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Hungary is part of:
Eastern Europe · Europe & CIS ·
Water Basins of Hungary:
Danube · Tisza ·
Facts & Figures edit
Capital Budapest
Neighbouring Countries Austria, Croatia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine
Total Area 93,030 km2
  - Water 690 km2 (0.74%) / 74 m2/ha
  - Land 92,340 km2
Coastline 0 km
Population 10,097,730 (109 inhab./km2)
HDIA 0.877 (2007)
Gini CoefficientA 26.9 (1995)
Nominal GDPB $164,300 million
GDP (PPP) Per CapitaB $20,500
National UN Presence FAO, UNDP
Land UseC
  - Cultivated Land 47,684 km2 (51.64%)
     - Arable 45,782 km2 (49.58%)
     - Permanent Crops 1,902 km2 (2.06%)
     - Irrigated 2,300 km2
  - Non cultivated 45,377 km2 (48.36%)
Average Annual RainfallD 589 mm
Renewable Water ResourcesE 120 km3
Water WithdrawalsF 7.64 km3/yr
  - For Agricultural Use 32%
  - For Domestic Use 9%
  - For Industrial Use 59%
  - Per Capita 747 m3
Population with safe access to
  - Improved Water Source 99%
     - Urban population 100%
     - Rural population 98%
  - Improved Sanitation 95%
     - Urban population 100%
     - Rural population 85%
References & Remarks
A UNDP Human Development Report
B CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia
C CIA World Factbook Country Profiles
D Aquastat - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
E CIA World Factbook
F Earthtrends

> Articles | Projects & Case studies | Publications & Web resources | Who is who | Maps
> Sector Assessment | Sector Coordination | Donor Profile

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Type & Date Short Description Link
19 Jan 2008 Burgenland/West Hungary Water Supply Network FIND OUT MORE

Country Profile: Climate, Geography, Socio-Economic Context

Country Profile: Water Bodies and Resources

DID YOU KNOW? Hungary’s borders are crossed by 24 incoming rivers, bringing in 114 km³ of water per year. On exiting the country, the three major rivers (the Danube, Tisza and Dráva) discharge an annual average of 120 km³ water.

The vast majority of Hungary’s waterworks are reliant on groundwater: more than 90% of the population is supplied in this way. Water utilities supply 560 million m3 of drinking water/year and a further 240 million m3 water for economic and other public use. Annual industrial and agricultural abstraction accounts for almost 5000 million m3 and 680 million m3 respectively. 95.48% of industrial use is power generation. 68% of agricultural use is for fishponds; 27% for irrigation.

Major rivers are important for transportation and Hungary contains 1600 km of navigable waterways. The Danube and Tisza are key international routes while the Dráva is used for internal transport. Cargo transport is very small (currently c. 8-10% on the Danube and only 1-2% on the Tisza) and potential is limited by the lack of a connection between the two rivers. The water regime depends highly on the flow regime and has a major impact on the efficiency of shipping transport. Hungary’s rivers also play a vital role in disposing of effluent, being the major recipients of both municipal and industrial wastewater. There is little potential for hydroelectric power (c. 1% of energy production generated by hydropower).

With 21,712km2 of Hungary below river flood level, flood control is a key consideration. Crucially, this area includes 1.8 million ha arable land, 32% of the rail network, 15% of roads and 2000+ industrial plants. The highest flood discharge in the Danube is 20 times low flow; flooding on the major rivers can last several months. In smaller rivers e.g. the Körös system, the ratio is several hundred to one and floods can develop in a few hours. Devastating, fast-rising ice-jam floods are especially dangerous. Flood control over past centuries has resulted in the construction of 4181 km of defences (mainly earthen embankments). Ten emergency lowland flood reservoirs (with a total volume of 360 million m3) provide protection for 97% of the floodplain area. [1]

Water Pollution

Of 876 natural and 150 artificial water bodies identified in Hungary, 579 freshwater surface bodies have been classified as being “at risk” from organic, nutrient or priority hazardous substances (according to EU Water Framework Directive definitions). Approximately 70% of artificial lakes (mainly fishponds) are “at risk” from organic and nutrient loads. Organic and nutrient loads from point/diffuse sources are as follows (in 1000 t/year); total nitrogen: 24.8/20.0; total phosphorus: 3.9/3.0; BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand): 60.0/3.2; COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand): 12.3/20.5. Point source load is mainly from urban discharges (80%-95% depending on pollutant). None of the 108 groundwater bodies identified are considered to be “at risk” due to human intervention, but 46 sites are listed as “possibly at risk” (mostly from nitrate pollution from diffuse sources). Pollution has made phreatic groundwater near the surface unfit for drinking water. (NB 349 water bodies have been identified as “at risk” and 234 “possibly at risk” from hydro-morphological alterations. These represent 42% and 25% of the total length of Hungarian water bodies respectively. In the case of lakes, 47 water bodies are “possibly at risk”, including Lake Balaton.) [2]

Country Profile: Legal and Institutional Environment

Country Profile: Water Sector Coordination

See Sector coordination sub-page for detailed description

Country Profile: Trends in Water Use, Management and Sanitation

Country Profile: Challenges and Opportunities


Recently updated articles on Hungary
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  3. Hungary/publications ‎(1,473 views) . . WikiBot
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  6. Background Paper on Water and Health for the COP workshop Bucharest, 2008/Setting Targets on Water and Health and Establishing Surveillance Systems ‎(4,462 views) . . WikiBot
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See the complete list of WaterWiki articles on Hungary

Projects and Case Studies

Projects in or about Hungary

(this is a list of the 15 most recently updated entries. To see all projects click here)

  1. Improving resilience of the Tisza River basin to fluctuating climatic regimes through development and adoption of a Strategic Action Programme ‎(1,482 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Tisza community-led demonstration regional project for sustainable development and integrated land and water management ‎(2,890 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Integrating multiple benefits of wetlands and floodplains in to a trans-boundary management plan for the Tisza River Basin ‎(2,658 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies (TEST) to Reduce Transboundary Pollution in the Danube River Basin ‎(13,014 views) . . WikiBot
  5. Tisza community-led demonstration project for sustainable development and integrated land and water management ‎(4,103 views) . . WikiBot
  6. Strengthening the Implementation Capacities for Nutrient Reduction and Transboundary Cooperation in the Danube River Basin ‎(14,224 views) . . WikiBot
  7. Capacity and Community Building for Industrial Water Stewardship in the Danube/Black Sea region ‎(3,456 views) . . WikiBot
  8. Conservation and Restoration of the Global Significant Biodiversity of the Tisza River Floodplain through Integrated Floodplain Management ‎(3,031 views) . . WikiBot

Case studies in or about Hungary

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See the complete list of WaterWiki documented projects in Hungary


5 most recently updated publications on Hungary
  1. Rapid Environmental Assessment of the Tisza River Basin ‎(3,216 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Hungary MDG Report: Reducing Poverty and Social Exclusion ‎(4,735 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Hungary, Sanitation Country Profile ‎(3,579 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Hungary, Freshwater Country Profile ‎(3,263 views) . . WikiBot

5 most popular publications on Hungary
  1. Hungary MDG Report: Reducing Poverty and Social Exclusion ‎(4,735 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Hungary, Sanitation Country Profile ‎(3,579 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Hungary, Freshwater Country Profile ‎(3,263 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Rapid Environmental Assessment of the Tisza River Basin ‎(3,216 views) . . Katy.norman

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented publications on Hungary

Who is Who

People working in Hungary
  1. Klara.tothova ‎(4,937 views)
  2. Krisztina.kiss ‎(3,602 views)

See the complete list of Waterwiki users working in Hungary

Organizations working in Hungary
  1. International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River ‎(4,808 views) . . Katy.norman

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented organizations in Hungary



See also

External Resources

Freshwster Country Profile Hungary

Sanitation Country profile Hungary

FAO Aquatstat computation of renewable water resources

CIA World Factbook Hungary

WHO Water & Sanitation Data

International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River:Hungary

Water Framework Directive EU-Twinning Project Hungary

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