FYR Macedonia

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FYR Macedonia is part of:
Balkans · Europe & CIS · South East Europe ·
Water Basins of FYR Macedonia:
Danube · Drin · Krka · Lake Prespa · Struma · Vardar ·
Facts & Figures edit
Capital Skopje
Neighbouring Countries Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Kosovo, Serbia
Total Area 25,333 km2
  - Water 477 km2 (1.88%) / 188 m2/ha
  - Land 24,856 km2
Coastline 0 km
Population 2,061,315 (81 inhab./km2)
HDIA 0.808 (2007)
Gini CoefficientA 39 (1995)
Nominal GDPB $9,624 million
GDP (PPP) Per CapitaB $9,200
National UN Presence FAO, UNDP, UNHCR, WHO, UNICEF, WB
Land UseC
  - Cultivated Land km2 (%)
     - Arable km2 (22.26%)
     - Permanent Crops km2 (1.81%)
     - Irrigated 550 km2
  - Non cultivated km2 (75.93%)
Average Annual RainfallD 619 mm
Renewable Water ResourcesE 6.4 km3
Water WithdrawalsF km3/yr
  - For Agricultural Use n/a
  - For Domestic Use n/a
  - For Industrial Use n/a
  - Per Capita m3
Population with safe access to
  - Improved Water Source n/a
     - Urban population n/a
     - Rural population n/a
  - Improved Sanitation n/a
     - Urban population n/a
     - Rural population n/a
References & Remarks
A UNDP Human Development Report
B CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia
C CIA World Factbook Country Profiles
D Aquastat - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
E CIA World Factbook
F Earthtrends

> Articles | Projects & Case studies | Publications & Web resources | Who is who | Maps
> Sector Assessment | Sector Coordination | Donor Profile

Latest 4 maps for / including FYR Macedonia (more..):

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Country Profile: Climate, Geography, Socio-Economic Context

Country Profile: Water Bodies and Resources

Waters are approximately 2% of the territory of Macedonia. There are about 35 rivers and 53 natural and artificial lakes. In relations to quantities of water resources, Macedonia belongs to areas that have sufficient water resources. However, their distribution is quite unequal. Rivers belong to 6 river basins: River Vardar - 20.535km2, River Crn Drim 3.350km2, River Strumica 1.535km2, Dojran Lake 120km2, River Lebnicka 129km2 and River Binacka Morava 44km2.

The flow of water from one river basin into another is quite important for the environment. Such flows exist from the basin of River Radika into the basin of River Vardar (through the Mavrovo hydro-electric plant) and from the basin of the River Bregalnica into the basin of River Strumica (from water accumulation Mantovo). Other flows are planned for the future such as: from the basin of River Vardar into the River Treska, from the basin of River Pcinja into Ovco Pole etc.).

Basin - implies part of the territory where the water from the atmospheric rainfalls, from the underwater springs and sources flow together into the sea. In Macedonia such basins are: the Aegian, the Black Sea and the Adriatic. Only an insignificant part of the territory of the neighbouring countries (10%) belong to these basins. The Aegian basin comprises 87% of the waters of the Republic of Macedonia.

FYR Macedonia has four main hydrographic catchments areas or basins and about 98 percent of its territory is in international basins shared with all neighboring countries: Serbia and Montenegro, Greece, Albania, and Bulgaria. Water resources are unevenly distributed over time and space. This unbalanced distribution causes shortages of water in many localities, particularly in the Strumica catchment area, where the lack of water affects all economic activities and threatens human health. About 40 percent of the demand is not met during an average dry year and water quality has been reported below biological minimum standards in periods when the rivers dry up.

Macedonia has three large tectonic lakes. The largest of the tectonic lakes is Lake Ohrid located in the Drin catchment area, with a surface area of 357 square kilometres. (About one third of its surface lies in Albania.) This lake is more than 2 million years old and is home to many unique species.

Country Profile: Legal and Institutional Environment

The main piece of legislation on water resources management is the 1998 Law on Water and its several by-laws. The Law on Water defines the management and control of water use, protection and prevention of water contamination, protection against floods, as well as financing of water management activities. The law introduces the following important instruments and institutions: the creation of a water fund to finance water resources development and works of public interest; establishment of public water management enterprises and water users' associations; introduction of wastewater standards and pollution charges according to the polluter-pay principle; and appointment of water management inspectors. So far only the Water Fund has been set up.

Country Profile: Water Sector Coordination

See Sector coordination sub-page for detailed description

Country Profile: Trends in Water Use, Management and Sanitation

The quality of drinking water in rural settlements is a serious concern. Monitoring of groundwater sources used for drinking conducted by the Ministry of Health reveals that although no serious sanitary-hygiene problems exist, about 5 percent of the monitored wells have experienced microbiological contamination. Since they have failed to meet the quality limits, they cannot be used for drinking.

With regards to transboundary water management, Macedonia is placing a high priority on cooperation for the management and use of transboundary rivers and lakes shared with its neighbouring countries. Cooperation with Albania is well advanced in relation to the management and protection of Lake Ohrid. Greece was recently added to the cooperation agreement since part of the watershed of Lake Ohrid lies in Greece.

Country Profile: Challenges and Opportunities


Recently updated articles on FYR Macedonia
  1. FYR Macedonia/publications ‎(1,252 views) . . WikiBot
  2. FYR Macedonia/articles ‎(1,223 views) . . WikiBot
  3. FYR Macedonia/who is who ‎(1,207 views) . . WikiBot
  4. FYR Macedonia/Maps ‎(1,019 views) . . WikiBot
  5. FYR Macedonia/projects ‎(1,211 views) . . WikiBot
  6. Situation in South-Eastern Europe ‎(7,364 views) . . WikiBot
  7. Financial aspects of water supply and sanitation in transboundary waters of South-Eastern Europe ‎(3,171 views) . . Katy.norman

See the complete list of WaterWiki articles on FYR Macedonia

Projects and Case Studies

Projects in or about FYR Macedonia

(this is a list of the 15 most recently updated entries. To see all projects click here)

  1. Strengthening capacities in the Western Balkans countries to address environmental problems ‎(3,082 views) . . WikiBot
  2. Modern methods for managing organic waste in Lake Prespa, Macedonia ‎(2,468 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Emergency Response to the Mining Tailings spills in Macedonia's Kamenicka river ‎(2,662 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Adapting the fishing village area as pilot centre for endangered fish stock, Macedonia ‎(2,983 views) . . WikiBot

Case studies in or about FYR Macedonia

(by popularity)

  1. Macedonia - Integrated Water Resources Management in the Prespa region through participatory processes and dialogue ‎(65,935 views) . . Katy.norman

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented projects in FYR Macedonia


5 most recently updated publications on FYR Macedonia
  1. Environmental Performance Review Chapter 6 Water Management Including Protection of Lakes ‎(3,445 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Good Community Practices: Prespa Lake Park ‎(1,877 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Assessment of the Management of Shared Lake Basins in Southeastern Europe ‎(3,978 views) . . WikiBot

5 most popular publications on FYR Macedonia
  1. Assessment of the Management of Shared Lake Basins in Southeastern Europe ‎(3,978 views) . . WikiBot
  2. Environmental Performance Review Chapter 6 Water Management Including Protection of Lakes ‎(3,445 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Good Community Practices: Prespa Lake Park ‎(1,877 views) . . Katy.norman

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented publications on FYR Macedonia

Who is Who

People working in FYR Macedonia
  1. Zlatko.samardziev ‎(3,728 views)
  2. Anita.kodzoman ‎(5,265 views)
  3. Alvin.Lopez ‎(4,311 views)
  4. Akihito.kono ‎(1,634 views)

See the complete list of Waterwiki users working in FYR Macedonia

Organizations working in FYR Macedonia

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See the complete list of WaterWiki documented organizations in FYR Macedonia


See also

External Resources

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