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Madagascar is part of:
Africa · Eastern Africa · Indian Ocean Islands ·
Water Basins of Madagascar:
Congo-Zaire ·
Facts & Figures edit
Capital Antananarivo
Neighbouring Countries Mozambique
Total Area 587,040 km2
  - Water 5,500 km2 (0.94%) / 94 m2/ha
  - Land 581,540 km2
Coastline 4,828 km
Population 18,605,920 (32 inhab./km2)
HDIA 0.533 (2007)
Gini CoefficientA 47.5 (1995)
Nominal GDPB $9,729 million
GDP (PPP) Per CapitaB $1,100
Land UseC
  - Cultivated Land 35,183 km2 (6.05%)
     - Arable 29,251 km2 (5.03%)
     - Permanent Crops 5,932 km2 (1.02%)
     - Irrigated 10,860 km2
  - Non cultivated 100,256 km2 (93.95%)
Average Annual RainfallD 1513 mm
Renewable Water ResourcesE 337 km3
Water WithdrawalsF 14.96 km3/yr
  - For Agricultural Use 96%
  - For Domestic Use 3%
  - For Industrial Use 2%
  - Per Capita 924 m3
Population with safe access to
  - Improved Water Source 46%
     - Urban population 77%
     - Rural population 35%
  - Improved Sanitation 32%
     - Urban population 48%
     - Rural population 26%
References & Remarks
A UNDP Human Development Report
B CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia
C CIA World Factbook Country Profiles
D Aquastat - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
E CIA World Factbook
F Earthtrends

> Articles | Projects & Case studies | Publications & Web resources | Who is who | Maps
> Sector Assessment | Sector Coordination | Donor Profile

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Country Profile: Climate, Geography, Socio-Economic Context

Country Profile: Water Bodies and Resources

Both water supply and electricity services in Madagascar are provided mainly through the combined utility, JIRAMA. Problems with JIRAMA ‘s ability to provide both services led to a program of utility and sector reform in the late 1990s through to the present. The reforms included a restructuring of JIRAMA to conform to commercial principles, promulgation of a new Water Law (1999), and all related by-laws (by 2005). A rate have gradually increased, although not to cost recovery levels, and in 2005 a Service Contract was put in place to address some of JIRAMA’s institutional weaknesses including financial management, investment planning, and operational strategies. Legislation passed to allow for a distinct regulatory agency, but regulatory functions are still practiced by the Ministry of Energy and Mining.

In 2005, the National Program for Safe Water Supply and Sanitation (PNAEPA) was adopted with the objective of meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDGs) targets by 2015. The challenge for Madagascar now, is the synchronization of the national budget with medium-term WSS improvement program planning and significantly increasing sector capacity. A Sanitation Policy was developed in 2006 and a WASH program was put in place in 2002. It is estimated that only about 20 percent of the population has access to piped sewerage or septic tanks – the remainder rely on on-site sanitation. Despite the reform program underway, only 50 percent of the population has access to safe water in the JIRAMA-served areas and only 20 percent of the population has access nationwide.

Country Profile: Legal and Institutional Environment

Key Agencies in Madagascar's Water Sector
Key Agencies in Madagascar's Water Sector

The Ministry of Energy and Mining’s (MEM) Directorate of Water and Sanitation (DEA) is responsible for developing and promulgating water and sanitation policy, assessing water resources, and providing oversight to JIRAMA and other water supply undertakings. Water service in urban areas is primarily provided by JIRAMA, a commercialized water and electric utility, while local commune-based service providers (Collectivites Decentralisees or CDs) and user associations provide water services in rural areas. Sanitation is a municipal/local responsibility in both urban and rural areas. Government contributions to the PNAEPA have been promising with approximately 40 percent of the programs funding coming from the government of Madagascar. Still, the funding gap and the ability of the government to adequately absorb and effectively manage outside donor contributions is cause for concern. To increase the WSS sector’s ability to mobilize additional funding, capacity building for financial management must be increased. Finally, Madagascar uses a computerized M&E system to more efficiently track WSS sector improvements, but defining rates of access has not been uniform. The confusion of terms, concepts, and survey methodology to track WSS improvements has contributed to a limited understanding of the impact of WSS sector investments.

Multiple new institutions were created under the 2002 Water Act. To fully implement the reforms, additional human resources, management training, and financial resources are required to effectively scale-up WSS service. Key to success is the adoption of the draft Sector Investment Plan and the following: rationalization of local water rate structures that ensure better cost-recovery, greater water conservation, and an increase of pro-poor access policies. These actions must be coupled with robust performance tracking to ensure cost-effectiveness and measurable outcomes.

Country Profile: Water Sector Coordination

See Sector coordination sub-page for detailed description

Country Profile: Trends in Water Use, Management and Sanitation

Country Profile: Challenges and Opportunities


Recently updated articles on Madagascar
  1. Image:UNDPGWFinalMADAGASCARFrench.pdf ‎(651 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Image:UNDPGoALWASHFinalMADAGASCAREnglish.pdf ‎(720 views) . . Katy.norman
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  4. Madagascar/projects ‎(1,052 views) . . WikiBot
  5. Madagascar/publications ‎(1,154 views) . . WikiBot
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Projects and Case Studies

Projects in or about Madagascar

(this is a list of the 15 most recently updated entries. To see all projects click here)

  1. Agulhas and Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystem (ASCLME) Project ‎(7,472 views) . . Samuel Chademana
  2. Support for the establishment of the national water and sanitation, Madagascar ‎(2,045 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Assistance Preparatory Project for Support to Water resources and sanitary Governance ‎(2,781 views) . . WikiBot
  4. UNDP/BFV-SG (Societe Generale) Partnership in Madagascar ‎(2,600 views) . . WikiBot

Case studies in or about Madagascar

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5 most recently updated publications on Madagascar
  1. Local Responses to State Water Policy Changes in Kenya and Madagascar ‎(2,307 views) . . WikiBot

5 most popular publications on Madagascar
  1. Local Responses to State Water Policy Changes in Kenya and Madagascar ‎(2,307 views) . . WikiBot

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Who is Who

People working in Madagascar

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Organizations working in Madagascar

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See also

External Resources



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