Philippines

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Philippines is part of:
Asia & Pacific · Southeastern Asia ·
Water Basins of Philippines:
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Facts & Figures edit
flag_Philippines.png
Capital Manila
Neighbouring Countries none
Total Area 300,000 km2
  - Water 1,830 km2 (0.61%) / 61 m2/ha
  - Land 298,170 km2
Coastline 36,289 km
Population 84,566,000 (282 inhab./km2)
HDIA 0.745 (2007)
Gini CoefficientA 44.5 (1995)
Nominal GDPB $172,300 million
GDP (PPP) Per CapitaB $17,800
National UN Presence FAO, UNDP, UNHCR, WHO, UNICEF, WB, UNESCO, UNIDO, IFAD
Land UseC
  - Cultivated Land 106,357 km2 (35.67%)
     - Arable 56,652 km2 (19%)
     - Permanent Crops 49,705 km2 (16.67%)
     - Irrigated 15,500 km2
  - Non cultivated 1,861,000 km2 (64.33%)
Average Annual RainfallD 2348 mm
Renewable Water ResourcesE 479 km3
Water WithdrawalsF 28.52 km3/yr
  - For Agricultural Use 74%
  - For Domestic Use 17%
  - For Industrial Use 9%
  - Per Capita 419 m3
Population with safe access to
  - Improved Water Source 85%
     - Urban population 87%
     - Rural population 82%
  - Improved Sanitation 72%
     - Urban population 80%
     - Rural population 59%
References & Remarks
A UNDP Human Development Report
B CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia
C CIA World Factbook Country Profiles
D Aquastat - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
E CIA World Factbook
F Earthtrends

> Articles | Projects & Case studies | Publications & Web resources | Who is who | Maps
> Sector Assessment | Sector Coordination | Donor Profile

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Contents

News

Country Profile: Climate, Geography, Socio-Economic Context

Country Profile: Water Bodies and Resources

The Philippines has extensive water resources, including 31,000 hectares of rivers; 200,000 hectares of lakes; 19,000 hectares reservoirs; and 246,063 hectares of swamplands. There are 421 river basins, of which 20 are considered major river basins. Major rivers are the Cagayan – the country’s longest river – the Agno, Pampanga, Pasig and Bicol rivers in Luzon, and the Rio Grande de Mindanao. There are 99 significant lakes; 16 lakes cover 400 hectares or more. The largest lakes are the Laguna de Bay on Luzon and Lake Lanao on Mindanao. Philippine rivers and lakes are home to more than 316 fish species, some of which are endemic (Philippine coastal waters are considered the center of marine biodiversity in the world). Groundwater reservoirs have a storage capacity of 251,100 million cubic meters and a dependable supply of 126,000 million cubic meters per year. Average annual rainfall is 2500 millimeters.


Surface water use is largely for agriculture, with irrigation, livestock, and fisheries representing 85% of total water use, while industry and domestic sectors share the rest. Groundwater use is distributed as: 63% for domestic use; 17% for industry; 13% for agriculture; 1% for power generation; and 6% for other sectors. Many people fish for home consumption or small-scale commercial activities. Ten major lakes are used for aquaculture production.


Water supplies are generally sufficient for local needs but there are water deficits in highly populated areas, particularly in regions with limited supplies. Water quality, however, is worsening. Experts have concluded that 50 river systems are biologically dead or dying due to pollution from human trash, commercial agricultural chemicals, animal wastes and industrial wastes. In Metro Manila, nine river sub-basins are used as dump sites. One-third of the country’s river systems remain as potential sources of drinking water. Up to 58% of groundwater is contaminated due to leaching of industrial, agrochemical and animal wastes and infiltration of subsurface discharges from septic systems and polluted urban runoffs. Over extraction of groundwater has led to a decline in levels, drying up of wells and springs, and contamination of wells by saltwater intrusion in coastal areas. Overexploitation of forest resources and inappropriate land-use practices have disrupted the hydrological condition of watersheds, resulting in accelerated soil erosion, siltation of rivers and valuable reservoirs, increased incidence and severity of flooding and decreasing water supply. Without new investment in water supply infrastructure, future projections of water requirements suggest that water availability will be marginal or unsatisfactory in eight of the 19 major river basins before 2025, and most major urban centers will experience water deficits.

Country Profile: Legal and Institutional Environment

Legal Framework

Under the 1987 Constitution, all waters and aquatic resources belong to the State; the measure and limit of water use for irrigation, water supply, fisheries or industry is beneficial use, and water use for power generation is allowed for 25 years, renewable for the same term. Other policy guidelines are set forth in the Philippine Agenda 21’s Millennium Development Goals (No. 7: Ensure environmental sustainability) and in the Medium-Term Development Plan 2004–2010. Two targets of the Medium-Term Development Plan are the reforestation of 1 million hectares of land in 140 priority watersheds and providing access to safe drinking water to 200 waterless barangays (villages).


The 2004 Clean Water Act aims to protect the country’s water bodies from land-based pollution sources and to establish a framework for water-quality management. The 1976 Philippine Water Code defines the extent of the rights and obligations of water users. The 1998 Philippine Fisheries Code provides for the sustainable development of fishery and aquatic resources, and the structure for the granting of fishing privileges. The 1997 Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act provides for measures to modernize the agriculture and fisheries sectors.


Under the Water Code, a water permit is required for use beyond domestic purposes – irrigation, community use, commercial uses (e.g., power generation and fisheries), industrial use and recreational use. No permit is needed for household uses and collecting of water using hand-carried receptacles; washing, watering or dipping of domestic or farm animals; or boating or water transportation. The Indigenous Peoples’ Rights Act recognizes indigenous peoples’ customary rights over all natural resources within ancestral domains, and designates them as administrators of watersheds within their domains. Women are relied upon to provide water for household needs while men make many of the decisions about water resource management and development.


Institutional Framework

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and the National Water Resources Board are the lead agencies charged with protection of water resources. The Board acts as the principal coordinating and regulatory body. DENR’s Environment Protection Bureau – Water Quality Management Section – implements the Clean Water Act, while its Forest Management Bureau handles watershed management.


Other agencies include 1) the Department of Agriculture’s Bureau of Soils and Water Management and Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources; 2) the Department of Health’s Environmental Health Services, which enforces drinking water quality standards; 3) the Department of Science and Technology’s Philippine Council for Aquatic and Marine Research and Development; 4) the Department of Public Works and Highways for drainage and flood control; 5) the National Irrigation Administration; and 6) the Local Water Utilities Administration, which governs local water districts and reviews rates charged by local water utilities.


The current institutional and regulatory framework is the product of incremental developments over the years, each in response to particular challenges of the time. The result is an institutionally-fragmented approach, with overlapping and fractional plans and programs.


Government Reforms and Interventions

The government has adopted the Philippine Integrated Water Resources Management Plan, which is based on the river basin/watershed approach. The Plan aims to integrate land and water resources (surface, groundwater and coastal); coordinate all water-related efforts based on a participatory approach that includes users; promote equitable access to water supply; restore the health of critical ecosystems; and promote environmental sustainability. The River Basin Control Office was created to implement the Plan.

Country Profile: Water Sector Coordination

See Sector coordination sub-page for detailed description

Country Profile: Trends in Water Use, Management and Sanitation

Country Profile: Challenges and Opportunities

Increased water demand from population growth, urbanization and industrialization cannot be met by the current water infrastructure. Roughly 30 million people do not have access to water-supply and distribution systems. Inefficient water use has led to considerable wastage of water in distribution lines, irrigation canals and in homes.


Donor Interventions

USAID investments include 1) the Philippine Sanitation Alliance Project, aimed at reducing public health risks through improved sanitation and wastewater treatment facilities; 2) the Philippine Water Revolving Fund Support Program, in collaboration with the private sector and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), aimed at stimulating private financing for water infrastructure to meet the country’s Millennium Development Goals in water and sanitation; and 3) the Environmental Governance (EcoGov) Project Phase 2, which provides technical assistance to local government units, many in Mindanao, to implement programs for reducing destructive fishing practices and improving wastewater management. USAID will soon conduct separate water and environment sector assessments as part of developing its overall strategy (as part of the Country Development Cooperation Strategy/CDCS process) which should form the basis for future investment decisions.


Active World Bank investments include 1) the Water Resources Development Program for rehabilitation of critical watersheds; 2) Philippine Local Government Grants for Sanitation Pilots, aimed at improving water quality, sanitation and flood protection; 3) the Improved Access to Water Services in Metro Manila Project for increased access to piped water supply services for poor households; 4) the National Program Support for Environmental and Natural Resources Management Project for an integrated ecosystem management approach in priority watershed areas; 5) Global Environment Facility-Manila Third Sewerage Project to promote capacity-building and effective wastewater treatment techniques; and 6) the Laguna de Bay Community Watershed Rehabilitation Project.


The Asian Development Bank (ADB) invests in 1) development of new water sources under the Water District Development Sector Project; and 2) river-basin management under the Pasig River Environmental Management and Rehabilitation Project and Agusan River Basin Integrated Water Resources Management Project in Mindanao (which encompasses the biodiversity-rich 40,000 hectares Agusan Marsh Wetland Sanctuary designated under 1971 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance).

Articles

Recently updated articles on Philippines
  1. Philippines/articles ‎(790 views) . . WikiBot
  2. Philippines/projects ‎(987 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Philippines/publications ‎(758 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Philippines/who is who ‎(1,128 views) . . WikiBot
  5. Philippines/Maps ‎(801 views) . . WikiBot


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Projects and Case Studies

Projects in or about Philippines

(this is a list of the 15 most recently updated entries. To see all projects click here)

  1. West Pacific East Asia Oceanic Fisheries management Project, under the Coral Triangle Initiative ‎(1,852 views) . . WikiBot
  2. Sulu-Celebes Sea Sustainable Fisheries Management Project (SCS) ‎(2,640 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Piloting a Pro-Poor Public Private Partnership in Water Service Delivery for the Urban Poor ‎(2,078 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Implementation of the Sustainable Development Strategy for the Seas of the East Asia (SDS-SEA) ‎(4,426 views) . . WikiBot
  5. Access to Potable Water Services with Active Partipation of the Poor especially Women ‎(2,930 views) . . WikiBot


Case studies in or about Philippines

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Publications

5 most recently updated publications on Philippines

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5 most popular publications on Philippines

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Who is Who

People working in Philippines

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Organizations working in Philippines

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References

See also

External Resources

"Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines" on Wikipedia

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