Managing the Flow of Monitoring Information to Improve Rural Sanitation in East Java


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Publication Title

Managing the Flow of Monitoring Information to Improve Rural Sanitation in East Java

Publication Type


Nilanjana Mukherjee, Djoko Wartono, and Amin Robiarto

Publication Date

December 2010


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Global Scaling Up Rural Sanitation is a Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) project currently being implemented in India, Indonesia, and Tanzania. Working with local governments and the private sector in 29 districts of East Java province in Indonesia, WSP’s approach combines generating demand from local governments prior to initiating project interventions and demand from consumers for improved sanitation facilities and behaviors prior to making a greater range of sanitation products and services available through local markets. This demand responsive approach combines Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), behavior change communication, and sanitation marketing approaches to help villages become open defecation free (ODF).

At the end of the third year of project implementation, household access to sanitation is growing at rates hitherto never seen in rural sanitation projects in Indonesia. On average, one-third of all triggered communities have become ODF within a year. However, across districts, varying levels of progress have been achieved depending on the extent of political support garnered, implementation capacity developed, and the cost-eff ectiveness of interventions undertaken.

Significantly, district local governments are participating with cost-sharing of funds, institutional facilities, and manpower deployment. Thus, for the first time, local government funding in East Java is being used solely for “software” activities such as generating demand for sanitation, enhancing local market supply of sanitation products and services, and building institutional capacity.

As the project enters the final year of implementation, key questions to address include how to safeguard momentum and how to ensure that local government funding and institutional commitment to the project approach will be sustained. Hard evidence may help. Program financiers at the district level need to see evidence that the new approaches work and are cost-eff ective, yielding better results per Rupiah expended than previously used approaches. They also need to be able to track progress and outcomes at the community level using easily verified, affordable but reliable methods.

WSP’s experience with participatory monitoring in East Java has shown that communities are fully able and highly motivated to monitor progress toward ODF and that they can regularly track changes in community access to improved sanitation. The data generated by initial social mapping activities and ongoing map updates also fulfills requirements set forth in the WHO & UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) to track progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for sanitation.


See also

World Bank



External Resources



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