Negotiation in the Context of International Water-Related Agreements

From WaterWiki.net

Jump to: navigation, search
edit  ·  ToolkitWater Conflict and Cooperation
History of Humanity and Water | Shared Waters and Ethics | Legal and Institutional Approaches | Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms
Emerging Trends | Public Participation | Indicators | Means and Tools | Basin Management | Lessons Learned
Organisations and Projects | Publications | Glossary | Bibliography
Case Studies: Incomati | Nile | Columbia | Lempa | Lake Titicaca | Mekong | Aral Sea | Rhine | Jordan I | Jordan II
Events | Contacts

Publication Title

Negotiation in the Context of International Water-Related Agreements

Publication Type

UNESCO-IHP Publication, PCCP Series, 50 p.

Author(s)

Branko Bosnjakovic

Publication Date

2003

ISBN-ISSN-EAN

Publication URL

Contact

Contents

Summary

The report describes the results of a study to identify, analyze, and discuss negotiation processes taking place in the context of international water-related agreements and conventions. An introduction is given to the role of legal arrangements in fostering cooperation in transboundary water basins, with special emphasis on the economic, environmental, and security dimensions of integrated water management. The study concentrates on the analysis of lessons learnt from a limited number of test cases. The focus is on agreements addressing water allocation and pollution control, thus excluding the issue of navigation. The paper introduces a life-cycle model of negotiating agreements, and in this context reviews selected water-related agreements at the global, regional, and water-basin level. The role of negotiations is highlighted for the initiation, adoption, and implementation phases. Special attention is given to the negotiations leading to the relevant agreements established under the UN Economic Commission for Europe (the Helsinki and Espoo Conventions and corresponding guidelines). The negotiations leading to, and in the context of, some basin agreements (Rhine, Danube, Aral Sea) are also analyzed and compared. Some experiences in negotiating international water-related agreements are identified, analyzed, and generalized. Aspects and factors that determine the prospects, progress, and products of the negotiation process include:

1. initiating development leading to formal negotiation
2. organizational setting, procedural rules, and negotiation culture
3. balancing of interests (upstream, downstream, intersectoral) in the negotiation process
4. windows of opportunity that promote and accelerate negotiations
5. relationship and synergy with other, legally binding and non-binding, instruments as a source of synergy in the negotiation process
6. role of technology, research and monitoring in the negotiation process
7. negotiation on implementation and compliance
8. role of human rights, transparency, and participation/role of the stakeholders/public in the negotiation process
9. role of management and financing issues in the negotiation process.

The study makes use of various sources of information, including (where available and accessible) the texts of agreements, reports of negotiation sessions, secondary literature, and in some cases, oral reporting (interviews with actors and witnesses of negotiations). The study summarizes the findings and formulates conclusions and recommendations on lessons learnt and how to improve processes in the practice of future negotiations.

Content

References

  • Alster, J. P. 2000: The Aral Sea Basin: A Reflection on the Institutional Structure for the Management of the Transboundary Water Resources. Contribution (unpublished) to the Follow-Up Seminar to the Eighth Economic Forum “How to Optimize Inter-Institutional Relations in the Economic and Environmental Field”. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Vienna, 5 October 2000.
  • Baer, P. K. 1999: International Intervention in Secessionist Conflicts in Europe in the 1990s. In A. Dermott, Sovereign Intervention, p. 91. Oslo, PRIO [International Peace Research Oslo] Report 2/99.
  • Baginski, L 1998: Cooperation on Transboundary Waters in View of Agenda 21. In: M. Landsberg-Uczciwek, M. Adriaanse, and R. Enderlein, Management of Transboundary Waters in Europe, p.43–50. Proceedings of the International Conference, 22-25 September 1997, Mrzezyno, Poland, Biuro Informacji Gospodarczej, Szczecin.
  • Bendow, J. 2002a: International Cooperation in Water Management and Pollution Control in the Danube River Basin. Contribution (unpublished) to the 3rd Preparatory Seminar of OSCE on Cooperation for the Sustainable Use and the Protection of Quality of Water in the Context of the OSCE, April 15–16, Baku, Azerbaijan.
  • ––––. 2002b: Cooperation for the Sustainable use and Protection of the Quality of Water in the Context of the OSCE. Contribution (unpublished) to the Tenth Meeting of the OSCE Economic Forum, May 28–31, Prague, EF.DEL/62/02.
  • Biswas, A. K.2002: Management of Asian International Rivers. In: I. Al Baz, V. Hartje, and W. Scheumann, Cooperation on Transboundary Rivers, pp. 133–148, Baden Baden, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.
  • Bosnjakovic, B. 1998: UN/ECE Strategies for Protecting the Environment with Respect to International Watercourses: the Helsinki and the Espoo Conventions. In: S. S. A. Salman and L. Boisson de Chazournes, International Watercourses: Enhancing Cooperation and Managing Conflict, Proceedings of a World Bank Seminar, pp. 47–64, Washington DC, The World Bank, World Bank Technical Paper No. 414.
  • ––––. 1998: ECE Regional Advisory Services to Facilitate the Implementation of the ECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. In: M. Landsberg-Uczciwek, M. Adriaanse, and R. Enderlein, Management of Transboundary Waters in Europe, pp. 277–282. Proceedings of the International Conference, 22-25 September 1997, Mrzezyno, Poland, Biuro Informacji Gospodarczej, Szczecin.
  • ––––. 2000: New Challenges for Resource Management in the Aral Sea Region. In: E. Petzold- Bradley, A. Carius, A. March, and C. Wilkens, Environment and Security: Crisis Prevention through Cooperation, pp. 66–73. Proceedings of the International Workshop within the framework of the “Forum Globale Fragen.” June, 15–16, Berlin, Auswärtiges Amt.
  • ––––. 2001a: The UNECE Environmental Conventions: Their Role and Potential to Promote Conflict Prevention and Settlement of Disputes in Transboundary Environmental Issues. In E. Petzold-Bradley, A. Carius, and A. Vincze, Responding to Environmental Conflicts: Implications for Theory and Practice, p. 263-282. Dordrecht, Boston, London, Kluwer Academic.
  • ––––. 2001b: Conflicts between sectoral and transboundary freshwater uses: causes, prevention and dispute settlement. Contribution to the International Specialty Conference “Globalization and water management: the changing value of water”, August 6–8, American Water Resources association (AWRA) and University of Dundee, Dundee, (Conference documents available on CD-ROM).
  • ––––. 2001c: Regulations of International Watercourses under the UN/ECE Regional Agreements. Water International, Vol. 25, December, p. 544–553.
  • Bourne, Ch. 1999: The International Law Association’s Contribution to International Water Resources Law. In: S. Bogdanović, International Law Association Rules on International Water Resources, p. 3–71, Novi Sad, Yugoslav Association for Water Law.
  • Boyle, A. E. 1998: The Role of International Human Rights Law in the Protection of the Environment. In: A. E. Boyle and M. R. Anderson, Human Rights Approaches to Environmental Protection, p. 43 ff, especially p. 631. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
  • Briefwisseling, 1976: Briefwisseling tussen de Regering van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden en de Franse Regering inzake de financiering van een project voor zoutopslag, Archives Rijkswaterstaat Den Haag, 3-12-1976 (quoted by Dieperink, 2002).
  • Bucharest 1985: Bucharest Declaration (Deklaration über die Zusammenarbeit der Donaustaaten in Fragen der Wasserwirtschaft der Donau, insbesondere zum Schutz des Donauwassers gegen Verschmutzung), adopted on December 13 1985 by Bulgaria, Federal Republic of Germany, SFRYugoslavia, Austria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, USSR and Hungary.
  • Burger, R. 1998: Transboundary Water Management in Central Asia. In: M. Landsberg- Uczciwek, M. Adriaanse, and R. Enderlein, Management of Transboundary Waters in Europe, p.257–276. Proceedings of the International Conference, September 22–25 1997, Mrzezyno, Poland, Biuro Informacji Gospodarczej, Szczecin. CSCE, 1975: Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Final Act, pp. 102–105. Helsinki, 1975.
  • ––––. 1983: Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Concluding Document of the Madrid Meeting of Representatives of the Participating States of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, held on the basis of the provisions of the Final Act relating to the follow-up of the Conference, Madrid 1983.
  • ––––. 1986: Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Concluding Document of the Vienna Meeting of Representatives of the Participating States of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, held on the basis of the provisions of the Final Act relating to the follow-up of the Conference, Vienna 1986.
  • ––––. 1989: Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Concluding Document of the Vienna Meeting of Representatives of the Participating States of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, held on the basis of the provisions of the Final Act relating to the follow-up of the Conference, Vienna 1989.
  • ––––. 1989: Report of the Meeting on the Protection of the Environment of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), Sofia, Bulgaria, October 16 to November 3 1989. Sofia, 2 November 1989.
  • DBNCC 1998: Hungarian Ministry for Environment, Temporary Secretariat, Danube Basin Ecological Convention. Letter from Mr. Odon Radai, Head of Temporary Secretariat, dated 16 November 1998, to the representatives of participating riparian states. A first draft of the convention is attached to the letter.
  • Dieperink, C. 1997: Tussen zout en zalm. Lessen uit de ontwikkeling van het regime inzake de Rijnvervuiling. PhD Thesis, Utrecht University, Amsterdam, Thesis Publishers.
  • ––––. 2002: The Clean up of the Rhine as a Successful International Effort. In: I. Al Baz, V. Hartje, and W. Scheumann, Cooperation on Transboundary Rivers, p. 7–34, Baden Baden, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.
  • Donahue, M. 1988: Institutional Arrangements for Great Lakes Management. In: L. K. Caldwell, Perspectives on Ecosystem Management for the Great Lakes, pp. 115–139. Albany, N.Y., State University of New York Press.
  • DRPC 1994: Declaration taken by the Signatories of the Convention on Cooperation for the protection and Sustainable Use of the Danube River. Sofia, June 29 1994
  • ––––. 1998: Convention on cooperation for the protection and sustainable use of the Danube River (Danube River Protection Convention). International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River, October 1998
  • ––––. 1999: The Danube River Protection Convention (DRPC) and its organizational structure. Paper presented at the 1999 Varaždin meeting of the Project Management Task Force under the ICPDR.
  • Dukhovny, V. 2000: Contribution (untitled, unpublished) to the Follow-Up Seminar to the Eighth Economic Forum “How to Optimize Inter-Institutional Relations in the Economic and Environmental Field.” Vienna, October 5, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
  • Durth, R. 1996: Grenzüberschreitende Umweltprobleme und regionale Integration. Zur politischen Oekonomie von Oberlauf-Unterlauf-Problemen an internationalen Flüssen. Baden Baden, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.
  • EC 2000: Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Water Policy. Official Journal of the European Communities, December 22 2000, L 327/1- L327/73.
  • ECE 1994: Environmental Conventions Elaborated Under the Auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. New York and Geneva, United Nations.
ECE/CEP 1994: United Nations Economic and Social Council- Economic Commission for Europe. Committee on Environmental Policy
Report of the First Session, ECE/CEP/1, June 21 1994
Report of the Second Session, ECE/CEP/14, June 12 1995
Report of the Third Session, ECE/CEP/30, June 25 1996
Report of the Fourth Session, ECE/CEP/35, July 25 1997
Report of the Fifth Session, ECE/CEP/63, November 24 1998
Report of the Sixth Session, ECE/CEP/69, December 14 1999
  • ECE/CEP 2000: UNECE Committee on Environmental Policy (Seventh session, 25-28 September 2000). Inter-linkages Between ECE Multilateral Environmental Agreements: A Review of Synergies to be Derived from Closer Cooperation. Discussion paper prepared by a consultant with the assistance of the secretariat. CEP/2000/1, July 12.
  • ECE/ENVWA 1988: United Nations Economic and Social Council- Economic Commission for Europe. Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental and Water Problems
Report of the First Session, ECE/ENVWA/3, March 11 1988
Report of the Second Session, ECE/ENVWA/9, March 14 1989
Report of the Third Session, ECE/ENVWA/14, March 12 1990
Report of the Fourth Session, ECE/ENVWA/18, March 18 1991
Report of the Fifth Session, ECE/ENVWA/24, March 12 1992
Report of the Sixth Session, ECE/ENVWA/29, March 26 1993
  • Ehrlich, A. H.; Gleick, P, and Conca, K. 2000: Resources and Environmental Degradation as Sources of Conflict, Draft Background Paper for Working Group 5, 50th Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs: “Eliminating Causes of War”, Queen’s College, Cambridge, UK, 3-8 August 2000.
  • Enderlein, R. 2002a: The Role of International Water Law in Fostering Cooperation: The European Experience. In: I. Al Baz, V. Hartje, and W. Scheumann, Cooperation on Transboundary Rivers, p. 53–66, Baden Baden, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.
  • ––––. 2002b: Oral communication from the Secretary to the Helsinki I Convention during an interview with the author on 14 March 2002.
  • ENVWA/AC 1988: United Nations Economic and Social Council- Economic Commission for Europe. Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental and Water Problems: Ad hoc Working Group to elaborate a draft Framework Agreement on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context
Report of the Ad hoc Meeting, ENVWA/AC.3/2, October 27 1988
Report of the Second Meeting, ENVWA/AC.3/4, May 26 1989
Report of the Third Meeting, ENVWA/AC.3/6, December 19 1989
Report of the Fourth Meeting, ENVWA/AC.3/8, February 23 1990
Report of the Fifth Meeting, ENVWA/AC.3/10, June 28 1990
Report of the Sixth Meeting, ENVWA/AC.3/12, October 15 1990
  • ENVWA/WG 1990: United Nations Economic and Social Council: Economic Commission for Europe. Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental and Water Problems: Working Group to elaborate a legal instrument on the transboundary impacts of industrial accidents
Report of the First Session, ENVWA/WG.1/2, June 20 1990
Report of the Second Session, ENVWA/WG.1/4, November 12 1990
Report of the Third Session, ENVWA/WG.1/6, February 6 1991
Report of the Fourth Session, ENVWA/WG.1/8, June 24 1991
Report of the Fifth Session, ENVWA/WG.1/10, November 15 1991
  • ENVWA/WP 1990: United Nations Economic and Social Council: Economic Commission for Europe. Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental and Water Problems: Working Party on Water Problems
Report of the First Special Session, ENVWA/WP.3/7, May 17 1990
Report of the Second Special Session, ENVWA/WP.3/10, November 15 1990
Report of the Third Special Session, ENVWA/WP.3/13, January 24 1991
Report of the Fourth Special Session, ENVWA/WP.3/15, May 16 1991
  • Falkenmark, M.1986: Fresh Waters as a Factor in Strategic Policy and Action. In: A. H. Westing, Global Resources and International Conflict: Environmental Factors in strategic Policy and Action, pp. 85–113. Oxford, New York.
  • Gely, J. 2000: Strengthening Regional Water Management Capacity in Central Asia. Inventory of Inter-State Institutions, Regional Projects and National Bodies. Swiss Cooperation Office, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation: State Secretariat for Economic Affairs.
  • Geneva. 2000: Promoting Regional Activities in the Field of Water Management in the Central Asian Region. Report of a Consultative Meeting held in Geneva on September 22.
  • Hartje, V. 2002: International Dimensions of Integrated Water Management. In: I. Al Baz, V.
  • Hartje, and W. Scheumann, Cooperation on Transboundary Rivers, p. 7–34, Baden Baden, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.
  • ILC 1994: International Law Commission: Commentary on the Draft Articles on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses as adopted on second reading. Reprinted in: GA Official Records, 49th Session, supplement No. 10 (A/49/10). New York.
  • ––––. 1996: Draft Articles on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. Adopted on second reading at the 46th Session of the International Law Commission on June 24 1994. Reprinted in: W. E. Burhenne (Ed.), International environmental soft law: collection of relevant instruments, pp. 994:4705-994:4712, 1996.
  • Keynes, J. M. 1919: The Economic Consequences of the Peace, London, Macmillan, 134 pp.
  • Kittinger, W. 2002: Oral communication from the Former Interim President and Secretariat member of the Danube River Protection Convention during an interview with the author on April 6 2002.
  • Le Marquand, D. G. 1977: International Rivers: the Politics of Cooperation. Vancouver, Westwater Research Centre, University of British Columbia.
  • Lennaerts, T. 2000: Evaluation of Interstate Cooperation on Water Management in the Aral Sea Basin. Contribution (unpublished) to the Follow-Up Seminar to the Eighth Economic Forum “How to Optimize Inter-Institutional Relations in the Economic and Environmental Field”. October 5, Vienna, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
  • Lorenz, F. M.; Erickson, E. J. 1999: The Euphrates Triangle: Security Implications of the Southeastern Anatolia Project, Washington, D.C., National Defence University Press.
  • McCaffrey, S. 1998: The UN Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Prospects and Pitfalls. In: S. S. A. Salman, and L. Boisson de Chazournes, International Watercourses: Enhancing Cooperation and Managing Conflict, Proceedings of a World Bank Seminar, pp. 17-28, World Bank Technical Paper No. 414, Washington DC, The World Bank.
  • Nabrodov, B. S.; Kukosh, V. 1998: The Steps Arranged by the Russian Federation for the Realization of the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. In: M. Landsberg-Uczciwek, M. Adriaanse, and R. Enderlein, Management of Transboundary Waters in Europe, pp.203–207. Proceedings of the International Conference, September 22–25, Mrzezyno, Poland, Biuro Informacji Gospodarczej, Szczecin.
  • Nierenberg, G. I. 1986: The Complete Negotiator, 58 pp. New York, Nierenberg and Zeif Publishers.
  • OSCE 2002: Report prepared by the OSCE Center in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. Contribution to the Tenth OSCE Economic Forum on the cooperation for the Sustainable Use and the Protection of Quality of Water in the Context of the OSCE, May 28–31, Prague, Czech Republic.
  • Rayment, P. 2002: The Economic Dimension of Security with Special Reference to the UNECE Region (unpublished).
  • Roncak, P., Adriaanse, M., and Landsberg-Uczciwek, M. 1998: Pilot Projects for Monitoring and Assessment of Transboundary Rivers under the ECE Water Convention. In M. Landsberg- Uczciwek, M. Adriaanse, and R. Enderlein, Management of Transboundary Waters in Europe, pp.325–340. Proceedings of the International Conference, September 22–25, Mrzezyno, Poland, Biuro Informacji Gospodarczej, Szczecin.
  • Salman, S. M. A.1998: Sharing the Ganges Waters Between India and Bangladesh, in S. M. A. Salman, and L. Boisson de Chazournes, International Watercourses: Enhancing Cooperation and Managing Conflict, pp. 127–154. Proceedings of a World Bank Seminar, World Bank Technical Paper No. 414, Washington DC, The World Bank.
  • Sands, Ph. 1995: Principles of International Environmental Law, Vol 1. Manchester, New York, Manchester University Press. pp. 225.
  • Schrage, W. 2002: Oral communication from the Secretary to the Espoo Convention during an interview with the author on March 14 2002.
  • Schroeder-Wildberg, E. 2002: The Negotiation Process of the International Water Convention: Balancing Upstream–downstream Interests. In: I. Al Baz, V. Hartje, and W. Scheumann, Cooperation on Transboundary Rivers, pp. 35–51. Baden Baden, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.
  • Tanzi, A. 2000: The Relationship Between the 1992 UN/ECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes and the 1997 UN Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses. Geneva, Report of the UNECE Task Force on Legal and Administrative Aspects.
  • ––––. 2001: Regional Integration and the Protection of the Environment: the UNECE Process on Water Law. In: B. Conforti et al., The Italian Yearbook of International Law, Vol. X, (2000), pp. 71-112. The Hague, Kluwer Law International.
  • UNECE 1987: Senior Advisers to ECE Governments on Environmental Problems, Seminar on Environmental Impact Assessment (21–25 September, Warsaw, Poland). United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, ENV/SEM.17/3, October 12.
  • ––––. 1989: Contribution of the UNECE to the Meeting on the Protection of the Environment of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), Sofia, Bulgaria, October 16 to November 3. Report of the Executive Secretary of the ECE, GE.89-22257. Geneva.
  • ––––. 2000a: Task Force on Monitoring & Assessment under the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. Work Program 1997- 2000. Guidelines on Monitoring and Assessment of Transboundary Rivers. Lelystad, March 2000.
  • ––––. 2000b: Task Force on Monitoring & Assessment Under the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. Work Program 1997– 2000. Guidelines on Monitoring and Assessment of Transboundary Groundwaters. Lelystad, March.
  • ––––. 2000c: Meeting of the Parties to the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. Guidelines on Sustainable Flood Prevention. Geneva, United Nations.
  • ––––. 2002a: Task Force on Monitoring & Assessment under the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. Work Program 2000- 2003. Guidelines on Monitoring and Assessment of International Lakes (to be published).
  • UN GA 1996: Summary Record A/C.6/51/SR.12-25. Summary records of the meetings of the Working Group of the Whole, Sixth Committee. New York, United Nations.
  • USAID 2000: USAID/CAR Water Resources Management Program. Contribution to the Follow- Up Seminar to the Eighth Economic Forum “How to Optimize Inter-Institutional Relations in the Economic and Environmental Field”. October 5, Vienna, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE).
  • Weightman, D. 1956: Economic Cooperation in Europe. A Study of the UN Commission for Europe, London, Stevens. 259 pp.
  • Wibaut, N. L. 1952: De invloed van het afvalwater op de oppervlaktewateren in Nederland, Water, Bodem, Lucht, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 40–56.
  • Wieriks, K.; Schulte-Wuelwer-Leidig, A. 1997: Integrated water management for the Rhine river basin, from pollution prevention to ecosystem improvement. Natural Resources Forum, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 147–156.
  • Winsemius, P. 1996. Gast in eigen huis: beschouwingen over milieumanagement. Samsom H.D. Tjeenk Willink, Alphen aan den Rijn, 1996
  • Wolf, A. 2002: The Importance of Regional Cooperation on Water Management for Confidence Building: Lessons Learnt. Contribution to the Tenth OSCE Economic Forum on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Use and the Protection of Quality of Water in the Context of the OSCE, May 28-31, Prague, Czech Republic.

See also

External Resources

Attachments

 Negotiation in the Context of International Water-Related Agreements.pdf

3977 Rating: 2.1/5 (28 votes cast)