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Indonesia is part of:
Asia & Pacific · Southeastern Asia ·
Water Basins of Indonesia:
Citarum · Fly · Sembakung · Sepik · Tami · Tjeroaka-Wanggoe ·
Facts & Figures edit
Capital Jakarta
Neighbouring Countries East Timor, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea
Total Area 1,919,440 km2
  - Water 93,000 km2 (4.85%) / 485 m2/ha
  - Land 1,826,440 km2
Coastline 54,716 km
Population 222,781,500 (117 inhab./km2)
HDIA 0.726 (2007)
Gini CoefficientA 34.3 (1995)
Nominal GDPB $496,800 million
GDP (PPP) Per CapitaB $3,900
Land UseC
  - Cultivated Land 330,037 km2 (18.07%)
     - Arable 201,456 km2 (11.03%)
     - Permanent Crops 128,581 km2 (7.04%)
     - Irrigated 45,000 km2
  - Non cultivated 91,109 km2 (81.93%)
Average Annual RainfallD 2702 mm
Renewable Water ResourcesE 2,838 km3
Water WithdrawalsF 82.78 km3/yr
  - For Agricultural Use 91%
  - For Domestic Use 8%
  - For Industrial Use 1%
  - Per Capita 396 m3
Population with safe access to
  - Improved Water Source 77%
     - Urban population 87%
     - Rural population 69%
  - Improved Sanitation 55%
     - Urban population 73%
     - Rural population 40%
References & Remarks
A UNDP Human Development Report
B CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia
C CIA World Factbook Country Profiles
D Aquastat - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
E CIA World Factbook
F Earthtrends

> Articles | Projects & Case studies | Publications & Web resources | Who is who | Maps
> Sector Assessment | Sector Coordination | Donor Profile

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Country Profile: Climate, Geography, Socio-Economic Context

Country Profile: Water Bodies and Resources

Most Indonesian lakes are of volcanic origin. The country is home to the largest volcanic lake in the world, Lake Toba. Indonesia has over 5590 rivers. Total catchment area is estimated to be 1,864,000 square kilometers, and average annual river runoff is estimated to be 2793 cubic kilometers. Municipal and industrial wastewaters are discharged virtually untreated into waterways, causing the quality of river water to deteriorate rapidly. Total dam capacity in 1995 was 15.8 cubic kilometers. Hydropower potential in Indonesia is about 75,000 megawatts (75 gigawatts). As of 2007, installed capacity for hydropower plants was about 4260 megawatts. In 2005, hydropower contributed 12.9 terrawatts to total electricity supply. As of 2005, electricity produced by hydroelectric sources contributed 8.5% of total electricity production.

Groundwater resources are estimated at 455 cubic kilometers per year, although an estimated 90% returns as base flow to rivers. Groundwater is not sufficient to meet all urban and rural water needs. In some places, such as Jakarta, overexploitation of groundwater has led to critical problems, including the introduction of saline groundwater 10 kilometers inland from the coastline and land subsidence of up to 34 centimeters per year in parts of the city.

In 2007, 91 cubic kilometers of water was withdrawn for agriculture, 8 cubic kilometers for domestic consumption and 0.7 cubic kilometers for industry. As of 2003, total area equipped for irrigation was 12% of agricultural land.

According to joint World Health Organization and UNICEF 2010 statistics, 28.4% of urban households in Indonesia have access to tap water, and 37.8% have access to protected groundwater. In rural areas only 6.7% have water piped into their dwellings and 41.3 % have access to protected groundwater. In terms of access to sanitation facilities, 75.9% of urban residents have access to flush toilets, and 12.7% use dry latrines. Forty seven percent of rural households have access to flush toilets, while 25% of households use wet latrines and another 25% use dry latrines.

Country Profile: Legal and Institutional Environment

Legal Framework

Article 33 of the Constitution asserts that the state shall control all waters in the country. The Law on Water Resources (Law No. 7 of 2004) regulates use of water. Article 6 of the Law affirms the state’s control over all water resources. The Law gives primary consideration to the use of water for daily basic needs, such as drinking, bathing, cooking, washing, sanitation and religious worship. Second priority is given to the irrigation needs of farmers within an existing irrigation system. Licenses are not required, although the government provides certificates to farmers’ groups within an irrigation system.

The Water Resources Law does not establish private ownership of water, but provides rights to withdraw and use water, including use for cultivation. Article 6 of the Law provides that traditional communal rights to use water may be recognized by regional regulations, but the law makes no mention of customary adat. The Law prohibits the trade of water rights.

Institutional Framework

Water resources are managed by the Ministry of Public Works through its Directorate General of Water Resources Development. The directorate has four primary missions: (1) to help the nation maintain self-sufficiency in rice production; (2) to meet increasing demands for drinking water and water for industry; (3) to alleviate floods and manage rivers; and (4) to develop, conserve and manage water resources.

Publicly managed irrigation systems include; technical systems (characterized by permanent canals and control structures); semi-technical systems (permanent canals with few control structures); and simple systems (few permanent control or distribution structures). In addition, village irrigation systems are developed and managed by farmers.

Government Reforms, Interventions and Investments

The Government of Indonesia is addressing water resource problems and structural deficiencies through the Indonesian Water Vision (2002), which outlines three major considerations for reform of water resources management, including; sustainability of water quality and quantity; the need for achieving food security and sustainable irrigation; and improvement of institutional capacity. The reform’s objectives include: establishment of a national framework for coordinating water resources and irrigation management; adoption and implementation of a national water policy; establishment of institutions and procedures for involving stakeholders and water resources service beneficiaries; and the introduction of a water rights system for water allocation.

Country Profile: Water Sector Coordination

See Sector coordination sub-page for detailed description

Country Profile: Trends in Water Use, Management and Sanitation

Country Profile: Challenges and Opportunities

One of the main challenges relates to development and management of government agencies responsible for water management at the central and regional levels.

Donor Interventions and Investments

The USAID Environmental Services Project worked with communities to secure access to water resources, promote improved water resource management, and increase access to clean water supply and sanitation services. The USAID Indonesia Urban Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (IUWASH) Project will promote community access and rights to water. USAID is also supporting spatial planning for marine protected areas with the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (MMAF) and as part of the process will be accounting for traditional marine rights to these areas.

The World Bank’s Water Resources and Irrigation Sector Management Program is an 11-year adjustment program loan that extends and consolidates the Bank’s longstanding support for institutional development. The program’s objectives are: 1) sustainable and equitable management of surface water resources and infrastructure; 2) increased farm household incomes; and 3) more cost-effective and fiscally sustainable management of sector agencies. This reform agenda is also supported by the Asian Development Bank, the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (now merged with Japan International Cooperation Agency) and the Netherlands. In addition, a €10 million grant from the EU supports water basin resources management, water conservation, and participatory irrigation management in the province of Nusa Tenggara Barat.


Recently updated articles on Indonesia
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Projects and Case Studies

Projects in or about Indonesia

(this is a list of the 15 most recently updated entries. To see all projects click here)

  1. Removal of Barriers to the Introduction of Cleaner Artisanal Gold Mining and Extraction Technologies ‎(3,968 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. West Pacific East Asia Oceanic Fisheries management Project, under the Coral Triangle Initiative ‎(1,944 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Water Tower Demolition in Banda Aceh, Indonesia ‎(7,061 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Sulu-Celebes Sea Sustainable Fisheries Management Project (SCS) ‎(2,733 views) . . WikiBot
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  6. Implementation of the Sustainable Development Strategy for the Seas of the East Asia (SDS-SEA) ‎(4,679 views) . . WikiBot
  7. Arafura and Timor Seas Ecosystem Action Programme (ATSEA) ‎(4,565 views) . . WikiBot
  8. Strengthening community-based forestry and watershed management, Indonesia ‎(2,510 views) . . WikiBot

Case studies in or about Indonesia

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See the complete list of WaterWiki documented projects in Indonesia


5 most recently updated publications on Indonesia
  1. Institutional Dimensions of Scaling Up Community-Led Total Sanitation in Indonesia ‎(1,338 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Scaling Up Rural Sanitation:Findings from the Impact Evaluation Survey in Indonesia ‎(1,572 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Managing the Flow of Monitoring Information to Improve Rural Sanitation in East Java ‎(1,549 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. The Political Economy of Sanitation: How can we increase investment and improve service for the poor? ‎(925 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. From a ‘political good’ to an ‘economic good’: The Case of Jakarta, Indonesia ‎(35,866 views) . . Katy.norman

5 most popular publications on Indonesia
  1. From a ‘political good’ to an ‘economic good’: The Case of Jakarta, Indonesia ‎(35,866 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Disconnected: Poverty, Water Supply and Development in Jakarta, Indonesia ‎(3,676 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Scaling Up Rural Sanitation:Findings from the Impact Evaluation Survey in Indonesia ‎(1,572 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Managing the Flow of Monitoring Information to Improve Rural Sanitation in East Java ‎(1,549 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. Institutional Dimensions of Scaling Up Community-Led Total Sanitation in Indonesia ‎(1,338 views) . . Katy.norman

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented publications on Indonesia

Who is Who

People working in Indonesia

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Organizations working in Indonesia

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See also

External Resources

"Water Supply and Sanitation in Indonesia on Wikipedia

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