Off-site sanitation


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Terms & Synonyms

Official WHO Definition

System of sanitation where excreta are removed from the plot occupied by the dwelling and its immediate surroundings (WHO 2006).Off-site sanitation consists of an authority’s sewer network and a centralised waste water treatment and disposal plant. It can also include the manual transportation or removal of waste from onsite sanitary retention vaults (BGR 2005). 

Other Definitions


Interpretations and Explanations

Off-site sanitation is normally a water based sewerage system, where the effluent is removed from the site by gravity drains and a conventional sewer network, to a place where it can be safely treated.  This system is effective where high population densities exist. This system has advantages and disadvantages,Advantages.Efficient and safe removal of organic matter, nutrients and pathogen bacteria.It can be adapted to high population urban areas.It can be managed with good control of the system.DisadvantagesIt has a high cost of construction.It requires highly skilled personnel to construct and maintain the system.It has a high water demand.It has a high energy demand (BGR 2005). 


WHO (2006) Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywaterBundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) (2005) General options for ground water protection. Kabul Water Conference and Workshop August 2-3, 2005


WHO Lexicon page (translations and examples)

See also

External Resources


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