Mozambique/sector coordination

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Socio-economic Context

Since the signing of the 1992 Peace Agreement, Mozambique has been viewed as one of Africa’s most successful stories of post-war reconstruction and economic recovery. The country held its third peaceful and democratic legislative and presidential elections in December 2004, reaffirming its commitment to political stability, democratic governance and national reconciliation. The Government has engaged in an ambitious economic, social and political reform agenda, and has made efforts to consolidate macro-economic stability, as a result of which the country is experiencing strong economic growth, averaging eight percent between 1996 and 2006, and has made significant progress in reducing poverty.


In spite of these achievements, many development challenges remain. Mozambique remains one of the poorest countries in the world and was ranked 172nd out of 177 in the 2007/08 Human Development Index. The national Millennium Development Goal (MDGs) progress report produced in 2005 indicated that of 11 MDG targets for which data were available, only five have the potential of being met without a considerable acceleration of efforts – those relating to poverty, under-five mortality, maternal mortality, malaria and the establishment of an open trading and financial system. Underlying and compounding all of these challenges is the vulnerability of the country to the combined effects of the ‘Triple Threat’ of protracted natural disasters, HIV and AIDS and weak national capacities to provide basic social services. Mozambique suffers from recurrent drought, particularly in semi-arid areas, which has led to pockets of food and nutrition insecurity and reduced access to safe water and sanitation in affected areas. The country is also prone to sudden onset emergencies such as cyclones and floods, resulting in inter alia loss of crops and livelihoods and outbreaks of cholera and high levels of diarrhoea among children, particularly in the rural areas.


The single greatest threat to development in Mozambique is HIV and AIDS and the epidemic is threatening to undermine all of the results achieved by the Government over the last decade. Based on the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women attending antenatal care, the nationa; HIV prevalence rate for 15-49 year-olds increased from 14% in 2001 to 16 % in 2007. These results have never been validated against population-based prevalence rates, but a nationwide population-based sero-behavioural survey (INSIDA]) will be carried out in 2008-9. There is great variation by region and province: HIV prevalence in Southern Mozambique is showing a rising trend (from 15% in 2001 to 19% in 2004 and 21% in 2007), whereas in the Central and Northern regions HIV prevalence is levelling at 18% and 9%, respectively. Provinces in the south show a dramatic increase in prevalence rate since 2001 with the sharpest growth noted in Gaza and Maputo provinces (prevalence currently estimated at 27% and 26%, respectively). Mozambique has very little or no data on HIV incidence, but HIV prevalence rates among young women (15-24 years) attending antenatal clinics continues to rise from an estimated 15.6% in 2004 to 16.2% in 2007.


The HIV and AIDS epidemic in Mozambique has a woman’s face: the prevalence among women in the 15-24 age group is 2.5 times higher than that among men. In addition to the human cost of HIV and AIDS, the epidemic is also threatening to seriously weaken institutional capacity and decrease economic productivity through the loss of manpower. Estimates indicate that AIDS may reduce the economic growth per capita by between 0.3 and 1.0 per cent each year. The reduction of poverty rates will be slower on account of weaker economic growth, a reduction in the accumulation of human capital and an increase in household dependency rates.


The Government has invested heavily in public sector reform, capacity development and an ambitious decentralisation programme, with the objective of improving efficiency, enhancing transparency and devolving responsibility from the heavily centralised state ministries to the provinces and districts. The limited operational and managerial capacity of some sectors remains a concern, however, particularly at the sub-national levels and in relation to the recruitment and retention of qualified human resources, a problem that is being exacerbated by the AIDS pandemic.


If Mozambique is to attain the MDGs, it requires an urgent halt and reversal of the incidence of HIV, improvements in the efficiency of service delivery to the poor, employment creation, increases in the state revenue, reductions in foreign aid dependency, and effective preparedness for recurrent natural disasters. Particular focus will need to be placed on reaching the most disadvantaged communities in order to reduce the prevailing disparities, increase participation in development processes and ensure that the development gains are experienced by all Mozambicans. (Source: UN Mozambique)

Donor community in Mozambique

Bilateral donors

ADB | Austria | Belgium | Canada | Denmark | European Commission | Finland | Flanders | France | Germany | Ireland | Italy | Japan | Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) | Netherlands | Norway | Portugal | Spain | Sweden | Switzerland | United Kingdom | USAID

Multilateral donors

FAO | GLOBALFUND | UNAID | UNDP | UNESCO | UNFAP | UN-Habitat | UNHCR | UNICEF | UNIDO | WFP | WHO | World Bank

Donor community involved in the water sector

ADB (water supply, sanitation, agriculture) | Belgium (agriculture) | Canada (water supply, sanitation) | Denmark | European Commission (water supply, sanitation, agriculture) | FAO (agriculture) | Finland | Flanders | France (water supply) | Germany | Italy (water supply, sanitation) | Japan (agriculture) | Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) (water supply, sanitation) | Netherlands (water supply, sanitation) | Portugal (water supply, sanitation) | Spain | Sweden (water supply, sanitation, agriculture) | Switzerland | United Kingdom (water supply, sanitation) | UNICEF (sanitation) | USAID (water supply, sanitation) | UNFPA | IBRD (water supply, sanitation, agriculture) | UNHCR (water supply, sanitation) | WHO

The United Nations in Mozambique

The UN country team works to support national development efforts, respond to emergencies and ensure peace and security. The UN system in Mozambique supports the Government through a formalized UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), a plan that outlines the activities and modalities by which the UN assists in the achievement of development goals prioritized by the Government. As detailed in the current UNDAF (2007-2009), the UN is expediting the implementation of the UN Reforms, a variety Joint Programming modalities and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. The UN is a multi-sectoral organization. By relying on the strengths of the agencies, the UN is equipped to deliver high quality services in a wide variety of areas. This multi-sectoral approach allows for the UN to provide both upstream and downstream services as well as operating on an emergency or on a long-term basis.


The UN system action in Mozambique encompasses different spheres:

  • Advocacy for UN core values, including human rights, gender equality, human security and the Millennium Development Goals.
  • Normative and technical advisory services, setting standards and ensuring quality control, in addition to providing technical advice according to the agencies respective mandates.
  • Strengthening of national capacity at both central and decentralised levels, particularly strengthening Government capacity to deliver the additional resources channelled from DBS through the State Budget.
  • Support to national scale-up of evidence-based programmes.
  • Implementation Services. The UN can be sub-contracted to implement services on behalf of the Government, as seen in other regions, such as Latin America and Caribbean.
  • Support to national humanitarian response in sudden onset emergencies.
  • Bringing the voice of civil society to the table. The UN can play a strategic role in ensuring that the voice of civil society is heard. In so doing, it would also ensure that provinces, districts and communities are given similar opportunities and access to make their voices heard and to influence central government policy.
  • Building partnerships between all stakeholders. Given its impartiality, the UN is an ideal mediator and facilitator to foster partnerships.


The UNDAF 2007-2009 was developed on the basis of these areas of comparative advantages. The United Nations in Mozambique is composed of a team of Agencies, Funds and Programmes, under the leadership and coordination of the UN Resident Coordinator. The team works together to more effectively respond to national development and humanitarian challenges of Mozambique.


All UN agencies

FAO | IFAD | ILO | UNAIDS | UNCTAD | UNDP | UNEP | UNESCO | UNFPA | UNHCR | UNIC | UNICEF | UNICRI | UNIDO | UNIFEM | UNV | WB | WFP


UN agencies involved in the water sector

UNDP

UNDP is directly involved in the water sector in Mozambique. One of the focus areas of UNDP is Energy and environment for sustainable development and deals directly with MDG 7 issues. The following initiatives deal directly or indirectly with sector water-related issues:

GEF funded Small Grants Programme (SGP)

SGP aims to deliver global environmental benefits in the GEF Focal Areas of biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation, protection of international waters, prevention of land degradation (primarily desertification and deforestation), and elimination of persistent organic pollutants through community-based approaches. SGP embodies the very essence of sustainable development by providing financial and technical support directly to NGOs and CBOs in developing countries for activities that conserve and restore the environment while enhancing people's well-being and livelihoods of local communities. It demonstrates that community action can maintain the fine balance between human needs and environmental imperatives. Funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) as a corporate programme, SGP is implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) on behalf of the GEF partnership, and is executed by the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS).

Strengthening Local Risk Management and Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction

The overall goal of the Programme is to strengthen national capacities at all levels to reduce the risk of disasters and mitigate their impacts on the vulnerable populations in the country. Considering the current flood situation, it will also strengthen the early recovery process and provide some technical assistance to develop an appropriate and timely recovery plan.


FAO

FAO has a long-standing history in Mozambique responding to aspects developed at global, regional and national levels. Its National Medium Term Priority Framework 2008-2012 is a poverty reduction and food security oriented package of integrated projects and programme-based activities that can be set within two broad groups: Supporting the mainstreaming of global goals and principles into national policies and programmes (PARPA.), and other normative activities; Responding to the specific needs of the country (national programmes and activities to implement them) with a focus on capacity building and introducing, testing and piloting new approaches. Based on the global FAO mandate and the food security needs of Mozambique, FAO in Mozambique different projects in operation, providing technical assistance in the Water Management area. Through the Irrigation programme there are different initiatives on-going and in pipeline:

Current initiatives
  • Rehabilitation of small scale irrigation schemes
  • Improvement of water scheme management
  • Improvement of water harvesting and management in framework of Special Programme for Food Security
Potential Support Interventions

Potential areas that may be considered for future assistance to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of irrigation could include measures to:

  • Consolidate the National Irrigation Policy and Strategy through broad stakeholder consultation/participation and support its implementation and to integrate the irrigation policy into the national water policy and master plan;
  • Draw on the experience gained during the pilot-phase of the Special Programme for Food Security to extend the introduction of simple, small-scale irrigation techniques and to build national capacities for the production and maintenance of the related irrigation system;
  • Draw on the experience gained during the pilot-phase of the Special Programme for Food Security to extend the rehabilitation of irrigation schemes, preferably with full participation from the private sector; and
  • Rehabilitate small-scale irrigation schemes by drawing on the water and crop management capacities of local associations and communities.


IFAD

IFAD in Mozambique doesn’t specifically deals with the water sector. The principal thrusts of IFAD’s strategy in Mozambique are to:

  • Increase the incomes of the rural poor by boosting marketable production, strengthening access to advisory and financial services, and continuing to develop linkages with private sector operators to facilitate both the marketing of produce and the purchase of inputs
  • Empower the rural poor by promoting small-scale producers’ organizations and local partnerships for development
  • Ensure that issues relating to women, young people and HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation are incorporated into IFAD operations
  • Continue to strengthen donor-government collaboration, especially in promotion of policy dialogue and programme support

IFAD’s programme in Mozambique covers four broad strategic areas:

  • Agricultural production services
  • Fisheries
  • Rural market linkages
  • Rural financial services development

However, investments water-related infrastructures can be directly addressed in projects related to the agriculture related services strategic area.


UNICEF

UNICEF has been working in Mozambique since 1975. The 2007-2009 Country Programme of Cooperation between the Government of Mozambique and UNICEF aims to reduce disparities in the well-being of children by ensuring that vulnerable children in the most disadvantaged families and communities progressively realise their rights to survival, development, protection and participation.

The programme supports national efforts in child health and nutrition; basic education; water, sanitation and hygiene; child protection; and social policy, advocacy and communication. Interventions to support children and women affected by AIDS cut across all aspects of the programme. Specifically UNICEF deals with the Water sector through the WASH programme. The water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programme addresses low coverage levels, poor service delivery and weak sustainability of water and sanitation facilities, and supports national efforts to reduce the incidence of diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera. The key results are:

  • National level policies, strategies, and plans prioritise vulnerable groups to reduce disparities in access to water and sanitation and hygiene;
  • Decentralised planning, monitoring, evaluation and management procedures for drinking water and sanitation in targeted provinces are operationalised;
  • At least one million new users, prioritising vulnerable groups, have access to and use safe water and appropriate sanitation and improved hygiene practices in targeted districts, particularly during emergencies;
  • At least 80 per cent of primary schools in targeted districts have water and sanitation services and hygiene education programmes.


UNEP

UNEP doesn’t have a permanent office in Mozambique, but it implements different projects in the country. Water is not specifically addressed at country level. It is however addressed in regional inititiaves through the suppot of the African Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW). A detailed session on AMCOW is reported below. UNEP addresses water through the following strategy:

UNEP’s Water Policy and Strategy for Africa

Some of the major gaps in the water sector that has been identified in Africa include technical capacity for managing industrial wastewater; use of non-conventional water resources, in particular rainwater harvesting; harmonizing legal and regulatory frameworks which apply to water resources; and data collection and management. Information communication technology (ICT) was the most fundamental technological need identified in the country assessments. In order to address these shortcomings, the implementation of UNEP's Water Policy and Strategy emphasizes development of strategic partnerships, particularly with the governments, relevant organisations, United Nations agencies (in the context of UN reform), development partners, civil society, and private sector. As part of the implementation of the UNEP’s Water Policy and Strategy the Regional Office for Africa (ROA) is carrying out the following activities:

  • Providing technical support and guidance for the mainstreaming of the Rivers and Lakes Basin Organisations and development of a collaborative framework into the AMCOW process as an integral part of its Work Programme.
  • Participating in the UN inter-agency collaboration in the water sector (UN-Water/Africa) in the context of the Implementation of AMCOW Work Programme;
  • Participating in international, cross-boarder and trans-boundary debates/joint meetings [e.g. Inter-Basin Water Transfer under the aegis of Economic Commission for Africa;
  • Overseeing, in the interim, the implementation and monitoring of the AMCOW Work Programme under the overall supervision of AMCOW President Office;
  • Collaboration with UNEP Collaborating Centre on Water and Environment (UCC) to support the development of IWRM roadmaps in selected African countries.


UNESCO

Mozambique hosts a National UNESCO Office in Maputo. Water is addressed through the Culture and Sciences Programmes: The theme 'Water and Culture' highlights the fact that there are as many ways of viewing, using, and celebrating water as there are cultural traditions across the world. Sacred, water is at the heart of many religions and is used in different rites and ceremonies. Fascinating and ephemeral, water has been represented in art for centuries - in music, dance, painting, literature, and cinema - and it is an essential factor in many scientific endeavors as well. Two regional initiatives specifically address water:

FRIEND:Southern African Flow Regimes from International Experimental and Network Data

The Southern Africa FRIEND project is a contribution to the International FRIEND programme which is part of the UNESCO-IHP (International Hydrological Programme), in which the central objective is hydrology and water resources for sustainable development.

SIMDAS
Sustainable Integrated Management and Development of the Arid and Semi-Arid Region of Southern Africa Programme.


World Bank

The World Bank focuses its attention on fighting poverty in the developing world across the regions, from Asia & Pacific, to Africa, from Latin America & Caribbean, Europe & CIS to Middle-East. In Mozambique, the World Bank activities span from investment lending and non-lending activities, including technical assistance and knowledge transfer, to all major development sectors mentioned above, with an overall disbursement averaging $150-200 million a year, and about a $billion of committed funds. Two major joint coordination mechanimes are leaded by the World Bank:

  1. Mozambique Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy
  2. Country Partnership Strategy
WSP
The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP), is a multi-donor trust funded program administered by the World Bank, comprising a field-based network of over 70 professionals based in four regional teams (Africa, East Asia, Latin America, and South Asia) managed from a small headquarters team in Washington, DC. The WSP-Africa regional team (WSP-AF) has its HQ in Nairobi, with sub-regional hubs in Maputo and Dakar, and an expanding number of country offices. The Program's mission is to help poor people gain sustained access to water supply and sanitation (WSS) services. WSP works in partnership with country client governments, external support agencies, and other leading support agencies to improve various institutional, technological and service delivery options, and to promote large-scale programs to extend service delivery to the poor. It also identifies and analyzes key sector problems, identifies solutions, documents and shares lessons from the field, and disseminates information at local, national, regional, and global level.


WHO

WHO has been working in Mozambique since 1976, under the Special Agreement on Cooperation between WHO and the Government of Mozambique. The mission of the WHO Country Office in Mozambique is "to support the development of an efficient and equitable health system in order to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in strong partnership with all UN Agencies, international and national health partners." WHO mission falls in the "Delivering as One approach" as recommended by UN Reform. The overall goal of Delivering as One in Mozambique, one of the eight pilot countries for UN reform is to ensure the delivery of concrete results in support of the national development objectives and priorities by a more coherent, better coordinated, funded and managed UN.

WHO implements and financially supports different projects in Mozambique in the area of Water supply and Sanitation.

MDG 7 and Water in Mozambique

Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability. Target 10: Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

Both WHO and UNICEF are the two agencies more involved in the achievement of this target


Ensure environmental sustainability in Mozambique

Ensuring Environmental Sustainability: Status and Trends

The context of extreme poverty puts strong pressures on natural resources, since these represent the main source of subsistence for the majority of households. Moreover, uncontrolled urban expansion tends to harm biodiversity, the quality of soils and water, which are essential for human life. It is thus fundamental to improve the environmental management of natural resources in Mozambique. According to official data, it is estimated that there are 80 million hectares of land, of which 2 percent are inland waters, 13 percent national parks and 21 percent are covered by forest. As a proxy for energy efficiency, gross domestic product (GDP) per unit of energy was, on average, 2.8 USD per kilowatt in the period 1999-2001. There is no information available for carbon dioxide emissions, although around 80 percent of the energy consumed in the country comes from woody biomass, which is a solid fuel.

Main Water-related Challenges
  1. Soil degradation: Deforestation, erosion, loss of fertility and salinisation are mainly a consequence of inadequate mining and farming practices, construction in inappropriate (and coastal) zones, pollution and natural processes. The country is cyclically affected by floods (and droughts), which are aggravated by the ways in which land is used in hydrographic basins.
  2. Pollution: An increase in the pollution levels can impact the management of natural resources (by increasing the quantity of waste while affecting the quality of resources), biodiversity, and may increase the risk of diseases. Water and air pollution are mainly caused by industrial residues and gases, agriculture pesticides and fertilisers, dumping sites and latrines.
  3. Water supply and sanitation: Inadequate water supplies and sanitation facilities (e.g. lack of drinkable safe water and deficient sewerage systems), particularly in densely populated areas, continue to pose serious health risks to the population.
  4. Lack of data and qualified staff: The environmental management system is hindered by the lack of statistical information on environmental indicators, particularly those that would facilitate the evaluation of progress in the implementation of the goal. The lack of qualified human resources and technical means limit the Government’s actions for effective monitoring and evaluation.
Supportive Enviroment

Government environmental policy is geared to the fight against absolute poverty through the promotion of sustainable development. In this connection, it is envisaged that the use of natural resources has to fulfil the basic needs of the people and development of the nation in equilibrium with economic growth, technology development, environmental protection and social equity. Moreover, the Government acknowledges the need for strengthening the capacity of institutions in relation to legal and environmental issues and the inclusive participation of citizens in this area, particularly in the sensitisation of communities and the involvement of traditional and community leaders in the implementation of sustainable development strategies.

Priorities for Development Assistance
  • Improve coordination between Governmental and non-Governmental institutions with a mandate relating to natural resources, land and urban planning;
  • Harmonise governance policies and environmental strategies with the PARPA II under formulation, taking into consideration the MDGs timeframe, targets and indicators;
  • Strengthen the institutional capacity of the Government, at the national and sub-national levels, to undertake activities and issues related to the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental laws.
  • Identify and undertake actions to minimise the negative impacts that absolute poverty and other human activities have on the environment;
  • Promote environmental sustainability through activities that can enhance employment and income generation;
  • Establish a baseline, both at national and provincial levels, to enable concrete assessment of progress towards the MDGs and the national targets;
  • Identify solutions for poor quality of information and absence of data, both at the sector and at the central level;
  • The problems in compiling information on the targets and indicators of the goal are clear evidence that the Government needs significant support in the short-run to recover possible delays in achieving the MDGs.

"One-UN" Pilot Initiative

The overall goal of the One UN Initiative in Mozambique[1] is to improve programme delivery and results through a more coherent, better coordinated, funded and managed UN. This overall goal will guide all decisions taken by the UNCT to move this agenda forward.

Joint coordination mechanisms/initiatives in Mozambique

Country mechanisms and joint programmes/strategies (Water-centred)

GAS

The Sub-sectoral Group of Water and Sanitation (GAS) is a mechanism coordinated by the National Directorate of Water (DNA) and acts as consultative forum to provide technical support to the Government in addressing national water and sanitation issues in order to meet MDG7 targets and PARPA goals.

GAS meets on a monthly basis, and is constituted by technical officers from Government (central and local) and other development partners, including UN partners and Donors. Here follows GAS includes members from:

Government: DNA (Sanitation Department, Rural Water Department, Urban Water Department, Planning Department), Ministry of Health (Environmental Health Department), Water Regulation Council

Donors: The Netherlands, JICA, CIDA, Ireland, Austrian Development Cooperation, EC

UN: UNICEF, UN-Habitat, WSP/WB

NGO: WaterAid, CARE

Relevant documentation on the GAS TORs can be found in annex 8.


WASH Emergency Cluster

The Wash Emergency cluster is a mechanism lead by UNICEF under the coordination of DNA comprising of both national and international organisations and NGOs (e.g. OXFAM, MSF, Action Aid, etc.) operating across the country. The aim of the cluster is to address and promptly respond to water-related emergency situation at country level.

Under UNICEF leadership, the cluster holds weekly meetings in Maputo, to coordinate info and update WWW (who does what where) matrix. Regular Cluster meetings are organized at district level, under UNICEF / DNA leadership, to coordinate activities and feed back to Maputo. At field level, WASH Cluster merged with the Health Cluster and operated in close partnership with the Logistics Cluster and Programme Communication (social mobilisation activities).


SWAP

The Mozambican government and its partners signed in 2008 the second round of the Code of Conduct with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) for the establishment of a Sector Wide Approach Programming (SWAp) for water supply. Several projects in water supply and sanitation, budgeted at US$ 40 million (EUR 27.7 million) will be funded by the African Development Bank for a five year period, starting in 2009. He added that in parallel with these, there is also another five year project, in the southern province of Inhambane, estimated to cost US$ 10 million (EUR 7 million), an agreement for which should be signed soon with the Dutch government. The SWAP is not operational yet, but Code of Conduct has been signed by all partners and places the role of leading and directing the Water Sector in Mozambique with the DNA on behalf of the Ministry of Public Works (MOPH) and Government of Mozambique and is applicable for all water institutions subordinate to MOPH.

Relevant documentation on the Code of Conduct can be found in annex 9.


PASR

The National Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Programme “PASR – Programa de Agua e Saneamento Rural” is based on two policy frameworks, the PARPA, respectively, the Strategic Plan for the Rural Water and Sanitation, and the Action Plan for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty.

The overall goal of PASR is to contribute to the satisfaction of basic human needs, improve well-being and fight against rural poverty through increased use and access to water supply and sanitation services. PASR’s specific programmatic objective is the achievement of MDG targets of 70% coverage in rural water supply and 50% in rural sanitation by 2015 through these implementation strategies:

  • Improving the quality and increase the coverage and sustainability of rural water supply services.
  • Promoting rural sanitation in the national agenda at all levels, and particularly at the district level.
  • Expanding technological options and institutional management models for RWSS.
  • Decentralising resources, functions and competencies to enhance demand-responsive, service provision.
  • Linking planning and funding with the decentralisation process

The joint Programme is represented by the MOPH, the Ministry of Planning and Development, the Ministry of Finance and Contributing Partners such as Austrian Development Cooperation, CIDA, the Dutch Ministry for Development Cooperation, Swiss Development Cooperation, DIFD, UNICEF and other partners.

Relevant documentation can be found in annex 10.


Joint Programme on Environmental Mainstreaming and Adaptation to Climate Change

This Joint Programme is a joint effort of the Government and the United Nations. Specifically the programme gathers different governmental bodies, such as the Ministry for coordination of Environmental Affairs (MICOA), the Ministry of Agriculture (MINAG), the National Disaster Management Institute (INGC), the National Meteorology Institute (INAM), together with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, WFP, UNIDO and UN-Habitat.

The Joint Programme aims to achieve five significant objectives through the implementation of specific activities in some of the most affected and at risk areas, namely along the Limpopo River Basin and the District of Chicualacuala.

More specifically it aims at:

  • Inform, sensitize and empower on environment and climate change issues Government, civil society and other stakeholders
  • Strengthen Government capacity to implement existing environmental policies
  • Mainstream climate proofing methodologies into government development plans, UN/Donors’ programming and local stakeholders’ activities and investments
  • Enhance community coping mechanisms to climate change
  • Diversify community livelihoods’ options

The programme addresses crises and the related implications at the macro level, through the mainstreaming of environmental concerns into existing government policies through substantive capacity building; dissemination of technical knowledge for more efficient water collection, consumption and use; propagation of mechanisms for adaptation to climate change. The problem will be addressed at the micro level, by evaluating the potential and sustainability of existing and future boreholes and the rehabilitation of small, selected dams and irrigation schemes. It will identify, design and implement rain water harvesting techniques that will enable the most vulnerable areas and population to have greater access to water, which will subsequently result in the increase of more sustainable and productive livelihoods.

Relevant documentation can be found in annex 11.


Other country mechanisms and joint programmes/strategies (with water components)

PROAGRI

PROAGRI is a mechanism coordinated by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MADER) with its Cooperating Partners, which includes Austria, Canada (CIDA), Denmark, European Commission, FAO, Finland, France (AFD), Germany (GTZ), IFAD, Ireland AID, Italy, Japan (JICA), the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden (SIDA), Switzerland, United Kingdom (DFID), United States (USAID), the World Bank and other organizations from private sector and civil society.

ProAgri started in 1999, with the aim to bring together over 70 donor-funded projects into the MADER that effectively delivers agricultural services to Mozambican farmers. Before ProAgri, most agricultural services were delivered through donor funded projects and the ministry's role was somewhat marginal. MADER now is strengthening its ability to coordinate the delivery of services either by direct provision of services in primary areas or increasingly by outsourcing to the private sector or nongovernmental organization (NGO) partners. Water-related issues are addressed from an agricultural perspective, with particular focus on irrigation.


PARPA

The National Action Plan for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty (PARPA II), 2006-2009, , is intended to operationalise the objectives of the Five-Year Plan. The PARPA II sets out the country’s medium term strategy to promote growth and reduce poverty, as defined through the three pillars of: 1) Governance; 2) Human Capital; and 3) Economic Development. The PARPA II was prepared by the Government of Mozambique involving civil society and development partners, including the United Nations, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

The UN family participated actively in the development of the PARPA II in order to ensure full integration of the UN planning and programming framework into the overall national development agenda. In an attempt to include the local perspective, hasten decentralisation and improve the monitoring systems of the PARPA II, special attention was paid to the provincial priorities of civil society arising from provincial Poverty Observatories. The PARPA II is operationalised through annual Economic and Social Plans and the annual State Budget.

The PARPA focuses particularly on the areas of: Education; Health; Water and sanitation; HIV/AIDS; Social action; and Housing. The PARPA outlines the national objectives in each of these areas, complementing the priorities outlined in sectoral strategies, including the Education Sector Strategic Plan, the Health Sector Strategic Plan, the National Water Policy, the National Strategy on Food and Nutrition Security and the National Action Plan on OVC.

The Plan can be found in annex 12.


UNDAF

The third generation of United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) for Mozambique for 2007 to 2009 is a common strategic framework for the operational activities of the UN system in Mozambique. It summarises how the UN family in Mozambique intends to support the Government of Mozambique in achieving the national objectives as identified in Mozambique’s second Action Plan for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty (Plano de Acção para a Redução da Probreza Absoluta - PARPA II, 2006-2009). The PARPA II describes the macroeconomic, structural and social policies to be implemented in Mozambique with the ultimate aim of eradicating poverty and is an operationalization of the Government’s Five Year Plan (2005-2009), adopted in May 2005. These in turn reflect priorities of regional initiatives, such as the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and global targets such as the Millennium Development Goals. In regard to the water sector, in line with national and international priorities, the UN will seek to support national efforts for access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Specific actions of the UN in support of national objectives in these areas is on strengthening capacity at national and sub-national levels for improved service delivery in the areas of water/sanitation, with a focus on support for sustainable integrated models that can provide evidence for national scale-up; Supporting the establishment of efficient and sustainable systems of planning, monitoring and evaluation at national and sub-national levels, in the education, health, nutrition, water and sanitation and social protection sectors

UNDAF Outcome 2

Increased access to and use of quality basic services and social protection for the most disadvantaged populations, particularly children, youth and women, to reduce their vulnerability by 2009. The UN will use existing co-ordination mechanisms in the Water Sector (SWAP, etc.) to support the implementation of the National Water Policy and ensure that UNDAF results are met.


NAPA

National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) provide a process for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to identify priority activities that respond to their urgent and immediate needs to adapt to climate change – those for which further delay would increase vulnerability and/or costs at a later stage.

An important area for the recent UNDP water governance strategy is to promote and support water adaptation to climate change in ongoing water and climate reform work in developing countries. Within this framework UNDP Water Governance Facility is mandated to coordinate and author World Water Development Report 3 part on “Responding to a changing world: What are the options?” Climate change and various response options at hand and to be developed for the water sector to adapt to new climate realities are thus important to bring to the forefront. UNDP WGF therefore took the initiative of an analytic study of Water Resources in the Planning Process as expressed in National Adaptation Programmes of Action, NAPAs, under UNFCCC, and Climate Change Adaptation in the process aiming for National Water Strategies/IWRM Plans. The study aims at “advancing the implementation of UNDP strategic priorities and ways in which the UNDP strategy on climate change adaptation and water governance can be promoted; providing inputs to produce World Water Development Report (WWDR) chapter response options to changing climatic conditions.”

NAPA in Mozambique is still in progress. The draft NAPA contains an explicit link to the national PRSP, the PARPA, the agricultural development plan PROAGRI, and the national five year development program and appears to be well in line with the political and strategic objectives as well as the more important national development frameworks. However, in more concrete terms, practical considerations about mainstreaming and issues related to the implementation of NAPA are somewhat lacking. A section in the NAPA that specifically deals with these issues would be useful.


International Coordination mechanisms

African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW)

Mozambique is a member of African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW).

AMCOW is a coordination mechanism that was established in 2002 to mobilize political and technical support in order to address issues, such as access to safe water and sanitation, protection of groundwater and integrated water resources management.

In view of the increasing critical situation in many parts of Africa several regional initiatives have been taken to insure a coordinated effort to protect and use the freshwater resources of the continent in a sustainable manner. Of these initiatives one of the most significant in terms of water protection is the AMCOW. More than 80 of Africa’s river and lake basins are shared by two or more countries and many countries depend on water flowing from outside their national boundaries. An extensive number of river basin commissions formed by riparian countries to Africa’s major rivers and deltas are the most important tools being used to jointly manage transboundary waters resources.

AMCOW was formed to primarily promote cooperation, security, social and economic development and poverty eradication of member states through the management of water resources and provision of water supply services. It was inspired by African Union’s economic goals and political integration aimed at providing strategic oversight of the management of water on the continent. The Mission of AMCOW is to provide political leadership, policy direction and advocacy in the provision, use and management of water resources for sustainable social and economic development and maintenance of African ecosystems within an equitable regional representation on all its bodies.

The main challenge for the water sector in Africa is four-fold: meeting the basic needs in terms of domestic water supply and sanitation; supporting secure food supply, protecting ecosystems and managing risks; promoting water governance through sharing water resources; ensuring knowledge base and valuing and allocating water.

UNEP hosts and manages the AMCOW Trust Fund, which it launched with a contribution of US $ 100,000 in February 2005. The European Union provided US $ 3.3 Million (EURO 2.6 Million) to support implementation of AMCOW’s Triennial Work Programme, 2007 - 2009. African government members of AMCOW have committed to contribute, collectively, at least USD 530,000 annually to the Trust Fund to facilitate the implementation of the Work Programme[2]



Mozambique Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy

The World Bank and the National Directorate of Water, in representation of the Government of Mozambique, the World Bank Water Resources Assistance Strategy for Mozambique, for the period 2008-2011. Co-chaired with the Minister of Public Works and Housing, who stayed until the end of the event, the launch was attended by about 100 participants drawn from Government officials, members of civil society, academia, and journalists. The main objective of the strategy is to assist the Government of Mozambique in prioritizing water resources interventions based on an analysis of Mozambique’s changing socio-economic circumstances, and the areas of possible World Bank engagement over the next 3-5 years. This priority assistance strategy is supposed to be implemented in close partnership with international donors active in the Mozambique water sector. Despite recent encouraging economic growth rates, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget. Half of Mozambique’s budget expenditures are financed through development assistance, and, since 1992, Mozambique has received increasing support from a number of foreign bilateral and multilateral donors such as World Bank, AfDB, IMF, EU, SIDA, SDC, DANIDA, the Netherlands, Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) etc.. About 90% of the sector investment budget is financed by donors. At present, the most active donors in the sector are SIDA (a five year technical assistance program in the Pungue basin will be launched this year), The Netherlands, African Development Bank, EU and Swiss Development Cooperation, and the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC).


Country Partnership Strategy

A new operational strategy for the World Bank Group's support to Mozambique has been endorsed by the board of the World Bank Group and will cover the period July 2007 to June 2011. The overall goal of the Country Partnership Strategy is to empower citizens and institutions so they can promote growth and benefit more broadly from it. The strategy reflects a collaborative approach between the World Bank Group, Government, and development partners to support the country’s development. The strategy encompasses three pillars, that are also aligned with the country’s own development strategy, or PARPA II (the Portuguese acronym for Second Action Plan for the Reduction of Absolute Poverty), namely: (1) Increased Accountability and Public Voice; (2) Equitable Access to Key Services; and (3) Equitable and Broad-based Growth. The Water sector is specifically addressed in the strategy.

International Coordination mechanisms relevant for Mozambique (MERGE THIS PART INTO ABOVE!?)

African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW)

Mozambique is a member of African Ministers' Council on Water (AMCOW). AMCOW is a coordination mechanism that was established in 2002 to mobilize political and technical support in order to address issues, such as access to safe water and sanitation, protection of groundwater and integrated water resources management. In view of the increasing critical situation in many parts of Africa several regional initiatives have been taken to insure a coordinated effort to protect and use the freshwater resources of the continent in a sustainable manner. Of these initiatives one of the most significant in terms of water protection is the AMCOW. More than 80 of Africa’s river and lake basins are shared by two or more countries and many countries depend on water flowing from outside their national boundaries. An extensive number of river basin commissions formed by riparian countries to Africa’s major rivers and deltas are the most important tools being used to jointly manage transboundary waters resources.

AMCOW was formed to primarily promote cooperation, security, social and economic development and poverty eradication of member states through the management of water resources and provision of water supply services. It was inspired by African Union’s economic goals and political integration aimed at providing strategic oversight of the management of water on the continent. The Mission of AMCOW is to provide political leadership, policy direction and advocacy in the provision, use and management of water resources for sustainable social and economic development and maintenance of African ecosystems within an equitable regional representation on all its bodies.

The main challenge for the water sector in Africa is four-fold: meeting the basic needs in terms of domestic water supply and sanitation; supporting secure food supply, protecting ecosystems and managing risks; promoting water governance through sharing water resources; ensuring knowledge base and valuing and allocating water. UNEP hosts and manages the AMCOW Trust Fund, which it launched with a contribution of US $ 100,000 in February 2005. The European Union provided US $ 3.3 Million (EURO 2.6 Million) to support implementation of AMCOW’s Triennial Work Programme, 2007 - 2009. African government members of AMCOW have committed to contribute, collectively, at least USD 530,000 annually to the Trust Fund to facilitate the implementation of the Work Programme.

African Civil Society Network on Water and Sanitation (ANEW)

ANEW is a regional networking body of African civil society organizations actively involved in the field of sustainable water management, water supply and sanitation.


References

  1.  ONE-UN Mozambique.doc
  2. See World bank website

See also

External resources

Attachment(s)

 Mozambique - Rural Water and Sanitation Strategic Plan.doc

 Mozambique - Mozambique Country Donor Atlas (2007-2010).pdf

 Mozambique - ONE-UN Mozambique.doc

 Mozambique - Mozambique Country Partnership Strategy.pdf

 Mozambique - Mozambique Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy.pdf

 Mozambique - PARPA.pdf

 Mozambique - United Nations Development Assistance Framework - 2007-2009.pdf

 Mozambique - National Water Management Strategy.pdf

 Mozambique - GAS ToR.doc

 Mozambique - Code of Conduct - Rural Water SWAP.zip

 Mozambique - Water Policy.pdf

 Mozambique - MoU for PASR Common Fund.doc

 Mozambique - Joint Programme Adaptation to CC.pdf

 Mozambique report 23Apr09.doc

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