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Samoa is part of:
Asia & Pacific · Pacific Islands ·
Water Basins of Samoa:
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Facts & Figures edit
Capital Apia
Neighbouring Countries none
Total Area 2,944 km2
  - Water 10 km2 (0.34%) / 34 m2/ha
  - Land 2,934 km2
Coastline 403 km
Population 184,984 (65 inhab./km2)
HDIA 0.760 (2007)
Gini CoefficientA n/a (1995)
Nominal GDPB $537 million
GDP (PPP) Per CapitaB $5,000
Land UseC
  - Cultivated Land 1,333 km2 (45.43%)
     - Arable 620 km2 (21.13%)
     - Permanent Crops 713 km2 (24.3%)
     - Irrigated km2
  - Non cultivated km2 (54.57%)
Average Annual RainfallD mm
Renewable Water ResourcesE km3
Water WithdrawalsF km3/yr
  - For Agricultural Use n/a
  - For Domestic Use n/a
  - For Industrial Use n/a
  - Per Capita m3
Population with safe access to
  - Improved Water Source 88%
     - Urban population 90%
     - Rural population 87%
  - Improved Sanitation 100%
     - Urban population 100%
     - Rural population 100%
References & Remarks
A UNDP Human Development Report
B CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia
C CIA World Factbook Country Profiles
D Aquastat - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
E CIA World Factbook
F Earthtrends

> Articles | Projects & Case studies | Publications & Web resources | Who is who | Maps
> Sector Assessment | Sector Coordination | Donor Profile

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Country Profile: Climate, Geography, Socio-Economic Context

Country Profile: Water Bodies and Resources

The surface water and groundwater resources of Samoa are fundamentally controlled by the geology. Surface water and groundwater are used for all types of water supply. Surface water provides approximately 65% of the water supply and groundwater 35%. Piped water supply access is estimated at between 90-95% of the population.

Country Profile: Legal and Institutional Environment

Country Profile: Water Sector Coordination

See Sector coordination sub-page for detailed description

Country Profile: Trends in Water Use, Management and Sanitation

Country Profile: Challenges and Opportunities

Extent to which groundwater and surface water resources are used and alternative sources

Surface water and groundwater are the only sources of water used for water supply provision, with the exception of rainwater harvesting practiced widely in the Falealupo Peninsula and in otherwise isolated and rural households. Piped water supply access is estimated at between 90-95% of the population.

The various and relative demands placed on watersheds/water resources

There has been no national assessment to date on the stress put upon the individual catchments and aquifers. This work will be undertaken as part of an on-going EU funded water sector support program (WaSSP). Limited historical surface water monitoring, and a lack of raw water abstraction metering, to date prevents accurate assessment of water withdrawal against low flow yields.

Competing uses of water and priority uses

The competition for water resources appears in the Fuluasou and Vaisigano water catchments around Apia, where both public water supply and public energy supply are provided by the same river systems. Hydropower operations in Fuluasou river catchment is now non-operational due to insufficient water quality and complete infilling of the intake reservoir with sediment.

4 Sources of pollution of surface water, groundwater and coastal waters

There is no known water quality monitoring for wastewater associated pollution. An on-going Asian Development Bank (ADB) funded Apia wastewater and drainage project is presently in the design phase and is about to commence baseline monitoring. There is however ample visual evidence of wastewater contamination of streams around the urban Apia area. Solid waste disposal is also a problem within the low-lying populated areas, with obvious uncontrolled tipping into valleys. Sediment erosion is the most visible surface water pollutant within the catchments. Perhaps the most stark reminder of sedimentation in the watersheds is the complete infilling of the now abandoned Fuluasou Hydropower Dam reservoir. Salinisation is known to occur at some boreholes in Savaii, although this is generally thought to be saline up-coning (i.e. over-pumping of an individual borehole) rather than saline intrusion (over-abstraction from the aquifer as a whole). However a lack of systematic monitoring and groundwater investigation prevent further assessment.


Recently updated articles on Samoa
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Projects and Case Studies

Projects in or about Samoa

(this is a list of the 15 most recently updated entries. To see all projects click here)

  1. The Laulii Rainforest Reserve: Nature Trail Development - Phase 1, Samoa ‎(1,908 views) . . WikiBot
  2. Restoration of the Lepa Village natural spring and development of water catchment for village drinking water, Samoa ‎(2,224 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Pacific Islands Oceanic Fisheries Management Project ‎(3,063 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Improving Community Resilience to addreess impact on coastal erosion on the Avatele Village Beachfront, the project focusing on improving the community adaptive capacity to natural hazards and climate change, Samoa ‎(2,017 views) . . WikiBot

Case studies in or about Samoa

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See the complete list of WaterWiki documented projects in Samoa


5 most recently updated publications on Samoa
  1. National IWRM Diagnostic Report Samoa ‎(1,697 views) . . Katy.norman

5 most popular publications on Samoa
  1. National IWRM Diagnostic Report Samoa ‎(1,697 views) . . Katy.norman

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented publications on Samoa

Who is Who

People working in Samoa
  1. Steve Menzies ‎(2,403 views)

See the complete list of Waterwiki users working in Samoa

Organizations working in Samoa

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See also

External Resources



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