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Russia is part of:
Caucasus · Europe & CIS ·
Water Basins of Russia:
Amur · Black Sea · Caspian · Daugava-Zapadnaya Dvina · Dnieper · Don · Elancik · Har Us Nur · Jacobs · Kemi · Kura-Araks · Lake Peipsi · Lake Ubsa-Nur · Lava-Pregel · Mius · Narva · Neman · Ob · Olanga · Oral-Ural · Oulanka · Oulu · Paatsjoki · Pasvik · Prohladnaja · Psou · Pu Lun To · Samur · Sujfun · Sulak · Terek · Tuloma · Tumen · Volga · Vuoksa ·
Facts & Figures edit
Capital Moscow
Neighbouring Countries Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, North Korea
Total Area 17,075,200 km2
  - Water 79,400 km2 (0.47%) / 47 m2/ha
  - Land 16,995,800 km2
Coastline 37,653 km
Population 143,201,600 (8.4 inhab./km2)
HDIA 0.806 (2007)
Gini CoefficientA 39.9 (1995)
Nominal GDPB $1,757,000 million
GDP (PPP) Per CapitaB $15,800
Land UseC
  - Cultivated Land 1,237,294 km2 (7.28%)
     - Arable 1,218,599 km2 (7.17%)
     - Permanent Crops 18,695 km2 (0.11%)
     - Irrigated 46,000 km2
  - Non cultivated 24,195 km2 (92.72%)
Average Annual RainfallD 460 mm
Renewable Water ResourcesE 4,498 km3
Water WithdrawalsF 76.68 km3/yr
  - For Agricultural Use 57%
  - For Domestic Use 19%
  - For Industrial Use 63%
  - Per Capita 523 m3
Population with safe access to
  - Improved Water Source 97%
     - Urban population 100%
     - Rural population 88%
  - Improved Sanitation 87%
     - Urban population 93%
     - Rural population 70%
References & Remarks
A UNDP Human Development Report
B CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia
C CIA World Factbook Country Profiles
D Aquastat - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
E CIA World Factbook
F Earthtrends

> Articles | Projects & Case studies | Publications & Web resources | Who is who | Maps
> Sector Assessment | Sector Coordination | Donor Profile

Latest 4 maps for / including Russia (more..):



Country Profile: Climate, Geography, Socio-Economic Context

Country Profile: Water Bodies and Resources

Groundwater Resources

The renewable groundwater resources are estimated at 788 km3/year. This figure, however, does not include resources in the form of inland ice, glaciers and pergelisol (permafrost). For the regions of western and eastern Siberia alone, the quantity of ice of the arctic islands is estimated at 5 000 km3 and that of the mountain glaciers at 170 km3. The resources in the form of pergelisol are even larger. The overlap between surface water and groundwater resources has been estimated at 512 km3/year.

Water resources distribution

Water resources in the Russian Federation are very unevenly distributed in relation to the population. The European part, where 80% of the total population lives, has 360 km3 of surface water resources, which is about 8% of the total river runoff, and 23 km3 of groundwater resources, which is 10% of the total renewable annual groundwater resources. In the Terek basin draining into the Caspian Sea in the southwest (northern Caucasus region) and in the Western Dvina basin in the west (central region), the annual river discharge is about 2 000-3 000 m3 per inhabitant, while in the Siberian and far east basins it reaches 120 000-190 000 m3 per inhabitant. The water resources in the densely populated Povolze (Volga region) with its rich soils and in the black soils region (central Tchernozem) in the European part are estimated at around 2 000 m3/inhabitant per year. The huge distances between the Siberian and European basins make it practically impossible to transfer water from Siberia to Europe. Transfer projects were considered in the past but encountered several problems, including environmental ones.

Lakes and Dams

There are about two million fresh- and saltwater lakes in the Russian Federation. The largest saltwater lake is the Caspian Sea, surrounded by the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Azerbaijan. The largest freshwater lake is Lake Baikal, located entirely within the Russian Federation in the southeast of eastern Siberia.

Dams have been constructed on most large rivers in the Russian Federation, mainly for electrical energy production, but also for irrigation. There are 330 large reservoirs in use at present, with a capacity of more than 200 million m3 each. Their total capacity is 360 km3. There are about 3 000 medium-sized reservoirs. The gross theoretical hydropower potential is estimated at 2 900 000 GWh/year and the economically feasible potential is estimated at 852 000 Gwh/yea. The hydropower installed capacity is estimated at 40 GW.

Water withdrawal and wastewater

In 1982, the water withdrawal was 97.8 km3, while in 1994 it had dropped to 77.1 km3. This reduction in water consumption, which concerns industrial and irrigation water withdrawal, has been related to the difficult economic situation in the Russian Federation, which worsened in 1990. Of the total water withdrawal of 77.1 km3 in 1994 for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes, almost 20% was used for irrigation

Country Profile: Legal and Institutional Environment

During the Soviet period, an agreement concerning the use of water of the Amur River was concluded with China. Renegotiated and modified since 1991, the latest agreement was signed in 1996. There are also agreements with other neighbours (Poland, Finland). These are general agreements, fixing the borders, including texts on crime issues, fishery, the prevention of pollution in river courses, etc. There have been no new international agreements on water sharing with the other countries of the FSU, and the inter-republic arrangements from the Soviet period are still in force.

In the Russian Federation, the 2006 Water Code sets the framework for all water-related legislation.

Country Profile: Water Sector Coordination

See Sector coordination sub-page for detailed description

Country Profile: Trends in Water Use, Management and Sanitation

Country Profile: Challenges and Opportunities


Recently updated articles on Russia
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  2. Russia/projects ‎(1,668 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Russia/publications ‎(1,304 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Russia/Maps ‎(1,235 views) . . WikiBot
  5. Russia/who is who ‎(1,301 views) . . WikiBot
  6. Situation in Eastern Europe and Russia ‎(12,309 views) . . WikiBot
  7. Image:Ural ENVSEC.jpg ‎(1,979 views) . . Juerg.staudenmann
  8. Image:Caspian CC Natural Hazards ENVSEC.jpg ‎(1,236 views) . . Juerg.staudenmann
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See the complete list of WaterWiki articles on Russia

Projects and Case Studies

Projects in or about Russia

(this is a list of the 15 most recently updated entries. To see all projects click here)

  1. Promoting Replication of Good Practices for Nutrient Reduction and Joint Collaboration in Central and Eastern Europe ‎(3,001 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Development and implementation of the Lake Peipsi/Chudskoe Basin Management Program ‎(5,632 views) . . WikiBot
  3. CEP/Grants Projects ‎(5,519 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Towards a Convention and Action Programme for the Protection of the Caspian Sea Environment, Phase II ‎(3,043 views) . . WikiBot
  5. SDC - Housing scheme for migrants in Ufa, Bashkortostan, Russia 2003-2005 ‎(2,360 views) . . WikiBot
  6. Restoring Depleted Fisheries and Consolidation of a Permanent Regional Environmental Governance Framework in the Caspian Sea ‎(3,161 views) . . WikiBot
  7. Public Involvement and Establishing of an NGO Forum in the Kura-Aras River Basin ‎(7,237 views) . . WikiBot
  8. Joint Actions to Reduce PTS and Nutrients Pollution in Lake Baikal through integrated basin management ‎(2,414 views) . . WikiBot
  9. International Black Sea Day ‎(3,974 views) . . WikiBot
  10. Implementation of The Dnipro Basin Strategic Action Program for the reduction of persistent toxics pollution ‎(2,703 views) . . WikiBot
  11. Control of eutrophication, hazardous substances and related measures for rehabilitating the Black Sea ecosystem ‎(7,911 views) . . WikiBot
  12. Capacity and Community Building for Industrial Water Stewardship in the Danube/Black Sea region ‎(3,438 views) . . WikiBot
  13. Implementation of Priority Interventions of the Dnipro Basin Strategic Action Program: Chemical Industrial Pollution Reduction and The Development of Joint Institutional Arrangements ‎(3,023 views) . . WikiBot
  14. Caspian Environment Programme ‎(18,811 views) . . WikiBot

Case studies in or about Russia

(by popularity)

  1. Lessons from the Lake Peipsi/Chudskoe Basin Management Program ‎(17,524 views) . . WikiBot
  2. Facing Water Challenges in the Vuoksa Water Basin: A WWDR3 Case Study ‎(8,154 views) . . WikiBot

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented projects in Russia


5 most recently updated publications on Russia
  1. Russia SD Country Profile ‎(3,074 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Original:ST. PETERSBURG STATEMENT ON THE ARAL SEA ‎(3,203 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Benchmarking Workshops: A Tool for Localizing the Millennium Development Goals in Bulgaria and Russia ‎(3,791 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. St. Petersburg Statement on the Aral Sea ‎(2,556 views) . . WikiBot
  5. Russia, Sanitation Country Profile ‎(3,464 views) . . WikiBot

5 most popular publications on Russia
  1. 2006 Annual Report on UN Chernobyl Coordination ‎(4,475 views) . . WikiBot
  2. Benchmarking Workshops: A Tool for Localizing the Millennium Development Goals in Bulgaria and Russia ‎(3,791 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Russia, Sanitation Country Profile ‎(3,464 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Original:ST. PETERSBURG STATEMENT ON THE ARAL SEA ‎(3,203 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. Russia, Freshwater Country Profile ‎(3,080 views) . . WikiBot

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented publications on Russia

Who is Who

People working in Russia
  1. Hamidreza Ghaffarzadeh ‎(3,730 views)
  2. Yegor.volovik ‎(4,972 views)
  3. Tim.turner ‎(5,263 views)
  4. Natalia.Alexeeva ‎(1,385 views)
  5. Melina.seyfollahzadeh ‎(2,706 views)
  6. Lubomyr.Markevych ‎(1,150 views)
  7. Hamid.ghaffarzadeh ‎(4,555 views)
  8. Ardalan.sotoudeh ‎(1,518 views)
  9. Nataly.olofinskaya ‎(3,499 views)
  10. Ludmila.Khorosheva ‎(884 views)

See the complete list of Waterwiki users working in Russia

Organizations working in Russia
  1. Joint Finnish-Russian Commission on the Utilization of Frontier Waters ‎(1,888 views) . . WikiBot

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented organizations in Russia


See also

External Resources - a really good source of water

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