promote synergies. Finally, a key aspect is the existence of national policy documents, including a WSS strategy.

Step 1 also includes the identification of key stakeholders and categories of key stakeholders that should participate in the process of adopting a HRBA to water for the country. Initial consultations with help to identify problems and needs in the country and define the political will and capacity needs to adopt a HRBA to WSS and water governance in a country (Step 2).


Step 2:

The diagnosis and needs assessment is normally carried out at the same time as Step 1. While Step 1 aims mainly at compiling information, Step 2 focuses on the analysis of this information. This step will serve to identify the capacity gaps of both rights holders and duty bearers as well as to determine the enabling environment in the country to adopt a HRBA to water (the political will but also the awareness and capacity of the society). This can be done through a role pattern analysis, which would identify which part of the government has a legal mandate and obligation to implement certain human rights. Examples of capacity gaps would include factors such as responsibility / motivation / leadership, knowledge, authority, access to and control over resources or gaps in National Protection Systems. Specifically important will be the assessment of the level of corruption at national or local level.

Step 2 will also serve to determine what the country main needs are with regard to political, legal, social, economic and technical aspects. In other words, based on the results of the assessment of the situation undertaken through the completion of the check-list, an identification of the corresponding needs will be carried out.


Step 3:

This step will help to determine the priorities in the country based on the needs identified in step 2. In addition, programmes and projects carried out in the country dealing with WSS/water governance or focused on other areas that may have an indirect positive impact to achieve WSS (e.g., agriculture infrastructure) are to be identified. Other opportunities can be identified based on the analysis of national strategies (e.g., poverty reduction papers). This analysis will help in the identification of potential stand-alone projects and mainstreaming opportunities.


Output

The output of this initial phase will be a national situation report identifying gaps and priorities in the country. An initial identification of potential programmes and projects as well as main driver actors will also take place. The national situation report should also identify potential entry points for integrating HRBA in existing or planned projects (mainstreaming opportunities). The projects identified may range from:

1. Legislation and policy projects: whether human rights principles and standards are already in the legislation and the rule of law is respected. The rights granted to citizen’s regarding access to information, public participation and access to justice; polluter pays principle and cost-recovery in water price policies includes low income and marginalised groups’ concerns and so on. These projects may aim at including HRBA into legislation, such as development or amendment of concession legislation, public procurement or water-related legislation. These projects could also aim at reviewing the WSS strategy to include a HRBA perspective;

2. Capacity building/empowering projects: to what extent civil society is aware of their rights and able to claim these rights and hold duty bearers accountable; to what extent the private sector is aware of their duties; to what extent the State has the institutional capacity, including knowledge and resources, to fulfil its human rights obligations. The projects may aim at empowering local communities and NGOs as well as local, regional and national authorities, including training;

3. Stand alone projects on infrastructure and technical assistance such as the conditions of infrastructure in the country and monitoring instruments; coverage of infrastructure; issues regarding discrimination; public participation in the development of programmes and infrastructure projects;

4. Supporting mainstreaming opportunities to integrate HRBA to water into other policy areas. This may imply writing discussion papers;

5. Financial capacity and needs in the country and priorities in national budget

Key aspects of HRBA should be highlighted in the different areas, in particular identification of duty-bearers and rights holders.

As mentioned before, for priority countries a six year implementation plan has been foreseen. Other countries may have shorter implementation periods. In any case, the country assessment should identify projects for the implementation of the priorities for the entire implementation period preliminary defined.

In this sense, the country assessment could also include a draft work plan identifying the priorities and potential projects as well as the time line for implementation. This work plan and the specific projects will be fixed during second phase.

Identification of relevant programmes areas and specific projects (planning phase)

Step 4: After identifying the needs and opportunities, a broader stakeholder consultation should take place to discuss the priorities identified by the country assessment, potential projects and timeline for implementation. Contacts with stakeholder will also help to determine to what extent and how these stakeholder could participate as drivers or assuming responsibilities in these projects. This is essential to obtain a buy-in solution. This process also help to identify other projects or mainstreaming opportunities and possible resources and the level at which specific projects should be designed and/or implemented (national, regional, local).

This process also helps to ensure that stakeholders are committed to implement the work plan that will be finally adopted. In this sense, it is crucial that financial services are part of the stakeholder consultation to be made aware of the needs in the country. This helps to facilitate the identification and allocation of the necessary financial resources at national level to address the needs identified (see Step 8). It is important that international donors are also present during this stakeholder consultation. This allows the international community to discuss areas where their input may be more needed and effective and to ensure synergies between different projects while avoiding overlaps.

Step 5: By the end of this process a preliminary work plan should be completed. This preliminary work plan will indicate concrete priorities at short, medium and long term; the specific projects to be implemented, and suggestions on timeline for implementation and mid-term review.

The mid-term review will be especially important for long implementation periods. After three years of implementation, other priorities might have been identified or new opportunities might have arisen. This may lead to a need to shift priority areas for action or to identify new projects or programmes.

Step 6: The specific programmes and projects linked to the priorities and key areas of concern have been identified in steps 4 and 5. Now these projects have to be specifically designed based on the problems to be tackled and the area for implementation. Two types of projects have been conceived:

• Stand-alone projects to implement specific elements of the right to water from a human rights perspective; • Mainstreaming activities that would work in parallel to existing national activities or projects supported by other organisations or donors (for example, legislative reform or water service restructuring, revision of poverty reduction strategies).

The stand-alone projects can be developed at national or local level, whereas mainstreaming activities will generally be more focused on national activities.

For mainstreaming opportunities, sometimes it is useful to develop short briefing papers on e.g., strategic sectors for economic development and key environmental/health issues linked to WSS in the country. Briefing papers might also be prepared on poverty and WSS, governance and WSS and water pollution problems derived from chemicals or that could be foreseen in the future. These papers may serve to fix national, regional and local priorities as well as to obtain a buy-in solution in the country. This exercise is very useful for mainstreaming WSS into other policies and for identifying areas where incidental positive benefits on WSS can be obtained. These brief papers should be discussed within more tailored working groups which will provide inputs on the issues analysed. International experts will facilitate dialogue and summarise conclusions. This process is time consuming but it helps to build up trust among different stakeholders.

Step 7 will consist on drafting the terms of reference for at least the first two projects to be carried out in that year of implementation for recruiting the team of international and local experts.

Step 8: Resource mobilisation is essential in the implementation of any strategy. The analysis of the budget structure and fiscal/tax policies will have helped to identify opportunities. Contacts with international organisations and donors in the identification of programmes and projects step will have also helped to identify potential resources to implement the priorities identify. A financial strategy could also accompany this exercise which should include an analysis of the financial sustainability of the solutions proposed.

Procurement and contracting

Once the terms of reference have been drafted, the procurement and contracting phase will start. It will be important that this process is carried out in a transparent manner and sufficient publicity is given to the announcement of the procurement notice. This process will have to be repeated each time new projects are to be carried out during the six-year implementation period.

Implementation

As mentioned before, the implementation of the objectives and priorities identified can be carried out through specific projects designed to implement the right to water from a human rights perspective and through projects designed to implement other water related strategies (e.g., transboundary water management) or other policies strategies (climate change, rural development, agricultural infrastructure development and so on).

The project implementation phase will include:

• Inception • Implementation • Reporting and monitoring • Ex-post evaluation

The three cross-cutting issues – equality and non-discrimination, participation and inclusion, and accountability and rule of law - should be respected during the project implementation. This implies, inter alia, stakeholders’ involvement (e.g., consultations at inception, mid-term implementation and ex-post evaluation) ensuring an equitable representation. The adoption of a HRBA to WSS in this moment may require the development of specific check list identifying the elements of a HRBA to WSS that should be taken into account during the project design and implementation. This check list will also help to guide project and programme managers that may not necessarily be familiarised with HRBA to WSS aspects.

At the end of the first period for implementation, a new assessment using the check list included in Annex I should be carried out to analyse progress achieved in the implementation of WSS and water governance from a human rights perspective. This assessment (Step 1) may lead to a revision of priorities and of the work plan as well as to the identification of new projects and priorities.

References


See also

A Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA) to Improve Water Governance in Europe & CIS

Bosnia and Herzegovina/sector assessment

Tajikistan/sector assessment

External Resources

Attachments

To consult the orignal version of this Methology please follow this link.  Methodology & Checklists.pdf

2162 Rating: 2.5/5 (33 votes cast)