Inland Waterway Transport (IWT)

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= Summary =
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== Summary ==
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[[Inland water transport]]([[IWT]]) is one of the oldest economically and environmentally sustainable modes of transportation for passengers and cargo; and in some areas the only means of mobility and access to basic services.  The sector encompasses vessels ranging from simple non-motorized boats to highly automated pushers, operating on waterways ranging from small tributaries to major rivers.
[[Inland water transport]]([[IWT]]) is one of the oldest economically and environmentally sustainable modes of transportation for passengers and cargo; and in some areas the only means of mobility and access to basic services.  The sector encompasses vessels ranging from simple non-motorized boats to highly automated pushers, operating on waterways ranging from small tributaries to major rivers.
A specific sub-sector that has received particular attention is Rural Water Transport (i.e. inland water transport that is used by poor people) due to its potential to help reduce isolation and thus poverty. [[Rural Water Transport]] ([[RWT]]) mostly consists of small family owned boats or canoes that operate on river and canal networks. Such boats are used to provide transport services, trading opportunities, employment and food (through fishing and access to markets).
A specific sub-sector that has received particular attention is Rural Water Transport (i.e. inland water transport that is used by poor people) due to its potential to help reduce isolation and thus poverty. [[Rural Water Transport]] ([[RWT]]) mostly consists of small family owned boats or canoes that operate on river and canal networks. Such boats are used to provide transport services, trading opportunities, employment and food (through fishing and access to markets).
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== Highlights ==
== Highlights ==
Inland waterways play a vital role in economic development, especially for remote rural areas. While the potential role for this sector depends considerably on the specific regional context, such as geographical conditions, level of road development, and socio-economic conditions, the following highlights some general advantages of inland waterway transport (IWT) noted by contributors (and supported by the [http://www.ifrtd.org/new/index.htm International Forum for Rural Transport and Development] research):
Inland waterways play a vital role in economic development, especially for remote rural areas. While the potential role for this sector depends considerably on the specific regional context, such as geographical conditions, level of road development, and socio-economic conditions, the following highlights some general advantages of inland waterway transport (IWT) noted by contributors (and supported by the [http://www.ifrtd.org/new/index.htm International Forum for Rural Transport and Development] research):
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* ''''Economically and ecologically sustainable transport solution''' - IWT is considered an environmentally friendly, energy-efficient and low-emission transport mode  - that enables in particular bulk transport at a lower emission discharge than road transport  - and can play a key role in establishing sustainable transport systems.  A shift from road transport to IWT for both cargo and passengers usually contributes to more efficient use of resources and energy. For example, the government of in '''Thailand''' has pursued the expansion of commuter services on waterways around Bangkok to relieve the extreme road traffic congestion in the city.
* ''''Economically and ecologically sustainable transport solution''' - IWT is considered an environmentally friendly, energy-efficient and low-emission transport mode  - that enables in particular bulk transport at a lower emission discharge than road transport  - and can play a key role in establishing sustainable transport systems.  A shift from road transport to IWT for both cargo and passengers usually contributes to more efficient use of resources and energy. For example, the government of in '''Thailand''' has pursued the expansion of commuter services on waterways around Bangkok to relieve the extreme road traffic congestion in the city.
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== Challenges ==
== Challenges ==
Despite the vital role of this sector, inland water transport systems have not yet reached their full potential in the [[Asia Pacific]] region, which is an area generously endowed with navigable inland waterways but has experienced latent capacity and inadequate investment.  In all regions, IWT has been neglected and remains outside the mainstream transport and development planning, often overshadowed by other sectors such as road transport
Despite the vital role of this sector, inland water transport systems have not yet reached their full potential in the [[Asia Pacific]] region, which is an area generously endowed with navigable inland waterways but has experienced latent capacity and inadequate investment.  In all regions, IWT has been neglected and remains outside the mainstream transport and development planning, often overshadowed by other sectors such as road transport
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As a result of the neglect of inland water transport in mainstream planning, irrigation, energy, and land transport interventions are often planned without consideration of their impact on traditional waterways (ie. bridges built without determining required height).  Studies by the [http://www.ifrtd.org/new/index.htm  International Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFRTD)] found that the consequence of RWT neglect has resulted in the deterioration of traditional thoroughfares, conflicts between waterway use and land transport interventions, lost opportunities for poor people to improve their livelihoods through access to basic services and economic opportunities, and the lost potential to develop ecologically and financially sustainable transport technologies.
As a result of the neglect of inland water transport in mainstream planning, irrigation, energy, and land transport interventions are often planned without consideration of their impact on traditional waterways (ie. bridges built without determining required height).  Studies by the [http://www.ifrtd.org/new/index.htm  International Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFRTD)] found that the consequence of RWT neglect has resulted in the deterioration of traditional thoroughfares, conflicts between waterway use and land transport interventions, lost opportunities for poor people to improve their livelihoods through access to basic services and economic opportunities, and the lost potential to develop ecologically and financially sustainable transport technologies.
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== Strategy for Inland Waterway Transportation System ==
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= Strategy for Inland Waterway Transportation System =
The preparation of a Masterplan for an Inland Waterway Transportation System should be considered a component of a broader strategy and policy for the transport sector of the region.  Such a strategy would begin with a general transport strategy and policy (goals objectives, and guidelines addressing issues of infrastructure, safety, environment, management, and the institutional and legal framework) followed by the goals and objectives in road, railway inland waterway, and intermodal and combined traffic and transport.  Short, medium, and long term planning should be undertaken which includes an assessment of the investment requirements of studies at various levels, particularly for IWT Sector in the region.
The preparation of a Masterplan for an Inland Waterway Transportation System should be considered a component of a broader strategy and policy for the transport sector of the region.  Such a strategy would begin with a general transport strategy and policy (goals objectives, and guidelines addressing issues of infrastructure, safety, environment, management, and the institutional and legal framework) followed by the goals and objectives in road, railway inland waterway, and intermodal and combined traffic and transport.  Short, medium, and long term planning should be undertaken which includes an assessment of the investment requirements of studies at various levels, particularly for IWT Sector in the region.
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The planning of inland waterway transport is extremely complex, as it is one of the many facets of water resources and part of the overall industrial or commercial fabric. To be sustainable, inland waterway transport planning must also be considered as an '''integral part of water resource planning'''. An isolated approach would disregard the interdependence of waterway development projects, which touch upon everything from public water supply; flood control; agriculture & irrigation; power generation; fisheries to tourism development.  Excellent results can be achieved at low cost for countries, by the simultaneous development of a river for all of these purposes (power, flood control, navigation, irrigation, industrial/urban uses, beautification and recreation).
The planning of inland waterway transport is extremely complex, as it is one of the many facets of water resources and part of the overall industrial or commercial fabric. To be sustainable, inland waterway transport planning must also be considered as an '''integral part of water resource planning'''. An isolated approach would disregard the interdependence of waterway development projects, which touch upon everything from public water supply; flood control; agriculture & irrigation; power generation; fisheries to tourism development.  Excellent results can be achieved at low cost for countries, by the simultaneous development of a river for all of these purposes (power, flood control, navigation, irrigation, industrial/urban uses, beautification and recreation).
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== River Classification System ==
== River Classification System ==
The main aim of a system of classification should be to ensure the orderly and efficient control and maintenance of waterways. To begin, an '''inventory of existing infrastructure and transport''' must be prepared as the base of a sound classification system. This inventory should include numerous quantitative aspects (e.g. minimum depths, width, and vertical clearance of waterways, marking and minimum equipment with navigational aids, and number of vessels), as well as qualitative aspects (e.g. the state of infrastructure and the fleet, transport performance). Data difficulties can be often quite substantial.
The main aim of a system of classification should be to ensure the orderly and efficient control and maintenance of waterways. To begin, an '''inventory of existing infrastructure and transport''' must be prepared as the base of a sound classification system. This inventory should include numerous quantitative aspects (e.g. minimum depths, width, and vertical clearance of waterways, marking and minimum equipment with navigational aids, and number of vessels), as well as qualitative aspects (e.g. the state of infrastructure and the fleet, transport performance). Data difficulties can be often quite substantial.
An adequate classification system could be based both on the '''characteristics of the waterway''' and according to '''the “normal” size of vessel or integrated barge tow''' ensuring permanent navigability. Each waterway class: I, II, … has its standardized vessel (type, length, beam, draught and carrying capacities to loading draught and minimum height under bridges) or limited standardized integrated barge tow (formation and number of barges in tow, total length of barge tow plus pushboat, total beam of barge tow, draught of most loaded barge in tow and barge tow capacity in loaded state and minimum height under bridges) corresponding to the waterway conditions. The classification of European inland waterways provides an example of these principles.
An adequate classification system could be based both on the '''characteristics of the waterway''' and according to '''the “normal” size of vessel or integrated barge tow''' ensuring permanent navigability. Each waterway class: I, II, … has its standardized vessel (type, length, beam, draught and carrying capacities to loading draught and minimum height under bridges) or limited standardized integrated barge tow (formation and number of barges in tow, total length of barge tow plus pushboat, total beam of barge tow, draught of most loaded barge in tow and barge tow capacity in loaded state and minimum height under bridges) corresponding to the waterway conditions. The classification of European inland waterways provides an example of these principles.
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== Integrations with other modes of transportation ==
== Integrations with other modes of transportation ==
Due to the limited geographical reach of inland water transport systems and the dependence on an interface with other modes of transport, planning an integrated strategy is essential.  Investing in improvements in inter-modal connections between cost-effective inland waterway transportation, faster railways, and more elastic road transportation will significantly improve the efficiency of IWT and the overall transport system. Treated in isolation, road infrastructure can often threaten the use of traditional waterways, such as when bridges are built without consideration for the height needed to accommodate waterway vessels.
Due to the limited geographical reach of inland water transport systems and the dependence on an interface with other modes of transport, planning an integrated strategy is essential.  Investing in improvements in inter-modal connections between cost-effective inland waterway transportation, faster railways, and more elastic road transportation will significantly improve the efficiency of IWT and the overall transport system. Treated in isolation, road infrastructure can often threaten the use of traditional waterways, such as when bridges are built without consideration for the height needed to accommodate waterway vessels.
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The [http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/PubsDetail.asp?IDNO=144 UN ESCAP Manual on Modernization of Inland Water Transport for Integration within a Multimodal Transport System (2004)] discusses infrastructure planning for IWT for multimodal operations in detail (including, inter alia, waterway requirements and terminals; latest technology to connect IWT with other transport modes; integrating IWT in multimodal legal instruments and infrastructure planning and construction; setting up customs within inland ports; and incentives given on the legislative side).
The [http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/PubsDetail.asp?IDNO=144 UN ESCAP Manual on Modernization of Inland Water Transport for Integration within a Multimodal Transport System (2004)] discusses infrastructure planning for IWT for multimodal operations in detail (including, inter alia, waterway requirements and terminals; latest technology to connect IWT with other transport modes; integrating IWT in multimodal legal instruments and infrastructure planning and construction; setting up customs within inland ports; and incentives given on the legislative side).
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== Expanding Economic Usage of River Transport ==
== Expanding Economic Usage of River Transport ==
The usage of the Sarawak IWT network for “tourism on the water” has the potential to generate considerable income for the local economies and additional income from tourist taxes for regional and federal governments. For example, in '''India''''s Southern State of Kerala, 2000 people are employed in houseboats and other motorboats that cruise the inland waterways filled with tourists.
The usage of the Sarawak IWT network for “tourism on the water” has the potential to generate considerable income for the local economies and additional income from tourist taxes for regional and federal governments. For example, in '''India''''s Southern State of Kerala, 2000 people are employed in houseboats and other motorboats that cruise the inland waterways filled with tourists.
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Developing river transport also provides an opportunity to ensure the economic benefits of increased national trade reach the regions inland. For example, '''China''' has witnessed a large increase in trade over the past two decades but the vast majority of this has been within coastal provinces.  The Government of China has sought to reduce the disparity by improving the transport infrastructure of the connecting areas, developing intermodal links along selected corridors between gateway ports and inland destinations
Developing river transport also provides an opportunity to ensure the economic benefits of increased national trade reach the regions inland. For example, '''China''' has witnessed a large increase in trade over the past two decades but the vast majority of this has been within coastal provinces.  The Government of China has sought to reduce the disparity by improving the transport infrastructure of the connecting areas, developing intermodal links along selected corridors between gateway ports and inland destinations
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== Pro-poor considerations ==
== Pro-poor considerations ==
The design and appraisal of rural transport should consider:
The design and appraisal of rural transport should consider:
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* Questions to consider (in adopting subsidies, pricing controls, licensing fees, infrastructure building, service monitoring, etc.) include: Who are the poor customers?; How do they currently obtain/consume services?; What can they afford (rather than are willing) to pay?; How are poorer communities organized and what outlets exist for them to voice their interests?; What do they expect from the services?
* Questions to consider (in adopting subsidies, pricing controls, licensing fees, infrastructure building, service monitoring, etc.) include: Who are the poor customers?; How do they currently obtain/consume services?; What can they afford (rather than are willing) to pay?; How are poorer communities organized and what outlets exist for them to voice their interests?; What do they expect from the services?
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== Safety and environmental protection considerations ==
== Safety and environmental protection considerations ==
IWT planning should address:
IWT planning should address:
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* Establishing waste and waste water reception facilities in ports;
* Establishing waste and waste water reception facilities in ports;
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== Additional Suggestions ==
== Additional Suggestions ==
* More comparative research on the social, economic, and environmental characteristics of different transport systems, is needed to generate information for policy-makers
* More comparative research on the social, economic, and environmental characteristics of different transport systems, is needed to generate information for policy-makers
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* Consider examples of innovative good practice such as Vietnam's boat ambulances and floating courts bringing legal services to remote communities of the Amazon
* Consider examples of innovative good practice such as Vietnam's boat ambulances and floating courts bringing legal services to remote communities of the Amazon
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== Country Examples ==
 
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= Country Examples =
== Bangladesh ==
== Bangladesh ==
In [[Bangladesh]], IWT provides access to basic socio-economic needs and services for millions of people, as a cheaper and more accessible mode of transport.  The importance of national transport has been reflected in the national budget, as it received the largest allocation of the annual development budget in 2000-2001 at 22%. Initiatives under the five-year plan of the Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority (BIWTA) include increasing waterway depths through dredgers, channel widening, and major overhauls to work vessels; new waterways introduced around urban areas to improve and expand movement opportunities; and new infrastructure facilities that include additional passenger terminals. The major share of funds were allocated to annual dredging program.  More details available through the UN ESCAP 2003 Review and the IFRTD Bangladesh case study on Rural Water Transport.
In [[Bangladesh]], IWT provides access to basic socio-economic needs and services for millions of people, as a cheaper and more accessible mode of transport.  The importance of national transport has been reflected in the national budget, as it received the largest allocation of the annual development budget in 2000-2001 at 22%. Initiatives under the five-year plan of the Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority (BIWTA) include increasing waterway depths through dredgers, channel widening, and major overhauls to work vessels; new waterways introduced around urban areas to improve and expand movement opportunities; and new infrastructure facilities that include additional passenger terminals. The major share of funds were allocated to annual dredging program.  More details available through the UN ESCAP 2003 Review and the IFRTD Bangladesh case study on Rural Water Transport.
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== Indonesia ==
== Indonesia ==
The Center for Transportation and Logistics Studies (PUSTRAL) Gadjah Mada University, a rural transport forum under the [[Indonesia]] Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFGRTD) has conducted research on rural waterway in several locations in Indonesia with similar conditions to [[Malaysia]].  In 2003 - 2004, they developed a system called "Buy The Service" for rural waterways to be included in rural water transport master plan in Indonesia. The objective of this system is to achieve high quality service in remote areas with reasonable price (by encouraging competition among the operators). This is achieved by tendering a system of water transport based on quality service provided by operators to customers. The advantages of this system is: flexible tariff (based on the destination), integrated ticket (for tourist, visitors) and pre-paid system (off boat transaction to avoid leakage and mafia operation). See also the UN ESCAP 2003 Review for details of the sixth and seventh Five-Year Plans and the [http://www.easts.info/2003proceedings/papers/0274.pdfIFRTD Indonesia case study on Rural Water Transport].
The Center for Transportation and Logistics Studies (PUSTRAL) Gadjah Mada University, a rural transport forum under the [[Indonesia]] Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFGRTD) has conducted research on rural waterway in several locations in Indonesia with similar conditions to [[Malaysia]].  In 2003 - 2004, they developed a system called "Buy The Service" for rural waterways to be included in rural water transport master plan in Indonesia. The objective of this system is to achieve high quality service in remote areas with reasonable price (by encouraging competition among the operators). This is achieved by tendering a system of water transport based on quality service provided by operators to customers. The advantages of this system is: flexible tariff (based on the destination), integrated ticket (for tourist, visitors) and pre-paid system (off boat transaction to avoid leakage and mafia operation). See also the UN ESCAP 2003 Review for details of the sixth and seventh Five-Year Plans and the [http://www.easts.info/2003proceedings/papers/0274.pdfIFRTD Indonesia case study on Rural Water Transport].
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== China ==
== China ==
With an inland waterway system of more than 5600 navigable rivers and 2000 inland ports, [[China]] has the most developed ICT subsector in the region.  IWT development thrust is being concentrated on 5 specific areas (Yangtze river, Pearl River, Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta). A $220 million project, with World Bank funding, aimed at bringing greater prosperity to a region where 6 million people live at subsistence level.  The funds were directed at power generating dams, by-passing ship locking systems, and a deeper waterway throughout the system permitting large vessels to undertake trade. Other notable initiatives include the vast Three Gorges project, which will improve electric power and navigation safety and reduce transportation costs; and development along the Hang-Yong Canal, connecting a network of six rivers with the country's largest river.  The emphasis in plans for the construction and development of the inland waterway network over the next decade is being placed on inland port development, and the construction of 20 inland river channels in major north-south and east-west corridors and localize networks. See the UN ESCAP 2003 Review for more details.
With an inland waterway system of more than 5600 navigable rivers and 2000 inland ports, [[China]] has the most developed ICT subsector in the region.  IWT development thrust is being concentrated on 5 specific areas (Yangtze river, Pearl River, Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta). A $220 million project, with World Bank funding, aimed at bringing greater prosperity to a region where 6 million people live at subsistence level.  The funds were directed at power generating dams, by-passing ship locking systems, and a deeper waterway throughout the system permitting large vessels to undertake trade. Other notable initiatives include the vast Three Gorges project, which will improve electric power and navigation safety and reduce transportation costs; and development along the Hang-Yong Canal, connecting a network of six rivers with the country's largest river.  The emphasis in plans for the construction and development of the inland waterway network over the next decade is being placed on inland port development, and the construction of 20 inland river channels in major north-south and east-west corridors and localize networks. See the UN ESCAP 2003 Review for more details.
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The [[World Bank]] has been involved in various large scale inland waterway projects, involving financing and technical assistance.  A US$ 100 million World Bank supported project was approved in October 2005 ([http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=64283627&piPK=73230&theSitePK=40941&menuPK=228424&Projectid=P085333Fifth Inland Waterways]). The major objective of this project is to enhance the standard of living in the Han River region, by developing its potential water resources, which includes increasing the waterway transport capacity along the Han River, with a particular focus on cost-effectiveness and ensuring the availability of sustainable hydropower and water resources in the Xiangfan area, and Tangdong region. [http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/main?pagePK=64193027&piPK=64187937&theSitePK=523679&menuPK=64187510&searchMenuPK=64187283&siteName=WDS&entityID=000012009_20050921102401 Project document] Contact: Melissa Fossberg, mfossberg@worldbank.org . Overall, the Bank sees this an important area to alleviate poverty in poor provinces by sustaining non-farm jobs (carriage of coal, timber, construction materials and other quarried bulks), but the Chinese government has not sought extensive national-level policy dialogue.
The [[World Bank]] has been involved in various large scale inland waterway projects, involving financing and technical assistance.  A US$ 100 million World Bank supported project was approved in October 2005 ([http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=64283627&piPK=73230&theSitePK=40941&menuPK=228424&Projectid=P085333Fifth Inland Waterways]). The major objective of this project is to enhance the standard of living in the Han River region, by developing its potential water resources, which includes increasing the waterway transport capacity along the Han River, with a particular focus on cost-effectiveness and ensuring the availability of sustainable hydropower and water resources in the Xiangfan area, and Tangdong region. [http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/main?pagePK=64193027&piPK=64187937&theSitePK=523679&menuPK=64187510&searchMenuPK=64187283&siteName=WDS&entityID=000012009_20050921102401 Project document] Contact: Melissa Fossberg, mfossberg@worldbank.org . Overall, the Bank sees this an important area to alleviate poverty in poor provinces by sustaining non-farm jobs (carriage of coal, timber, construction materials and other quarried bulks), but the Chinese government has not sought extensive national-level policy dialogue.
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== India ==
== India ==
The Government of [[India]] is committed to the development of IWT as a viable and energy efficiency mode of transport. The Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) was constituted in 1986 for development and regulation of inland waterways for shipping and navigation. The Authority primarily undertakes projects for development and maintenance of IWT infrastructure on national waterways through grant received from Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways. The Government has also formulated an IWT policy (see http://iwai.nic.in/iwtpolicy.htm) with a view to accelerate IWT development and encourage private sector participation in IWT sector. Further, the States were given liberal grant under ‘centrally sponsored schemes’ for development of IWT mode. See also the UN ESCAP 2003 Review and the [http://www4.worldbank.org/afr/ssatp/Resources/HTML/Gender-RG/Source%20%20documents/case%20studies/IFRTD%20Case%20Summaries/CSIRF5%20Women%20Water%20and%20Transport%20in%20Arid%20Areas%20India%20SUMMARY.pdf IFRTD India case study on Rural Water Transport].
The Government of [[India]] is committed to the development of IWT as a viable and energy efficiency mode of transport. The Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) was constituted in 1986 for development and regulation of inland waterways for shipping and navigation. The Authority primarily undertakes projects for development and maintenance of IWT infrastructure on national waterways through grant received from Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways. The Government has also formulated an IWT policy (see http://iwai.nic.in/iwtpolicy.htm) with a view to accelerate IWT development and encourage private sector participation in IWT sector. Further, the States were given liberal grant under ‘centrally sponsored schemes’ for development of IWT mode. See also the UN ESCAP 2003 Review and the [http://www4.worldbank.org/afr/ssatp/Resources/HTML/Gender-RG/Source%20%20documents/case%20studies/IFRTD%20Case%20Summaries/CSIRF5%20Women%20Water%20and%20Transport%20in%20Arid%20Areas%20India%20SUMMARY.pdf IFRTD India case study on Rural Water Transport].
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== Philippines ==
== Philippines ==
Foreign trade has increased rapidly within the [[Philippines]] as a result of globalization in the past two decades. However, these benefits were initially seen within coastal regions and particular islands rather than being broadly dispersed among geographic areas. The Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) for 2005-2010 was developed as an attempt to provide for the prioritization and development of Roll-on Roll-off (RO-RO) shipping through the establishment of the Nautical Highway System composed of the Western, Eastern and Central Nautical Highway System. The project aims to enhance investment opportunities for agro-industrial, commerce, trade and tourism, and also provide efficient and convenient travel movement of local and international tourists and investors through shorter travel time and cheaper transportation costs.  In particular, the nautical highway aims to accelerate the development of the country's southern islands by opening an alternative and low-cost trade, travel, and tourism route in the country's looming western growth corridor by making Oriental Mindoro as its gateway.  The nautical highway system, which was introduced in 2003 to maximize the use of the RORO system, has reduced travel time by 10 hours and reduced cost by 40 per cent for passengers and 30 per cent for cargo. See the UN ESCAP 2005 Review.
Foreign trade has increased rapidly within the [[Philippines]] as a result of globalization in the past two decades. However, these benefits were initially seen within coastal regions and particular islands rather than being broadly dispersed among geographic areas. The Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) for 2005-2010 was developed as an attempt to provide for the prioritization and development of Roll-on Roll-off (RO-RO) shipping through the establishment of the Nautical Highway System composed of the Western, Eastern and Central Nautical Highway System. The project aims to enhance investment opportunities for agro-industrial, commerce, trade and tourism, and also provide efficient and convenient travel movement of local and international tourists and investors through shorter travel time and cheaper transportation costs.  In particular, the nautical highway aims to accelerate the development of the country's southern islands by opening an alternative and low-cost trade, travel, and tourism route in the country's looming western growth corridor by making Oriental Mindoro as its gateway.  The nautical highway system, which was introduced in 2003 to maximize the use of the RORO system, has reduced travel time by 10 hours and reduced cost by 40 per cent for passengers and 30 per cent for cargo. See the UN ESCAP 2005 Review.
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== Further Resources/Links ==
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= Further Resources/Links =
* '''Manual on Modernization of Inland Water Transport for Integration within a Multimodal Transport System '''(2004) - UNESCAP[http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/PubsDetail.asp?IDNO=144]
* '''Manual on Modernization of Inland Water Transport for Integration within a Multimodal Transport System '''(2004) - UNESCAP[http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/PubsDetail.asp?IDNO=144]
* '''Inland Water Transport''', World Bank resources (IWT) [http://www.worldbank.org/transport/ports/iwt_dev.htm]
* '''Inland Water Transport''', World Bank resources (IWT) [http://www.worldbank.org/transport/ports/iwt_dev.htm]
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* '''Forgotten Waterways''' - time to recognise the potential of water transport - id21 urban development, October 2005 [http://www.id21.org/id21ext/u3fa1g1.html].
* '''Forgotten Waterways''' - time to recognise the potential of water transport - id21 urban development, October 2005 [http://www.id21.org/id21ext/u3fa1g1.html].
* Inland Navigation: [http://www.inlandnavigation.org/p04_03.html Waterway links]
* Inland Navigation: [http://www.inlandnavigation.org/p04_03.html Waterway links]
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== Country examples ==
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* '''Review of Developments in Transport in the ESCAP Region, Asia and the Pacific, 2003''' - UNESCAP [http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/PubsDetail.asp?IDNO=141]. See '''Chapter 11: Inland Waterway Transport''' for an overview of the waterway system of the ESCAP region with emphasis on the vital role of its economic development. Details are provided on Bangladesh, China, [India, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Greater Mekong River system.
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* '''Review of Developments in Transport in Asia and the Pacific, 2005''' - UNESCAP, [http://www.unescap.org/ttdw/PubsDetail.asp?IDNO=178].
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* '''Good Practices on Strategic Planning and Management of Water Resources in Asia and the Pacific''', December 2005, UNESCAP, http://www.unescap.org/publications/detail.asp?id=1129 . The publication aims at providing practical application of the strategic planning and management approaches to the preparation of integrated water resources management plans at various levels. The good practices include the case studies in China, Fiji, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also contains a special summary of experiences in the Pacific.
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* '''Rural Water Transport Case Studies''' - Ten case studies on Rural Water Transport as part of the Waterways and Livelihoods Programme by the International Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFRTD) research project. Countries include: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Côte d’Ivoire, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Nicaragua, Peru, Uganda, Vietnam. http://www.ruralwaterways.org/case/case.htm.
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* '''Sustainable Inland Waterway Transport and European Development Guidelines on Danubean Navigable Network''', http://www.cemt.org/online/Water05/Radmilovic.pdf
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* '''The Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) Publications Database''', [http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/AFRICAEXT/EXTAFRREGTOPTRA/EXTAFRSUBSAHTRA/0,,contentMDK:20625565~menuPK:1531838~pagePK:64168445~piPK:64168309~theSitePK:1513930,00.html World Bank]. The SSATP is a partnership of countries, regional economic communities, public and private African institutions and organizations, international organizations and development partners dedicated to the goal of ensuring that transport contributes to the achievement of the developmental objectives of Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty reduction, pro-poor growth, and regional integration. The database contains over 390 different resources, including papers, notes, conference/meeting materials, country-specific documents, thematic documents, reports, and tools.
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== Rural Water Transport (RWT) ==
== Rural Water Transport (RWT) ==
* '''The Waterways and Livelihoods Programme''' - initiated in 2002 by an International Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFRTD) research project funded by DFID. The research project aimed to raise the profile of RWT in the transport sector and among development planners, increase it’s visibility as an issue, contribute to new knowledge about the impact of rural water transport upon poor people’s mobility and access needs, and highlight its potential benefits for the environment.  The project initiated research for case studies in 10 countries across Latin America, Africa and Asia [http://www.ruralwaterways.org/].
* '''The Waterways and Livelihoods Programme''' - initiated in 2002 by an International Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFRTD) research project funded by DFID. The research project aimed to raise the profile of RWT in the transport sector and among development planners, increase it’s visibility as an issue, contribute to new knowledge about the impact of rural water transport upon poor people’s mobility and access needs, and highlight its potential benefits for the environment.  The project initiated research for case studies in 10 countries across Latin America, Africa and Asia [http://www.ruralwaterways.org/].
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* '''Rural Water Transport, World Bank''', [http://www.worldbank.org/transport/rural_tr/ruralwtr.htm]
* '''Rural Water Transport, World Bank''', [http://www.worldbank.org/transport/rural_tr/ruralwtr.htm]
* '''Developing Rural Transport Policies & Strategies''',[http://www.worldbank.org/transport/rural_tr/p&s_docs/ruralp&s.pdf]. Prepared in the framework of the Rural Travel and Transport Program (RTTP) of the Africa region (Richard Robinson and George Banjo).
* '''Developing Rural Transport Policies & Strategies''',[http://www.worldbank.org/transport/rural_tr/p&s_docs/ruralp&s.pdf]. Prepared in the framework of the Rural Travel and Transport Program (RTTP) of the Africa region (Richard Robinson and George Banjo).
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== Environmentally Sustainable IWT ==
== Environmentally Sustainable IWT ==
* '''Integrated Coastal Area and River basin Management: conceptual framework and planning guidelines''', UN Environment Programme, Best Practices, Brazil, [http://hq.unep.org/bsgn/bsgn-reports.asp?id=2&documentType=Best%20Practice]
* '''Integrated Coastal Area and River basin Management: conceptual framework and planning guidelines''', UN Environment Programme, Best Practices, Brazil, [http://hq.unep.org/bsgn/bsgn-reports.asp?id=2&documentType=Best%20Practice]
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: - Third World Water Forum, 2003:  Inland Waterway Transport: An Option for Sustainable Future, A Supporting Note for The Water and Transport Theme
: - Third World Water Forum, 2003:  Inland Waterway Transport: An Option for Sustainable Future, A Supporting Note for The Water and Transport Theme
: - Third World Water Forum, 2003, Virtual Water Forum on “Inland Waterway Transport”, 23 October 2002, e-discussion summary [http://www.rfc.or.jp/IWT/vwf_draft_1023.htm]
: - Third World Water Forum, 2003, Virtual Water Forum on “Inland Waterway Transport”, 23 October 2002, e-discussion summary [http://www.rfc.or.jp/IWT/vwf_draft_1023.htm]
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== Recommended Contacts ==
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= Recommended Contacts =
* Dr John Holt, john@jaholt.freeserve.co.uk
* Dr John Holt, john@jaholt.freeserve.co.uk
* Dr. John McPherson- Canadian consulting firm called CPCS. Former team leader and economist for ADB's Inland Waterways study in India
* Dr. John McPherson- Canadian consulting firm called CPCS. Former team leader and economist for ADB's Inland Waterways study in India
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* Lieven Geerinck- Director of the Navigation Programme at the Mekong River Commission, based in Lao PDR/Cambodia, geerinck@mrcmekong.org
* Lieven Geerinck- Director of the Navigation Programme at the Mekong River Commission, based in Lao PDR/Cambodia, geerinck@mrcmekong.org
* Water Transport Team, UNESCAP [http://www.unescap.org/tctd/water/aboutus.htm]
* Water Transport Team, UNESCAP [http://www.unescap.org/tctd/water/aboutus.htm]
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== Previous Consolidated Replies ==
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= Previous Consolidated Replies =
* Consolidated Reply: Congo/Linking transportation development and poverty reduction/Les liens entre le developpement des transports et la reduction de la pauvrete, 11-Feb-05
* Consolidated Reply: Congo/Linking transportation development and poverty reduction/Les liens entre le developpement des transports et la reduction de la pauvrete, 11-Feb-05
* Consolidated Reply: Timor-Leste/Infrastructure Economists, 15-Jan-03,  This CR lists several infrastructure economists with short bios.
* Consolidated Reply: Timor-Leste/Infrastructure Economists, 15-Jan-03,  This CR lists several infrastructure economists with short bios.
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== See also ==
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== External Resources ==
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This article is based on the Consolidated Reply to the query (by UNDP Malaysia) on Inland Waterway Transportation Systems; referrals and comparitive experiences. 3 February 2006, prepared by Laurel Gascho, Henrike Peichert, and Sarah Renner.
This article is based on the Consolidated Reply to the query (by UNDP Malaysia) on Inland Waterway Transportation Systems; referrals and comparitive experiences. 3 February 2006, prepared by Laurel Gascho, Henrike Peichert, and Sarah Renner.
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[[Category:Asia & Pacific]]
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Revision as of 07:12, 20 December 2009

Contents

Summary

Inland water transport(IWT) is one of the oldest economically and environmentally sustainable modes of transportation for passengers and cargo; and in some areas the only means of mobility and access to basic services. The sector encompasses vessels ranging from simple non-motorized boats to highly automated pushers, operating on waterways ranging from small tributaries to major rivers.


A specific sub-sector that has received particular attention is Rural Water Transport (i.e. inland water transport that is used by poor people) due to its potential to help reduce isolation and thus poverty. Rural Water Transport (RWT) mostly consists of small family owned boats or canoes that operate on river and canal networks. Such boats are used to provide transport services, trading opportunities, employment and food (through fishing and access to markets).

Highlights

Inland waterways play a vital role in economic development, especially for remote rural areas. While the potential role for this sector depends considerably on the specific regional context, such as geographical conditions, level of road development, and socio-economic conditions, the following highlights some general advantages of inland waterway transport (IWT) noted by contributors (and supported by the International Forum for Rural Transport and Development research):

  • Cost advantages - Water transport can be a very cost effective alternative to road transportation as the transport network already exists naturally and often requires no or little improvement to be functional. Many industries such as construction, mining, and forestry rely on low cost transportation through inland waterway systems to reach the market. For Rural Water Transport in particular, landing facilities are often not required for small vessels and, if required, may be relatively low-cost. Investing in small improvement of the water transport system along with the promoting of improvement to existing means of transport may be a very low-cost and low maintenance opportunity.
  • Reduce isolation - Investment in rural waterways' technologies, infrastructure, and services has the potential to reduce the isolation of the very poor. Inland waterways provide the only viable means of transport to access vital services such as schools, health centers, markets, government services, and clean water for many remote underprivileged communities who would be inaccessible or too costly to service by other means, particularly in the Asia Pacific region. Viet Nam provides an innovative example, where boat ambulances have been established to bring health services to people, and boats that take children to and from school.
  • Enhancing economic opportunities / Employment - Water transport is important for direct employment, such as boat building and fishing livelihoods, as well indirectly, allowing poor people to access employment in the cities while living in less expensive locations. Increased mobility also plays a key role in supporting livelihoods by providing rural producers, such as farmers and fisherman, a means to access their end-markets. For example, in Bangladesh some four million people are thought to earn their living transporting foods and passengers along the country's waterways, providing an estimated 60% of all employment in the transport sector.
  • 'Economically and ecologically sustainable transport solution - IWT is considered an environmentally friendly, energy-efficient and low-emission transport mode - that enables in particular bulk transport at a lower emission discharge than road transport - and can play a key role in establishing sustainable transport systems. A shift from road transport to IWT for both cargo and passengers usually contributes to more efficient use of resources and energy. For example, the government of in Thailand has pursued the expansion of commuter services on waterways around Bangkok to relieve the extreme road traffic congestion in the city.

Challenges

Despite the vital role of this sector, inland water transport systems have not yet reached their full potential in the Asia Pacific region, which is an area generously endowed with navigable inland waterways but has experienced latent capacity and inadequate investment. In all regions, IWT has been neglected and remains outside the mainstream transport and development planning, often overshadowed by other sectors such as road transport

Some of the inherent challenges facing the sector noted by contributions and emphasized in research by UN ESCAP, include:

  • Research / Data deficiencies - Beyond long haul, interurban commercial transport, little data on use by people living along waterways, both major and secondary, are available. The 2003 ESCAP review of developments in transport in the region found a lack of data to adequately assess the role of inland water transport in passenger transportation while a World Bank data review and other studies have produced widely conflicting statistical information on Rural Water Transport. Commonly used infrastructure indicators calculated as a way to measure transport service access are heavily biased towards road transport - roads per person; closest mode of transport; road density; percent of paved roads to total roads; rail density. As a result of data deficiencies, it is difficult to quantify the economic importance of the sector or establish trends on which to base policy.
  • Prevailing perceptions - The lack of accurate data reflects a lack of official interest in the sector. This is mainly due to the commonly-cited perception of policy makers, planners and developers of this mode of transport as slow, old-fashioned and outdated. Rural Water Transport in particular is often viewed as an indication of rural backwardness. As a result, even where inland water transport enjoys favorable conditions, the sector is often ignored by existing government transport regulations and investments are markedly lower than its market share.
  • Limitations in speed and geographical reach - By its nature, the inland water transport network is limited. To function, it depends on an interface with land transport, which further slows down the process and increases its overall cost. A lack of public investment in docking facilities increases the inefficiency, as much time may be wasted loading and off-loading passengers and cargo.
  • High dependence on environmental conditions - Inland water transportation also suffers from the pronounced influence of current hydro-meteorological conditions, as navigable waterways dramatically reduce in many regions during the dry season.
  • Safety - Safety is often compromised because RWT tends to be ignored by existing government transport regulations and environmental safety standards.
  • Institutional bias - The institutional environment is often biased against the sector, as hidden subsidies disguise the costs of road transport and create the illusion of RWT as unviable alternative. Moreover, waterway users and operators lack the organizational and lobbying power to influence government decisions.
  • Environmental concerns - Certain environmental problems & risks associated with IWT include canalization & dredging (reactivation of polluted sediments into surface waters); shipping operations (pollution through oil spills; noise pollution; risks of accidents with dangerous cargoes); and import of invasive species: (bacteria and other microbes, small invertebrates and the eggs, cysts and larvae of various species): the introduction of invasive species into new aquatic environments by ships (through the ship's ballast water, attached to ships’ hulls and via other vectors).


As a result of the neglect of inland water transport in mainstream planning, irrigation, energy, and land transport interventions are often planned without consideration of their impact on traditional waterways (ie. bridges built without determining required height). Studies by the International Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFRTD) found that the consequence of RWT neglect has resulted in the deterioration of traditional thoroughfares, conflicts between waterway use and land transport interventions, lost opportunities for poor people to improve their livelihoods through access to basic services and economic opportunities, and the lost potential to develop ecologically and financially sustainable transport technologies.

Strategy for Inland Waterway Transportation System

The preparation of a Masterplan for an Inland Waterway Transportation System should be considered a component of a broader strategy and policy for the transport sector of the region. Such a strategy would begin with a general transport strategy and policy (goals objectives, and guidelines addressing issues of infrastructure, safety, environment, management, and the institutional and legal framework) followed by the goals and objectives in road, railway inland waterway, and intermodal and combined traffic and transport. Short, medium, and long term planning should be undertaken which includes an assessment of the investment requirements of studies at various levels, particularly for IWT Sector in the region.


Zoran Radmilovic has outlined ten key areas to address in the development of a Master Plan and Feasibility, under the following categories (see below for specific details):

1. Inception Report

2. Traffic and Cargo

3. Inland waterway transport network

4. Port development

5. Legal and institutional framework for IWT

6. Environment

7. Radio and other communication systems

8. Economic and financial evaluation

9. Field survey report and inventory structures

10. Conclusion, education and training, recommendations, proposals, and guidelines


The planning of inland waterway transport is extremely complex, as it is one of the many facets of water resources and part of the overall industrial or commercial fabric. To be sustainable, inland waterway transport planning must also be considered as an integral part of water resource planning. An isolated approach would disregard the interdependence of waterway development projects, which touch upon everything from public water supply; flood control; agriculture & irrigation; power generation; fisheries to tourism development. Excellent results can be achieved at low cost for countries, by the simultaneous development of a river for all of these purposes (power, flood control, navigation, irrigation, industrial/urban uses, beautification and recreation).

River Classification System

The main aim of a system of classification should be to ensure the orderly and efficient control and maintenance of waterways. To begin, an inventory of existing infrastructure and transport must be prepared as the base of a sound classification system. This inventory should include numerous quantitative aspects (e.g. minimum depths, width, and vertical clearance of waterways, marking and minimum equipment with navigational aids, and number of vessels), as well as qualitative aspects (e.g. the state of infrastructure and the fleet, transport performance). Data difficulties can be often quite substantial.

An adequate classification system could be based both on the characteristics of the waterway and according to the “normal” size of vessel or integrated barge tow ensuring permanent navigability. Each waterway class: I, II, … has its standardized vessel (type, length, beam, draught and carrying capacities to loading draught and minimum height under bridges) or limited standardized integrated barge tow (formation and number of barges in tow, total length of barge tow plus pushboat, total beam of barge tow, draught of most loaded barge in tow and barge tow capacity in loaded state and minimum height under bridges) corresponding to the waterway conditions. The classification of European inland waterways provides an example of these principles.

Integrations with other modes of transportation

Due to the limited geographical reach of inland water transport systems and the dependence on an interface with other modes of transport, planning an integrated strategy is essential. Investing in improvements in inter-modal connections between cost-effective inland waterway transportation, faster railways, and more elastic road transportation will significantly improve the efficiency of IWT and the overall transport system. Treated in isolation, road infrastructure can often threaten the use of traditional waterways, such as when bridges are built without consideration for the height needed to accommodate waterway vessels.


The effective implementation of inland waterway transport in combined, intermodal and multimodal transport may first require efforts to increase the visibility of IWT with key decision makers and change perceptions of the sector. It also requires investment in infrastructure as well as overall structural changes ranging from new trade and transport practices to a revision and regional harmonization of different procedures, such as a navigation regime covering legal, technical, safety and market requirements concerning the river shipping, ports and waterways needed in rendering transportation services on the waterways.


The UN ESCAP Manual on Modernization of Inland Water Transport for Integration within a Multimodal Transport System (2004) discusses infrastructure planning for IWT for multimodal operations in detail (including, inter alia, waterway requirements and terminals; latest technology to connect IWT with other transport modes; integrating IWT in multimodal legal instruments and infrastructure planning and construction; setting up customs within inland ports; and incentives given on the legislative side).

Expanding Economic Usage of River Transport

The usage of the Sarawak IWT network for “tourism on the water” has the potential to generate considerable income for the local economies and additional income from tourist taxes for regional and federal governments. For example, in India's Southern State of Kerala, 2000 people are employed in houseboats and other motorboats that cruise the inland waterways filled with tourists.

A study on the potential economic expansion of IWT around tourism could consider the existing situation of tourism in the region, particularly “water tourism”; a forecast of the tourism market in the region; a review of the tourist fleet including ferry ships, cruises, yachting, sport boats and nautical tourism services, fishing, etc; and a review of passenger ports and marina development.

Expanding the usage of the IWT for tourism can be efficiently included as one objective of broader plans to improve waterways for economic development. For example, in the Philippines the "Nautical Highway System" was established to enhance investment opportunities for agro-industrial, commerce, trade and tourism, and also provide efficient and convenient travel movement of local and international tourists and investors through shorter travel time and cheaper transportation costs. The UN ESCAP 2005 Review provides experiences from a number of countries in this area.

Developing river transport also provides an opportunity to ensure the economic benefits of increased national trade reach the regions inland. For example, China has witnessed a large increase in trade over the past two decades but the vast majority of this has been within coastal provinces. The Government of China has sought to reduce the disparity by improving the transport infrastructure of the connecting areas, developing intermodal links along selected corridors between gateway ports and inland destinations

Pro-poor considerations

The design and appraisal of rural transport should consider:

  • Least-Cost Design - To provide as many poor rural dwellers as possible with basic access and considering low (motorized) traffic levels, it is necessary to apply "least-cost" design approaches (e.g. minimizing total life-cycle costs for investment and maintenance).
  • Participatory Selection Process - To create the local ownership necessary for sustainability, the planning and appraisal process for rural transport infrastructure must be participative. Planning and appraisal tools must be designed and applied jointly with responsible local government planners and/or the local communities. One of the key tools for the participatory process is the preparation of a District/Local Government Transport Master Plan (see for example, Developing a Local Government Transport Masterplan: Case Study , J. Lebo, World Bank (1999).
  • Screening and Ranking Methods - Screening based on poverty criteria might be necessary to single out poverty areas where access is particularly poor and incomes low. Ranking of possible alternatives is necessary in view of limited budgets.
  • Economic Appraisal Methodologies - For low volume routes, it is suggested that cost-effectiveness criteria (in particular, total life-cycle cost of investment per populations served) should be used to rank investments in rural transport infrastructure when the main objective of the intervention is poverty alleviation. In case of economic investment objectives, cost-benefit approaches may be appropriate. It is suggested that the provision of basic access to communities with no or unreliable access should have priority over investments into upgrading of existing infrastructure to a higher standard.
  • Questions to consider (in adopting subsidies, pricing controls, licensing fees, infrastructure building, service monitoring, etc.) include: Who are the poor customers?; How do they currently obtain/consume services?; What can they afford (rather than are willing) to pay?; How are poorer communities organized and what outlets exist for them to voice their interests?; What do they expect from the services?

Safety and environmental protection considerations

IWT planning should address:

  • Fostering cooperation between national agencies responsible for water and transport and navigation purposes to ensure integrative policy planning;
  • Developing & harmonizing quality & risk controls (i.e. River Information Systems), establishing monitoring systems for water quality;
  • Integration of all waters (surface, groundwater, costal waters; catchments) into IWT planning;
  • Monitoring transport and handling of dangerous cargo; control and emergency preparedness and management plans for deliberate spills (oil; bilge water; organic substances);
  • Implementing ballast water control and management measures;
  • Establishing waste and waste water reception facilities in ports;

Additional Suggestions

  • More comparative research on the social, economic, and environmental characteristics of different transport systems, is needed to generate information for policy-makers
  • Transport regulations need to be extended to cover waterways and vessels, to overcome the perception of it being unsafe
  • When addressing Rural Water Transport, dependence on imported technologies should be minimized, to ensure reliable operation, maintenance and repair within local communities
  • Consider examples of innovative good practice such as Vietnam's boat ambulances and floating courts bringing legal services to remote communities of the Amazon

Country Examples

Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, IWT provides access to basic socio-economic needs and services for millions of people, as a cheaper and more accessible mode of transport. The importance of national transport has been reflected in the national budget, as it received the largest allocation of the annual development budget in 2000-2001 at 22%. Initiatives under the five-year plan of the Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority (BIWTA) include increasing waterway depths through dredgers, channel widening, and major overhauls to work vessels; new waterways introduced around urban areas to improve and expand movement opportunities; and new infrastructure facilities that include additional passenger terminals. The major share of funds were allocated to annual dredging program. More details available through the UN ESCAP 2003 Review and the IFRTD Bangladesh case study on Rural Water Transport.

Indonesia

The Center for Transportation and Logistics Studies (PUSTRAL) Gadjah Mada University, a rural transport forum under the Indonesia Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFGRTD) has conducted research on rural waterway in several locations in Indonesia with similar conditions to Malaysia. In 2003 - 2004, they developed a system called "Buy The Service" for rural waterways to be included in rural water transport master plan in Indonesia. The objective of this system is to achieve high quality service in remote areas with reasonable price (by encouraging competition among the operators). This is achieved by tendering a system of water transport based on quality service provided by operators to customers. The advantages of this system is: flexible tariff (based on the destination), integrated ticket (for tourist, visitors) and pre-paid system (off boat transaction to avoid leakage and mafia operation). See also the UN ESCAP 2003 Review for details of the sixth and seventh Five-Year Plans and the Indonesia case study on Rural Water Transport.

China

With an inland waterway system of more than 5600 navigable rivers and 2000 inland ports, China has the most developed ICT subsector in the region. IWT development thrust is being concentrated on 5 specific areas (Yangtze river, Pearl River, Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta). A $220 million project, with World Bank funding, aimed at bringing greater prosperity to a region where 6 million people live at subsistence level. The funds were directed at power generating dams, by-passing ship locking systems, and a deeper waterway throughout the system permitting large vessels to undertake trade. Other notable initiatives include the vast Three Gorges project, which will improve electric power and navigation safety and reduce transportation costs; and development along the Hang-Yong Canal, connecting a network of six rivers with the country's largest river. The emphasis in plans for the construction and development of the inland waterway network over the next decade is being placed on inland port development, and the construction of 20 inland river channels in major north-south and east-west corridors and localize networks. See the UN ESCAP 2003 Review for more details.


The World Bank has been involved in various large scale inland waterway projects, involving financing and technical assistance. A US$ 100 million World Bank supported project was approved in October 2005 (Inland Waterways). The major objective of this project is to enhance the standard of living in the Han River region, by developing its potential water resources, which includes increasing the waterway transport capacity along the Han River, with a particular focus on cost-effectiveness and ensuring the availability of sustainable hydropower and water resources in the Xiangfan area, and Tangdong region. Project document Contact: Melissa Fossberg, mfossberg@worldbank.org . Overall, the Bank sees this an important area to alleviate poverty in poor provinces by sustaining non-farm jobs (carriage of coal, timber, construction materials and other quarried bulks), but the Chinese government has not sought extensive national-level policy dialogue.

India

The Government of India is committed to the development of IWT as a viable and energy efficiency mode of transport. The Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) was constituted in 1986 for development and regulation of inland waterways for shipping and navigation. The Authority primarily undertakes projects for development and maintenance of IWT infrastructure on national waterways through grant received from Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways. The Government has also formulated an IWT policy (see http://iwai.nic.in/iwtpolicy.htm) with a view to accelerate IWT development and encourage private sector participation in IWT sector. Further, the States were given liberal grant under ‘centrally sponsored schemes’ for development of IWT mode. See also the UN ESCAP 2003 Review and the IFRTD India case study on Rural Water Transport.

Philippines

Foreign trade has increased rapidly within the Philippines as a result of globalization in the past two decades. However, these benefits were initially seen within coastal regions and particular islands rather than being broadly dispersed among geographic areas. The Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) for 2005-2010 was developed as an attempt to provide for the prioritization and development of Roll-on Roll-off (RO-RO) shipping through the establishment of the Nautical Highway System composed of the Western, Eastern and Central Nautical Highway System. The project aims to enhance investment opportunities for agro-industrial, commerce, trade and tourism, and also provide efficient and convenient travel movement of local and international tourists and investors through shorter travel time and cheaper transportation costs. In particular, the nautical highway aims to accelerate the development of the country's southern islands by opening an alternative and low-cost trade, travel, and tourism route in the country's looming western growth corridor by making Oriental Mindoro as its gateway. The nautical highway system, which was introduced in 2003 to maximize the use of the RORO system, has reduced travel time by 10 hours and reduced cost by 40 per cent for passengers and 30 per cent for cargo. See the UN ESCAP 2005 Review.


Further Resources/Links

  • Manual on Modernization of Inland Water Transport for Integration within a Multimodal Transport System (2004) - UNESCAP[1]
  • Inland Water Transport, World Bank resources (IWT) [2]
  • Some Proposals for Development of Inland Waterway Transportation System of Malaysia (Sarawak), Prof. Zoran Radmilović, University of Belgrade, [3]
  • Forgotten Waterways - time to recognise the potential of water transport - id21 urban development, October 2005 [4].
  • Inland Navigation: Waterway links

Country examples

  • Review of Developments in Transport in the ESCAP Region, Asia and the Pacific, 2003 - UNESCAP [5]. See Chapter 11: Inland Waterway Transport for an overview of the waterway system of the ESCAP region with emphasis on the vital role of its economic development. Details are provided on Bangladesh, China, [India, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Greater Mekong River system.
  • Review of Developments in Transport in Asia and the Pacific, 2005 - UNESCAP, [6].
  • Good Practices on Strategic Planning and Management of Water Resources in Asia and the Pacific, December 2005, UNESCAP, http://www.unescap.org/publications/detail.asp?id=1129 . The publication aims at providing practical application of the strategic planning and management approaches to the preparation of integrated water resources management plans at various levels. The good practices include the case studies in China, Fiji, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam. It also contains a special summary of experiences in the Pacific.
  • Rural Water Transport Case Studies - Ten case studies on Rural Water Transport as part of the Waterways and Livelihoods Programme by the International Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFRTD) research project. Countries include: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Côte d’Ivoire, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Nicaragua, Peru, Uganda, Vietnam. http://www.ruralwaterways.org/case/case.htm.
  • Sustainable Inland Waterway Transport and European Development Guidelines on Danubean Navigable Network, http://www.cemt.org/online/Water05/Radmilovic.pdf
  • The Sub-Saharan Africa Transport Policy Program (SSATP) Publications Database, World Bank. The SSATP is a partnership of countries, regional economic communities, public and private African institutions and organizations, international organizations and development partners dedicated to the goal of ensuring that transport contributes to the achievement of the developmental objectives of Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty reduction, pro-poor growth, and regional integration. The database contains over 390 different resources, including papers, notes, conference/meeting materials, country-specific documents, thematic documents, reports, and tools.

Rural Water Transport (RWT)

  • The Waterways and Livelihoods Programme - initiated in 2002 by an International Forum for Rural Transport and Development (IFRTD) research project funded by DFID. The research project aimed to raise the profile of RWT in the transport sector and among development planners, increase it’s visibility as an issue, contribute to new knowledge about the impact of rural water transport upon poor people’s mobility and access needs, and highlight its potential benefits for the environment. The project initiated research for case studies in 10 countries across Latin America, Africa and Asia [7].
  • Rural Inland Water Transport: Rural Transport Infrastructure Research, Royal Government of Cambodia/ ILO, Technical Assistance to the Labour-Based Rural Infrastructure Works Programme, January 2001[8].
  • Rural Water Transport, World Bank, [9]
  • Developing Rural Transport Policies & Strategies,[10]. Prepared in the framework of the Rural Travel and Transport Program (RTTP) of the Africa region (Richard Robinson and George Banjo).

Environmentally Sustainable IWT

  • Integrated Coastal Area and River basin Management: conceptual framework and planning guidelines, UN Environment Programme, Best Practices, Brazil, [11]
  • Global Ballast Water Management Programme (GloBallast) - GEF/UNDP/IMO, [12]
  • Ad Hoc Expert Group Meeting on Networking of Inland Water Transport and Dredging Institutions, Bangkok, Thailand, July 2003 - UNESCAP, Meeting Report, , 2003 (Contact: Liyw.unescap@un.org)
  • Sustainable development of inland water transport in the Asian and Pacific region, policy statement[13] - UNESCAP, 1999:
  • United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Transport Division, Transport and Infrastructure Development Section[14]
  • Pan-European Co-operation towards a Strong Inland Waterway Transport: On the Move - ECMT-UNECE-Rhine and Danube River Commissions Workshop* , Paris, 22-23 September 2005 - UNECE, http://www.cemt.org/online/Water05
  • Environmental Impact of Inland Shipping and Waterway Development, Draft Final Report [15]. The European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT) initiated this desk-study examining existing approaches towards and challenges for environmental protection in the development of inland waterway transport
- Leaflet Inland waterway transport - a transport solution that works
- Leaflet: River Information Services
- Consultation: An Action programme for Inland Waterway Transport: The European Commission intends to present a Communication on the promotion of Inland Waterway Transport by the end of 2005. The Communication will set out an integrated action programme, focusing on concrete actions which are needed to fully exploit the market potential of inland navigation
- Conference: Waterways of Tomorrow, 9 December 2003, Brussels European Commission, DG Environment: Sustainable development of waterways: EU legislation for protection
  • Third World Water Forum 2003:
- Third World Water Forum, 2003: Water and Transport website – statements and presentations for download [16]
- Japanese Section of International Navigation Association: Water Transport as Sustainable Traffic System and Its Efficiency – Contact: Tadashi ASAI, asai-t86s3@mlit.go.jp [17]
- Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management of the Netherlands & US Army Corps of Engineers: Waterways, Transport, and Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) - Recommendations ; Contact: Dick de Bruin, Dutch Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, d.dbruin@hkw.rws.minvenw.nl [18]
- Third World Water Forum, 2003: Inland Waterway Transport: An Option for Sustainable Future, A Supporting Note for The Water and Transport Theme
- Third World Water Forum, 2003, Virtual Water Forum on “Inland Waterway Transport”, 23 October 2002, e-discussion summary [19]

Recommended Contacts

  • Dr John Holt, john@jaholt.freeserve.co.uk
  • Dr. John McPherson- Canadian consulting firm called CPCS. Former team leader and economist for ADB's Inland Waterways study in India
  • Professor Peter Mackie- Institute for Transport Studies, Leeds University, UK, p.j.mackie@its.leeds.ac.uk
  • Stephen Jones- Director of Economic Policy - Oxford Policy Management Consultants. stephen.jones@opml.co.uk.
  • Tyrrell Duncan- ADB Task Manager for project "Assessing the Impact of Transport and Energy Infrastructure on Poverty Reduction, tduncan@adb.org.
  • Colin Palmer- WB Water Transport Consultant – project Madagascar Water Transport Assessment Report,colinpalmer@blueyonder.co.uk
  • Arif Wismadi- International Forum for Rural Transport and Development, pustral-ugm@indo.net.id
  • Zoran Radmilović, Head of Division of Inland Waterway Transport and Traffic; Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, University of Belgrade, z.radmilovic@sf.bg.ac.yu
  • Hay & Company Consultants Inc.[20] provide engineering design and analytical services for a wide variety of river engineering projects, including improvement of navigable waterways in coastal rivers [21]
  • Lieven Geerinck- Director of the Navigation Programme at the Mekong River Commission, based in Lao PDR/Cambodia, geerinck@mrcmekong.org
  • Water Transport Team, UNESCAP [22]

Previous Consolidated Replies

  • Consolidated Reply: Congo/Linking transportation development and poverty reduction/Les liens entre le developpement des transports et la reduction de la pauvrete, 11-Feb-05
  • Consolidated Reply: Timor-Leste/Infrastructure Economists, 15-Jan-03, This CR lists several infrastructure economists with short bios.



Source(s)

This article is based on the Consolidated Reply to the query (by UNDP Malaysia) on Inland Waterway Transportation Systems; referrals and comparitive experiences. 3 February 2006, prepared by Laurel Gascho, Henrike Peichert, and Sarah Renner.



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