IW:LEARN: Facilitating Knowledge Sharing Among GEF International Waters Project Portfolio and their Partners

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Learning curve

Effective knowledge management strategies help projects learn from successful examples in order to scale up their results or address challenges in implementation. Quite often, the lack of such strategies has resulted in learning and information transfers that are sporadic or piecemeal. The need for a comprehensive knowledge management strategy was identified for the International Waters (IW) portfolio of the Global Environmental Facility (GEF). Why? There was no mechanism to transfer - on demand - valuable experiences between projects or the technical support services within each implementing agency. In addition to this, the GEF implementing agencies were not able to respond collectively to stakeholders' capacity-building needs across the entire IW portfolio of the Global Environmental Facility.

To address these challenges, the GEF instigated the IW:LEARN project in 2000 to manage a learning-based knowledge management strategy for the GEF IW focal area. IW:LEARN transfers relevant experiences across projects by fostering a ‘learning portfolio' for among its approximately 70 active projects. An important feature of this knowledge-management strategy is that it gradually builds capacity among previously isolated projects. A learning portfolio is a network of projects that use similar strategies to achieve a common end and work together to achieve three goals:

  1. Implement more effective projects;
  2. Systematically learn about the conditions under which these strategies work best and why;
  3. Improve the capacity of the members of the portfolio to do adaptive management.

IW:LEARN achieves those goals through information synthesis, sharing and dissemination; structured learning among GEF IW projects and cooperating organizations; organizing biennial International Waters conferences; and testing innovative approaches to strengthen implementation of the IW portfolio.

Some recent activities of IW:LEARN have included a partnership with Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok to develop IT applications to serve projects in southeast Asia. The Southeast Asia Regional Learning Centre (SEA-RLC) recently produced a web-based Geographic Information System and an expert roster, as well as Strategic Action Programme guidelines. An IW:LEARN inter-project stakeholder exchange, involving several projects, produced a guide on strategic communications. Other workshops leveraged guidelines and new action plans for participants on topics such as ‘KM in IW management' and ‘marine governance and socio-economics'. A new Experience Notes programme documents successful practices by IW projects for dissemination throughout the portfolio.

Context

Strengthening Global Capacity to Sustain Transboundary Waters: The International Waters Learning Exchange and Resource Network (IW:LEARN)

Focus Areas

Geographic Scope

IW:LEARN’s stakeholders include GEF International Waters projects, their partners and stakeholders. At local, regional and global scales, GEF IW stakeholders adapt and apply learning, information, skills and tools obtained through IW:LEARN to advance and sustain ongoing project benefits in their respective transboundary waters regions.

Stakeholders

UNDP serves as lead implementing agency for the structured learning (with oversight provided by a World Bank Learning Coordinator), global stocktaking meetings, and stakeholder engagement activities in this GEF project. UNEP serves as lead Implementing Agency for the GEF IW information management system and services to GEF IW projects. The project is implemented in close programmatic cooperation with the GEF International Waters Task Force, and is administered by a Steering Committee comprised of GEF IW leads from the GEF Secretariat, UNDP, UNEP and the World Bank. UNOPS serves as IW:LEARN’s executing agency (EA). In order to best leverage the core competencies of each implementing agency (UNDP, UNEP and World Bank) IW:LEARN aims to synthesize and disseminate practical experiences and findings of GEF IW projects, IAs’ broader water programs, and related initiatives (e.g., French GEF projects, UNEP-GPA, UNESCO IHP & WWAP, ISARM-IGRAC, FAO, IUCN freshwater and marine programs, the “Whitewater to Bluewater” partnership, EU, Waterweb Consortium, OAS, etc) and to foster peer-to-peer learning communities across the GEF IW community. To strengthen networking with wider global communities of expertise, and to sustain the benefits of knowledge-sharing beyond IW:LEARN, the project has contracted partnerships with IUCN’s Water & Nature Initiative and Global Marine Program, UNESCO-IHP and IGRAC, LakeNet, the Global Water Partnership-Mediterranean, the University of Rhode Island, the Center for Transboundary Cooperation and UNECE, World Fish Center, InWEnt, the Global Environment and Technology Foundation, Eco-Africa and the Gender & Water Alliance.

Contacts

Dann Sklarew, Director & Chief Technical Advisor, International Waters:LEARN

Janot–Reine MENDLER DE SUAREZ, Deputy Director IW:LEARN

Mish Hamid, Program Associate IW:LEARN


Contents

Background and Significance

Absent a knowledge management strategy, learning and information transfer across GEF IW projects remains piecemeal: Transboundary Waters Management (TWM) capacity builds gradually in isolated projects. This constrains the pace and quality of project implementation, and limits the potential depth and scope of accomplishment. There exists no mechanism to transfer – on demand – practical experiences between projects. Technical support services within each IA are not able to respond to stakeholders’ expressed needs across the entire GEF IW portfolio. Numerous opportunities are missed for projects to leverage emerging Information and Communications Technology (ICT) tools to extend and deepen stakeholder learning, transparency and participation in TWM. IW projects are not always clearly connected with broader global initiatives to share the natural resources of freshwater and marine ecosystems (e.g., the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) ). Project personnel often operate in an experience vacuum, significantly limiting opportunities to improve the overall performance and impact of the GEF IW portfolio.

In pursuit of their discrete environmental and development objectives, International Waters (IW) projects have similar capacity needs, although project proponents rarely know where to go to discover useful lessons, wisdom, and information resources or tested solutions to the shared waters problems they face. Learning principally by trial and error among isolated IW projects has presented a serious challenge to effective adaptive management across the GEF IW portfolio, and risks “reinvention of the wheel”. However, considerable untapped experience exists among GEF projects and partners worldwide regarding the cooperative management of shared water resources. Projects supported by the GEF and its three IAs have developed over the past decade the single largest source of practical experience in TWM. Across the GEF IW portfolio, common strategies have evolved and been refined over this time period– such as the use of Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA) in the formulation of Strategic Action Programs (SAPs) to promulgate adaptive management frameworks for sustaining transboundary waters systems.

Goal and Objectives

IW:LEARN’s global development objective is to strengthen Transboundary Waters Management (TWM) by facilitating learning and information sharing among GEF stakeholders. The project has five components whose objectives are:

  • To facilitate the integration, exchange and accessibility of data and information among GEF IW projects, their partners and stakeholders.
  • To establish and technically support a series of face-to-face and electronically-mediated structured learning activities – or learning exchanges – among related projects within the GEF IW portfolio.
  • To hold GEF IW conferences in 2005 and 2007, gathering the IW community to showcase, share, and assess experience among GEF IW projects, stakeholders, evaluators and other IW programs and institutions.
  • To test, evaluate and replicate novel approaches and ICT tools to meet IW stakeholder needs.
  • To sustain and institutionalize information sharing and structured learning across GEF IW projects, partners and stakeholders.

    The Experience: Challenges and Solutions

    WHAT

    Building upon a successful pilot, the IW:LEARN project actively helps GEF IW projects improve TWM through information sharing and targeted learning. Thriving face-to-face international learning exchanges and accessible ICT infrastructure foster inter-project learning from community-level through transboundary basin and large marine ecosystem (LME) scales. Through IW:LEARN’s information sharing and structured learning activities, projects’ experiences -- good practices and lessons learned - are transferred horizontally across projects, and fed back from GEF’s M&E Unit to new projects in preparation as well as to projects already underway. Structured learning and information exchange builds enduring in situ capacity to sustain TWM benefits well beyond the GEF IW or IW:LEARN project cycles. Information products generated by GEF IW projects and through stakeholder exchanges can now be readily discovered, accessed and applied to improve TWM across the GEF IW portfolio and are freely available.

    WHO

    Stakeholders include the approximately seventy current GEF-approved International Waters projects, those in preparation and their partners. UNDP itself serves as lead implementing agency. In addition, implementation occurs through UNEP, the World Bank as well as the afore-mentioned partnership activity leads (from page one – partner roles). By partnering through IW:LEARN, the three GEF IAs are able to enhance their IW projects’ learning, replication efficiency, transparency, ownership and sustainability. IW:LEARN serves as a means to integrate active involvement by all three IAs – as well as the GEF Secretariat, M&E Unit, NGO Network and Scientific Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) – in exchanging practical experiences and learning across over the projects. Direct beneficiaries include and have included GEF IW project staff, their NGO implementers, associated government personnel, implementing agency staff. Essentially, beneficiaries include those within the ambit of any given GEF IW project.

    WHERE

    IW:LEARN helps GEF beneficiary countries through its assistance to their respective IW projects. IW:LEARN technically supports the national priorities and activities of over 120 nations in more than 70 International Waters (IW) projects that are now under implementation, as well as in water-related projects of other GEF focal areas, thereby addressing the needs of country-driven GEF IW projects and their staff. Country-drivenness is demonstrated through design of all IW:LEARN activities to meet the expressed capacity building and technical support demands of GEF IW projects, all of which have received country-driven, focal point endorsements. Active groups include people engaged in the implementation and execution of GEF IW projects.

    WHEN

    Mention the duration and time-related aspects
    When was the project implemented?
    What's the status/progress of the project/intervention?
    Was the duration appropriate, too long, needed for such a project to evolve?
    Does/did time-related factors have any specific influence/impact on the experience?


    The project is active, and will run from October 2004 to October 2008. The initial phase, which commenced in 2000, operated during most of the period 2000-2004. In general, IW:LEARN is beholden to the GEF project cycle, which is constraining, but a critical aspect of the current design involves seeking ways to sustain its benefits.

    HOW

    The project‘s five components and activities include:

  • Improving access to information about transboundary water resources among GEF IW projects o Establish a central metadata directory of all available IW project data and information (GEF IW Information Management System: IW-IMS) o Provide technical assistance to GEF IW projects to develop or strengthen Web sites and apply appropriate ICT tools according to defined ICT quality criteria, and connect all GEF IW project Web sites to the GEF IW-IMS.  Outcome: TWM improved across GEF IW project areas through projects’ and stakeholders’ access to TWM data and information from across the GEF IW portfolio and its partners
  • Structured learning among GEF IW projects and cooperating partners o Organize 2-5 multi-project learning exchanges on a regional scale. o Organize and conduct multi-project learning exchanges for 3-5 subsets of similar projects in the GEF portfolio. o Coordinate inter-project exchanges between GEF IW projects and partners. o Provide face-to-face and virtual training to enhance public participation in Transboundary Waters Management.  Outcome: Enhanced TWM capacity at project- and basin-levels through sharing of experiences among subsets of the GEF IW portfolio, including projects, their partners and counterparts
  • Organizing biennial International Waters Conferences o Organize third GEF International Waters Conference (Rio de Janeiro, 2005) o Organize fourth GEF International Waters Conference (Cape Town, 2007)  Outcome: GEF IW portfolio-wide increase in awareness and application of effective TWM approaches, strategies and best practices; numerous new and enhanced linkages and exchanges between GEF IW and other TWM projects with shared TWM challenges
  • Testing innovative approaches to strengthen implementation of the IW portfolio o Develop South East Asia Regional Learning Center (SEA-RLC) o Provide face-to-face and virtual training, knowledge sharing and capacity-building and cooperation between IW stakeholders in Southeastern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea o CSD/GEF Roundtable on IWRM or other priority issue to emerge from CSD-12 (April 2004).  Outcome: A widely available suite of tested and replicated ICT and other tools and approaches for strengthening TWM
  • Fostering partnerships to sustain benefits of IW:LEARN and associated technical support o Develop partnerships to sustain IW:LEARN’s benefits through dialog with GEF Implementing Agencies (IAs), Executing Agencies (EAs), and external organizations. o Promote GEF IW contributions to sustainable development and participation of GEF IW projects in broader TWM community.  Outcome: TWM learning and information sharing mechanisms are mainstreamed and institutionalized into GEF IA and ongoing projects, as well as transboundary institutional frameworks of completed projects (e.g., Regional Seas and freshwater basin secretariats) In terms of innovation vs. traditional approaches, IW:LEARN’s activity line offers training comprising both. The initial phase of the project developed a methodology to target IW:LEARN services to emerging GEF IW projects’ needs via “blended learning” – learning which applies face-to-face interactions and distance learning – across projects and partners. The project also directly addresses some key themes appearing in the HDR 2006. In the area of national IWRM planning, IW:LEARN will sponsor topical workshops directly addressing IWRM planning. The first of these occurred in West Africa. Other workshops and online structured learning have addressed other aspects of IWRM. Furthermore, IW:LEARN directly contributes funding to the so-called Athen-Petersberg Process. The focus of this joint German, Greek and World Bank effort is fomenting cooperation on transboundary water resource management, with a specific effort to help countries in southeastern Europe with national IWRM planning. Other activities of IW:LEARN also contribute information resources on the topic. In terms of the HDR theme of transboundary cooperation, the Athens-Petersberg Process directly addresses this. Furthermore, the project’s overall assistance to GEF projects addresses the very essence of the GEF’s mission, which is facilitating transboundary cooperation. In general, not all attempts at online learning succeed. This stems from insufficient access to the internet or insufficient willingness or ability to devote the time required to devote to internet-based learning. For this reason, IW:LEARN purses the blended learning approach. Otherwise, the approach is traditional, including conferences and trainings. Information management plays a strong role in the strategy, although for the moment the approach is a basic repository of knowledge products. IW:LEARN operates on a $5.3 million cash grant from the GEF. IW:LEARN’s implementing agencies and partners contribute a nearly equivalent amount of mostly in-kind co-financing to the various activities.

    Results and Impact

    IW:LEARN, a UNDP and UNEP-implemented Global Environment Facility (GEF) project, strengthens transboundary waters Management (TWM) by facilitating structured learning and information sharing among stakeholders to inculcate a learning culture and establish peer learning communities of practice within and among GEF IW projects and their on-the-ground partners in transboundary river and lake basins, shared aquifer/groundwater systems, and Large Marine Ecosystems. In pursuit of this global objective, IW:LEARN’s website provides easy access to relevant information and knowledge-sharing resources, and IW:LEARN also assists GEF IW projects in improving their information base, replication efficiency, transparency, stakeholder ownership and sustainability of benefits.

    Lessons for Replication

    To-the-point analysis on WHY the results have (or have not) been achieved
    1. Highlight key elements that were helpful / hindering in the process
    2. Stress on facilitating factors as well as challenges/barriers that contributed to success/failure of parts of the intervention/project.
    Why was this a success? Why have certain results not been achieved?
    What specifically do you think has triggered certain developments?
    Had changes been made to the original plans? Why?
    What is the difference compared to other, similar experiences?
    1. Try to identify patterns behind the process or outcome, or important lessons, that would be useful for others planning a similar intervention/project
    Would you do everything the same way again? Why? What would you change?
    What are key recommendations for similar endeavours? How would you go about to replicate thsi project/experience?


    Some examples from each of the primary IW:LEARN components may offer some useful lessons-learned from the perspective of knowledge management.

    Under the information management component, the project struggles to address the balance between a top-down initiative and a bottom-up solution. The project website aims to be a repository on information relevant to GEF IW project management. At the moment it struggles to supply increasing amounts of more relevant content. In addition, another project aim is to broadly connect to other existing websites. While some problems are technological, others run the gamut to political issues. In many countries, data sharing is still not common practice. Furthermore, a culture of daily reliance, or even possibility vis-à-vis daily management, keeps demand sometimes low. One possible solution, at least in terms of ‘democratizing’ the site, might be to make use of new technologies, like Wiki, which makes such sites more open to the broader community. Users are able to place content on the site more readily and easily than reliance on a single management unit to find time to upload such content.

    In IW:LEARN’s structured learning component, a principal challenge centers on convincing users to participate in online discussion forums. Users simply do not or cannot take the time to be actively engaged in such fora. IW:LEARN has learned in such situations that blended learning, or the combination of face-to-face events form a needed basis of such online communities. Users appreciate knowing with whom they are talking. Moreover, IW:LEARN has learned that it’s critical to keep sessions short and focused, and usually in combination with the afore-mentioned face-to-face events.

    Participants generally consider the International Waters Conferences successful at providing a means for the entire GEF IW portfolio to convene and collectively share their knowledge. Of course, IW:LEARN attempts to adapt to new methodologies in the structure of such events. For example, devoting more time to the obvious, less plenaries and more on-the-side communication.

    Under innovative approaches, the project has enjoyed a degree of success. For example, a partnership with Chulalongkorn University has resulted in the Southeast Asia Regional Learning Centre, a think-tank of sorts offering useful ICT solutions and other knowledge to a specific region. A second targeted activity, the Athens-Petersberg Process, of which GEF IW:LEARN contributes funding through GWP-Mediterranean to a process initiated by the German, Greek governments and the World Bank. This process is considered a success, at least by participants involved in its activities. The process, at least from the perspective of the IW:LEARN activity, involves a series of roundtable/workshops with international donors and country-level staff, a website with information resources, a series of targeted topical workshops and study tours, capacity building research documents (including an inventory of transboundary basins, an assessment of IWRM in the region). A lesson here centers on the overall strategy of establishing a sustainable community of practice in the region. Success means that cooperation on transboundary water resources will be enhanced and that the strategy outlined above will be validated. Challenges on this activity are of course political and financial, as they often tend to be.

    The final component of IW:LEARN centers on partnerships. This component offers less relevant lessons in the sense that half of it is devoted to sustaining the benefits of the project. The other half offers a variety of smaller activities that deliver various benefits to the community, including event participation assistance, an exhibit on gender, communication of experiences via newsletters and Experience notes and a video on Large Marine Ecosystems.

    As concerns sustainability, replication is intrinsic to this project’s design. The project fosters replication and adaptation of best practices, ICT tools, information products and expertise across GEF IW projects. Demonstrations of capacity-building will be regularly co-developed with, transferred among, and replicated by project partners, with funding from GEF and other donors, partners and market-based mechanisms. Whenever possible, capacity to further adapt and replicate will be strengthened or transferred to on-the-ground project proponents and partners, as a means to foster on-going replication of tested practical approaches at multiple scales within project regions.

    The GEF Secretariat may also consider, as part of the mid-term and/or final project review, replicating or enlarging successes from the IW:LEARN approach to serve other GEF focal areas. IW:LEARN will work with each IA and EA to build their dedicated capacity to replicate across GEF focal areas demand-driven services initiated by IW:LEARN. Support for an operational “GEF Learning Exchange and Resource Network” staff lead within each IA may be explored as a means to expand provision of these services and benefits across focal areas. This could open opportunities to more fully leverage the comparative advantages of IAs and EAs across focal areas.

    Main Results

    In line with GEF expectations, IW:LEARN now captures so-called catalytic outcomes. These are probably best described as the indirect outcomes of IW:LEARN activities, i.e. those not stated in the project document. Given the current operational phase has only been in operation for just under two years, here are some of the outcomes:

  • UNEP.net developing into inter-agency information clearinghouse, based on [free] open source software promoted and tested through iwlearn.net
  • IW Communications Manual drafted by and for GEF IW projects
  • GPA producing 500 copies of IW:LEARN Handbook on LME Governance and Socioeconomics, for circulation at IGR-2
  • GEF IW BCLME and MACEMP projects to circulate LME Handbook to their partners/constituents
  • ELI to assist InWEnt in Orange River stakeholder involvement process
  • GEF CRTR project and GEF coral learning MSP starting to interact to help GEF coral projects, with potential for future coordination.
  • UNECE Water Convention contributing to Petersberg/Athens Process to improve IWRM
  • G&WA partners foster and sustain Gender & Water exhibit tour in LAC region
  • South Pacific IWP project supports Gender, Water and Climate traveling exhibit
  • IW Experience Notes program, providing GEF projects means to document and share transferable experiences
  • GEF IWTF has functional inter-agency teleconference services and email list.
  • GEF World Lakes MSP and Global Forum on Oceans project receive guidance from IW:LEARN on their Steering Committees Some of the above are outcomes of IW:LEARN activities. In general one list further outcomes of other IW:LEARN activities, all of which are now underway. One international waters conference convened GEF IW projects and the various government, NGO, implementing agency staff for direct, face-to-face information sharing. IW:LEARN’s activities in the area of structured learning (by eco-system, regional area and topics) have already seen a number of workshops. It is premature at this stage for the project to determine ultimate success of these interactions, at least on the level of directly changed strategies and policies. The project conducts evaluations of its activities. As part of some of them, participants are asked to detail follow-up action plans. After approximately one year, the project intends to capture to what extent those plans were executed. This offers the chance to capture achievements and further impacts. Other outcomes do include trainings on public participation and information management. A workshop in large marine ecosystem governance resulted in a manual on the topic. IW:LEARN’s Southeast Asia Regional Learning Centre has launched useful tools for the region, including an expert roster and a GIS system. IW:LEARN now captures project lessons-learned in a so-called IW Experience Note and its regular newsletter disseminated virtually and in paper form. Furthermore, the project also supports participation by project personnel at key events worldwide to further enhance their capacity or afford them the opportunity to communicate with peers. As a result of all these activities, GEF IW projects enjoy increased opportunities to share their knowledge and some of them have been able to make use of capacity-building opportunities. Prior independent evaluation occurring after the pilot phase of the project confirmed that IW:LEARN’s objectives remain very relevant to GEF IW projects, emphasizing that the justification for the project is as valid today as it was when IW:LEARN was originally conceived. The evaluation recommended that those methods determined as successful – including structured learning, information sharing, ICT technical support, the IWRC and IWCs – should be scaled up in an operational phase project.

    Outlook (Conclusions and Next Steps)

    IW:LEARN’s project design includes a “sustaining benefits” component in order to ensure that strategic partnerships adopt and sustain IW:LEARN benefits beyond the conclusion of the project. Some activities explicitly relate to development and implementation of sustainability plans, while another provides for outreach activities that promote the participation of the GEF IW learning portfolio in wider transboundary waters-related peer and networking communities, events and venues for knowledge sharing.

    The project’s institutional sustainability is grounded in its ability to integrate broad collaborative partnerships of, by and for GEF IW projects and their stakeholders. Wherever appropriate, IW:LEARN products and services may be progressively managed directly by international agencies or NGO partners, in order to ensure institutional ownership as momentum grows over the course of the project – thereby fostering longevity beyond the project’s end. Thus, by conclusion of the project in 2008, all services and benefits developed by IW:LEARN, and independently evaluated as successful and in continuing demand, will be either mainstreamed into the GEF’s IW projects and programs or else well-established with appropriate service providers.

    Facilitating dialog and collaboration across the three IAs and major EAs over the course of the project will fully integrate IW:LEARN support mechanisms for TWM within these agencies. As the GEF IW community matures over the 4-year project period, a culture of inter-project information sharing, learning and exchange of practical experience is being established.

    Testimonies and Stakeholder Perceptions

    Timeframe & Status

    The project period is from October 2004 to October 2008.

    References

    See also

    Water Knowledge Fair 2006

    External Resources

    Interviewees and Key Contacts

    Key contacts include the project staff mentioned in the contact section earlier.

    IW:LEARN’s primary website is www.iwlearn.net, also known as the International Waters Information Management System. For more specific information on the project and its activities’ outputs, please visit www.iwlearn.net/abt_iwlearn. The site offers a variety of useful links, including multiple GEF IW project links, key contact information, knowledge products and links to events. Two of IW:LEARN’s partners and activity leads have relevant websites. The Southeast Asia Regional Learning Centre website is www.iwsea.org, and the GWP-Mediterranean’s website for the Athens-Petersberg Process community is www.watersee.net.

    Attachments

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