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Romania is part of:
Eastern Europe · Europe & CIS ·
Water Basins of Romania:
Black Sea · Danube · Prut · Sarata · Tisza ·
Facts & Figures edit
Capital Bucharest
Neighbouring Countries Bulgaria, Hungary, Moldova, Serbia, Ukraine
Total Area 237,500 km2
  - Water 7,160 km2 (3.01%) / 301 m2/ha
  - Land 230,340 km2
Coastline 225 km
Population 21,711,470 (91 inhab./km2)
HDIA 0.825 (2007)
Gini CoefficientA 31 (1995)
Nominal GDPB $213,900 million
GDP (PPP) Per CapitaB $12,500
Land UseC
  - Cultivated Land 95,384 km2 (41.41%)
     - Arable 90,961 km2 (39.49%)
     - Permanent Crops 4,423 km2 (1.92%)
     - Irrigated 30,770 km2
  - Non cultivated km2 (58.59%)
Average Annual RainfallD 637 mm
Renewable Water ResourcesE 42.3 km3
Water WithdrawalsF 23.18 km3/yr
  - For Agricultural Use n/a
  - For Domestic Use 9%
  - For Industrial Use 34%
  - Per Capita 1,048 m3
Population with safe access to
  - Improved Water Source 57%
     - Urban population 91%
     - Rural population 16%
  - Improved Sanitation n/a
     - Urban population 89%
     - Rural population n/a
References & Remarks
A UNDP Human Development Report
B CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia
C CIA World Factbook Country Profiles
D Aquastat - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
E CIA World Factbook
F Earthtrends

> Articles | Projects & Case studies | Publications & Web resources | Who is who | Maps
> Sector Assessment | Sector Coordination | Donor Profile

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Country Profile: Climate, Geography, Socio-Economic Context

Country Profile: Water Bodies and Resources

Romania's water supplies are quite modest. They are provided by the rivers, which meet 89 percent of the present demand (48 percent from the Danube and 41 percent from the interior rivers), and by the underground sources which account for about 4 percent. The water supplies are also important to the biodiversity of Romania. The Danube Delta, where the river flows into the Black Sea, is an ecological system unique in Europe and has been declared a protected area and a world natural heritage site.

In 2000, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Ukraine signed a Declaration on Cooperation to protect key wetlands and flood plain forests along the Danube as part of the Lower Danube Green Corridor initiative supported by WWF.

Water is perhaps one of the most important issues in Romania, and has both quantity (supply) and quality dimensions. The total available resources of water are estimated at 216 billion m3/year, with current estimates of amounts actually available for abstraction ranging from 26 billion m3/year to 41 billion m3/year. In 2002, total water use amounted to 7.24 billion m3, down substantially from use levels a decade earlier (water use in 1990 was around 20 billion m3/year). While both agricultural and industrial demand for water has decreased since 1989, overall, water demand is expected to rise in the future.

Water and the Romanian Economy

Water resources play a key role in the economy of Romania - between 35-40 percent of the country's total electricity production is generated from hydro-power plants mostly on the Danube River; and about 30 percent of the cropland is irrigated. Romania's water system is broadly developed. Its water resources are sufficient to cover its water demand.

Country Profile: Legal and Institutional Environment

Country Profile: Water Sector Coordination

See Sector coordination sub-page for detailed description

Country Profile: Trends in Water Use, Management and Sanitation

The water supply deficit is caused by the absence of, or insufficient, infrastructure in some regions: 66% of the rural population, representing approximately 6,75 million people, does not have access to centralized water supply and only 92% of Romania's urban inhabitants have access to the system. The ability to pursue infrastructure expansion, rehabilitation and modernization has been limited by a lack of investment and financial resources. Supply issues are further influenced by excessive consumption of water resources due to low water tariffs and a general lack of awareness of the importance of water conservation among the population.

A major cause of nutrient pollution in Romania is the inadequate treatment of wastewater. Of the total volume of used water discharged in 2001 requiring treatment, only 16.5% received proper treatment, with 48% being insufficiently treated and 35% receiving no treatment at all. Inadequate treatment is rooted in inefficient, or absence of, infrastructure. Industrial pollution is also a consequence of outdated infrastructure, weak enforcement of regulations and the absence of economic incentives to promote cleaner production. In turn, infrastructure weaknesses are rooted in the limited availability of finances for upgrading and modernization.

The trends in development of water resources aim at enhancing the water storage capacity by damming some river courses and by optimising water consumption. Romania's water management system was established by the 1995 Water Strategy, the 1996 Water Law and the 1995 Law on Environmental Protection. The current water policy is based on international recognized principles of good water management - namely integrated water resources management.

With regard to transboundary water management, Romania has agreements with Hungary, Bulgaria, and Moldova for their shared rivers (Danube and the Prut).

Country Profile: Challenges and Opportunities


Recently updated articles on Romania
  1. Romania Environmental Performance Review Chapter 7 Water Management ‎(2,107 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Romania/projects ‎(1,241 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Romania/publications ‎(1,256 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Romania/who is who ‎(1,541 views) . . WikiBot
  5. Romania/Maps ‎(1,230 views) . . WikiBot
  6. Romania/articles ‎(1,407 views) . . WikiBot
  7. Situation in Eastern Europe and Russia ‎(12,302 views) . . WikiBot
  8. Situation in South-Eastern Europe ‎(7,340 views) . . WikiBot
  9. Situation in the new EU-Member/Neighbour States ‎(6,384 views) . . WikiBot
  10. Effective Water Governance: Action through Partnership in Central and Eastern Europe ‎(2,822 views) . . Katy.norman

See the complete list of WaterWiki articles on Romania

Projects and Case Studies

Projects in or about Romania

(this is a list of the 15 most recently updated entries. To see all projects click here)

  1. Improving resilience of the Tisza River basin to fluctuating climatic regimes through development and adoption of a Strategic Action Programme ‎(1,476 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Tisza community-led demonstration regional project for sustainable development and integrated land and water management ‎(2,875 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Integrating multiple benefits of wetlands and floodplains in to a trans-boundary management plan for the Tisza River Basin ‎(2,652 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Water and Waste Management for small rural communities ‎(4,347 views) . . WikiBot
  5. Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies (TEST) to Reduce Transboundary Pollution in the Danube River Basin ‎(12,998 views) . . WikiBot
  6. Tisza community-led demonstration project for sustainable development and integrated land and water management ‎(4,091 views) . . WikiBot
  7. Sustainable Development for the Community from the Dorman Creek Valley, Romania ‎(2,539 views) . . WikiBot
  8. Strengthening the Implementation Capacities for Nutrient Reduction and Transboundary Cooperation in the Danube River Basin ‎(14,133 views) . . WikiBot
  9. Romania - USAID – Strengthening Water Users Associations ‎(3,038 views) . . WikiBot
  10. International Black Sea Day ‎(3,974 views) . . WikiBot
  11. Integrated Management and Conservation of the Mara Basin Reversing the Water Degradation in the Romanian Transboundary Region of the Upper Tisza, Romania ‎(2,817 views) . . WikiBot
  12. Garla Mare – Salcia – a double role wetland: biodiversity conservation and nitrate pollution filtration, Romania ‎(17,199 views) . . WikiBot
  13. Control of eutrophication, hazardous substances and related measures for rehabilitating the Black Sea ecosystem ‎(7,910 views) . . WikiBot
  14. Capacity and Community Building for Industrial Water Stewardship in the Danube/Black Sea region ‎(3,438 views) . . WikiBot
  15. A public-private partnership to fix a water supply system in Medjidia ‎(3,422 views) . . WikiBot

Case studies in or about Romania

(by popularity)

  1. Romania - Rehabilitation of the Water Supply/Sewerage Public Service in Medgidia ‎(25,523 views) . . WikiBot
  2. Enhancing Access to Information and Public Participation in Environmental Decision-making ‎(22,205 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Romania - Sustainable Management of the “Tur River” Natural Reserve ‎(17,967 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Romania - Partnership with Coca-Cola in Water Management ‎(15,558 views) . . WikiBot

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented projects in Romania


5 most recently updated publications on Romania
  1. Romania SD Country Profile ‎(4,080 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Romania, Sanitation Country Profile ‎(3,487 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Rapid Environmental Assessment of the Tisza River Basin ‎(3,210 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Romania Human Development Report 2005 ‎(2,653 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. Assessment of the Management of Shared Lake Basins in Southeastern Europe ‎(3,936 views) . . WikiBot

5 most popular publications on Romania
  1. Romania SD Country Profile ‎(4,080 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Romania Freshwater Country Profile ‎(4,065 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Assessment of the Management of Shared Lake Basins in Southeastern Europe ‎(3,936 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Romania, Sanitation Country Profile ‎(3,487 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. Rapid Environmental Assessment of the Tisza River Basin ‎(3,210 views) . . Katy.norman

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented publications on Romania

Who is Who

People working in Romania
  1. Yegor.volovik ‎(4,968 views)
  2. Florin.Banateanu ‎(3,402 views)
  3. Monica.Moldovan ‎(3,841 views)
  4. Roxana.suciu ‎(1,523 views)
  5. Roxana.schiopu ‎(868 views)
  6. Mihaela.dupleac ‎(1,141 views)
  7. Violeta Kogalniceanu ‎(1,986 views)

See the complete list of Waterwiki users working in Romania

Organizations working in Romania
  1. International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River ‎(4,782 views) . . Katy.norman

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented organizations in Romania


See also

External Resources

UNDP Romania:

Ministry of Environment and Water Management

National Company "Romanian Waters"

Romania Water Association (NGO)

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