State-of-the-Art Report on Systems Analysis Methods for Resolution of Conflicts in Water Resources Management

From WaterWiki.net

Jump to: navigation, search
edit  ·  ToolkitWater Conflict and Cooperation
History of Humanity and Water | Shared Waters and Ethics | Legal and Institutional Approaches | Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms
Emerging Trends | Public Participation | Indicators | Means and Tools | Basin Management | Lessons Learned
Organisations and Projects | Publications | Glossary | Bibliography
Case Studies: Incomati | Nile | Columbia | Lempa | Lake Titicaca | Mekong | Aral Sea | Rhine | Jordan I | Jordan II
Events | Contacts

Publication Title

State-of-the-Art Report on Systems Analysis Methods for Resolution of Conflicts in Water Resources Management

Publication Type

UNESCO-IHP Publication, PCCP Series, 127 p.

Author(s)

K.D.W. Nandalal and Slobodan P. Simonovic

Publication Date

2003

ISBN-ISSN-EAN

Publication URL

Contact

Contents

Summary

Water is an important factor in conflicts among stakeholders at the local, regional, and even international level. Water conflicts have taken many forms, but they almost always arise from the fact that the freshwater resources of the world are not partitioned to match the political borders, nor are they evenly distributed in space and time. The watersheds of 261 major rivers are shared by two or more countries and nearly half of the land area of the world is in international river basins. Water has been used as a military and political goal. Water has been a weapon of war. Water systems have been targets during war. The role of a systems approach is investigated in this report as a method for the resolution of conflicts over water. A review of the systems approach provides some basic knowledge of tools and techniques as they apply to water management and conflict resolution. This report provides a classification and description of water conflicts by addressing issues of scale, integrated water management, and the role of stakeholders. Four large-scale examples are selected to illustrate the application of systems approach to such conflicts:


1. Hydropower development in Canada

2. Multipurpose use of the Danube River in Europe.

3. International water conflict between the United States and Canada.

4. The Aral Sea in Asia.


The water conflict resolution process involves various sources of uncertainty. Section 5 of the report provides some examples of systems tools that can be used to address objective and subjective uncertainties with special emphasis on the utility of the fuzzy set theory. Systems analysis is driven by the development of computer technology. The final section provides one view of the future and systems tools that will be used for water resources management. The role of virtual databases and computer and communication networks is investigated in the context of water conflicts and their resolution.

Content

References


  • Allan, J. A. 1998. Virtual Water: An Essential Element in Stabilizing the Political Economics of the Middle East. In: J. Albert, M. Bernhardsson, and R. Kenna, Transformations of Middle Eastern Natural Environments: Legacies and Lessons, pp. 141–9. New Haven: Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Bulletin Series No. 103.
  • Allan, R. B. and Bridgeman, S. G. 1986. Dynamic Programming in Hydropower Scheduling. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 112, No. 3, pp. 339–53.
  • Anderson, F. 1999. A Wider World Wide Web: Global Usability and Water Websites. Symposium on Water Resources and the World Wide Web. Seattle, Washington. http://www.awra.org/proceedings/www99/
  • Andreu, J.; Capilla, J.; and Sanchis, E. 1996. AQUATOOL: A Generalized Decision-support System for Water-resources Planning and Operational Management. Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 177, pp. 269–91.
  • Anson, R. and Jelassi, M. T. 1990. A Development Framework for Computer supported Conflict Resolution. European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 46, pp. 181–99.
  • Anson, R.; Jelassi, M. T.; and Bostrom, R. P. 1987. Negotiation Support Systems: Computer Support to Mediated Conflict Resolution. IRMIS Working Paper Series # W712 (October). Bloomington, Ind., Institute for Research on the Management of Information Systems, Indiana University.
  • Antrim, L. N. 1986. Future Needs for Negotiation Support Systems: A Practitioner’s View. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Operational Research Society of America. Miami, Fla.
  • Arumugam, N. and Mohan, S. 1997. Integrated Decision Support System for Tank Irrigation System Operation. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 123, No. 5, pp. 266–73.
  • Back, T.; Hoffmeister, F.; and Schewel, H. P. 1991. A Survey of Evolution Strategies. Proceedings, of the Fourth International Conference on Genetic Algorithms. San Mateo, Calif., Morgan Kaufmann.
  • Bardossy, A. and Duckstein, L. 1992. Analysis of a Karstic Aquifer Management Problem by Fuzzy Composite Programming. Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 63–73.
  • Bellman, R. and Zadeh, L. 1970. Decision Making in a Fuzzy Environment. Management Science, Vol. 17, pp. 141–64.
  • Benayoun, R.; Roy, B.; and Sussmann, B. 1966. ELECTRE: Une Methode pour Quider le Choix en Presence de Points de vue Multiples. Note Trav. 49, Paris, Dir.Sci., Soc.Econ.Math. Appl.
  • Bender, M. J. 1996. A Framework for Collaborative Planning and Investigations of Decision Support Tools for Hydro Development. PhD Thesis, Department of Civil and Geological Engineering, University of Manitoba, Canada.
  • Bender, M. J. and Simonovic, S. P. 1996. A Systems Approach for Collaborative Decision Support in Water Resources Planning. Proceedings. IEEE Society of Social Implications of Technology, ISTAS’96, Technical Expertise and Public Decision. Princeton.
  • ––––. 1997. Consensus as the Measure of Sustainability. Journal of Hydrological Sciences, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 493–500.
  • ––––. 2000. A Fuzzy Compromise Approach to Water Resource Systems Planning Under Uncertainty. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 115, pp. 35–44. Bender, M. J.; Katopodis, C.; and Simonovic, S. P. 1992. A Prototype Expert System for Fishway Design. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 23, pp. 115–27.
  • Bennett, L. L. and Howe, C. W. 1998. The Interstate River Compact: Incentives for Non– compliance. Water Resources Research, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 485–95.
  • Bingham, G.; Wolf, A; and Wohlgenant, T. 1994. Resolving Water Disputes: Conflict and Cooperation in the United States, Asia, and the Near East. Washington, D.C.: US Agency for International Development.
  • Bleed, A. S. 1990. Platte River Conflict Resolution, In: W. Viesmann Jr. and E. T. Smerdon, Managing Water-related Conflicts: The Engineer’s Role, pp. 131–40. New York: American Society of Civil Engineers.
  • Blin, J. 1974. Fuzzy Relations in Group Decision Theory. Journal of Cybernetics, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 17–22.
  • Bogardi, J. J. 1994. Introduction of Systems Analysis: Terminology, Concepts, Objective Function and Constrains. In: J. J. Bogardi and H. P. Nachtnebel (eds.), Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Water Resources Management, Report WS14, pp. 23–32. Paris, France, UNESCO International Hydrological Programme.
  • Bogardi, J. J. and Nachtnebel, H. P. 1994. Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Water Resources Management, Report WS14. Paris, France, UNESCO International Hydrological Programme.
  • Bortolan, G. and Degani, R. 1985. A Review of Some Methods for Ranking Fuzzy Subsets. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 15, pp. 1–19.
  • Brooke, A.; Kendirk, D.; and Meeraus, A. 1996. GAMS: A User’s Guide. Redwood City, Calif., Scientific Press.
  • Brown, L. 1995. Who Will Feed China?: Wake-up Call for a Small Planet. The Worldwatch Environmental Alert. New York, W.W. Norton.
  • Buras, N. 1972. The Scientific Allocation of Water Resources. New York, Amsterdam, Elsevier.
  • Carpenter, S. L. and Kennedy, W. J. D. 1988. Managing Public Disputes: A Practical Guide to Handling Conflict and Reaching Agreements. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.
  • Chung, I. and Helweg, O. 1985. Modeling the California State Water Project. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. ASCE, Vol. 111, No. 4, pp. 82–98.
  • Clamen, M. 2002. Water Resource Conflict Assessment and Resolution: The IJC Experience. Paper prepared for UNESCO conference to be held in Den Haag. Nov.2002.
  • Clark, E. H.; Bingham, G.; and Orenstein, S. G. 1991. Resolving Water Disputes: Obstacles and Opportunities. Resolve, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 1–7.
  • Cobble, K. and Huffman, D. 1999. Learning from Everyday Conflict. The Systems Thinker, Vol. 10, No. 2.
  • Commonwealth Knowledge Network, http://www.commonwealthknowledge.net/
  • Cosgrove, W. J. and Rijsberman, F. R. 2000. World Water Vision: Making Water Everybody’s Business. London, Earthscan.
  • Dandy, G. C.; Simpson, A. R.; and Murphy, L. J. 1996. An Improved Genetic Algorithm for Pipe Network Optimization. Water Resources Research, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 449–58.
  • Danube Commission for Navigation. 1988. Recommendations for the Danube Water Way. Budapest, Hungary.
  • David, L. and Duckstein, L. 1976. Multi-criterion Ranking of Alternative Long-range Water Resource Systems. Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 731–54.
  • Davidson, J. W. and Goulter, I. C. 1995. Evolution Program for the Design of Rectilinear Branched Distribution Systems. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 112–21.
  • Davis, J. R.; Nanninga, P. M.; Bigin, J.; and Laut, P. 1991. Prototype Decision Support System for Analyzing Impact of Catchment Policies. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 117, No. 4, pp. 399–414.
  • Delli-Priscoli, J. 1988. Conflict Resolution in Water Resources: Two 404 General Permits. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 114, No. 1, pp.66–77.
  • Dubois, D. and Prade, H. 1978. Operations on Fuzzy Numbers. International Journal of Systems Science, Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 613–26.
  • Duckstein, L. and Opricovic, S. 1980. Multi-objective Optimization in River Basin Development. Water Resources Research, Vol. 16, No. 1. pp. 14–20.
  • Dukhovny, V. 2002. Project Proposal: A Set of Models for the Aral Sea Basin as a Tool for Integrated Water Resources Management and Sustainable Development. Paper submitted for the PCCP Project report. UNESCO.
  • Dunn, S. M.; Mackay, R.: Adams, R.; and Oglethorpe, D. R. 1996. The Hydrological Component of the NELUP Decision-support System: An Appraisal. Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 177, pp. 213–35.
  • East, V. and Hall, M. J. 1994. Water Resources System Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms. Proceedings, Hydroinformatics ‘94, First International Conference on Hydroinformatics, pp. 225–31. Rotterdam, the Netherlands, Balkema.
  • Eberhardt, A. 1994. Lake Ontario Regulation Utilizing an Expert System Approach Constrained by Interest Satisfaction Relationships. Proceedings, ASCE Water Resources Planning and Management Division Conference.
  • ECE. 1994. Economic Commission for Europe. European Inland Water Ways. New York, Geneva, UN.
  • Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS). 2002. Oxford, UK, EOLSS. http://www.eolss.co.uk and http://www.eolss.com
  • Equipe Cousteau. 1993. The Danube: For Whom and for What? Report to the IBW, Paris, France.
  • Fahmy, H. S.; King, M. W.; Wentzel, M. W.; and Seton, J. A. 1994. Economic Optimization of River Management Using Genetic Algorithms. Paper No. 943034, ASAE 1994 International Summer Meeting. St Joseph, Mich., USA.
  • Fang, L.; Hipel, K. W.; and Kilgour, D. M. 1993. Interactive Decision Making: The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution. New York, Wiley.
  • FEARO. 1986. Initial Assessment Guide. Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office, Canada Department of Supply and Services.
  • Fedra, K.; Winkelbauer, L.; and Pantulu, V. 1991. Expert Systems for Environmental Screening: An Application in the Lower Mekong Basin. Laxenburg, Austria, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
  • Fekete, G. 1990. Die Donau im Rahmen der europnischen Schiffahrt. In: Schiffahrt und Storm. 36 Jg., Heft 4, 5.6-10, Vienna.
  • Felix, R. 1994. Relationships Between Goals in Multiple Attribute Decision Making. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 67, pp. 47–52.
  • Fiering, M. B.; Harrington, J.J.; and deLucia, R. J. 1971. Water Resources Systems Analysis, Report, Policy Research and Coordination Branch. Ottawa, Canada, Department of Energy, Mines and Resources.
  • Fisher, F. M. 2001. The Economics of Water and the Resolution of Water Disputes. In: U. Shamir, Negotiation over Water. Paris, UNESCO, IHP-V, Technical Documents in Hydrology, No. 53.
  • Fogel, L. J.; Owens, A. J.; and Walsh, M. J. 1966. Artificial Intelligence Through Simulated Evolution. Chichester, UK, Wiley.
  • Ford, D. T. 1990. Reservoir Storages Reallocation Analysis with PC. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 116, No. 3, pp. 402–16.
  • Ford, D. T. and Killen, J. R. 1995. PC-based Decision Support System for Trinity, Texas. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 121, No. 5, pp. 375–81.
  • Foroughi, A. and Jelassi, M. T. 1990. NSS Solutions to Major Negotiation Stumbling Blocks. Proceedings, Twenty-third Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Science. Vol. 4, pp. 2–11.
  • Franchini, M. 1996. Use of Genetic Algorithm Combined with a Local Search Method for the Automatic Calibration of Conceptual Rainfall-runoff Models. Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 21–40.
  • Fraser, N. M. and Hipel, K. W. 1984. Conflict Analysis: Models and Resolutions. New York, North Holland.
  • ––––. 1986. Conflict Analysis for Group Decision and Negotiation Support Systems. Presentation, TIMS/ORSA Joint National Meeting. Miami Beach, Fla.
  • Fredericks, J. W.; Labadie, J. W.; and Altenhofen, J. M. 1998. Decision Support System for Conjunctive Stream–Aquifer Management. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 124, No. 2, pp. 69–78.
  • Friedman, R.; Ansell, C.; Diamond, S.; and Haimes, Y. Y. 1984. The Use of Models for Water Resources Management, Planning and Policy. Water Resources Research, Vol. 20, No. 7, pp. 793–802.
  • Gauvin, S.; Lilien, G. L.; and Chatterjee, K. 1990. The Impact of Information and Computer Based Training on Negotiators’ Performance. Theory and Decision, Vol. 28, pp. 331–54. General Decision Support System resource: http://dssresources.com/
  • Gershon, M. and Duckstein, L. 1983. Multi-objective Approaches to River Basin Planning. Journal of Water resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 109, No. 1, pp. 13–28.
  • Gilbert K. G. and Shane, R. M. 1982. TVA Hydro Scheduling Model: Theoretical Aspects. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 108, No. 1, pp. 1–20.
  • Gleick, P. H. 1993. Water and Conflict: Fresh Water Resources and International Security. International Security, Vol. 18, No. 1, Summer, pp. 79–112.
  • Glover, F. 1999. Scatter Search and Path Relinking. In: D. Corne, M. Dorigo, and F. Glover, New Methods in Optimization, New York, McGraw-Hill.
  • GMCR II. 2000. Copyright of this decision support system for the graph model for conflict resolution owned by L. Fang; K. W. Hipel; D. M. Kilgour; X. Peng.
  • Goicoechea, A.; Hansen, D.; and Duckstein, L. 1982. Multi-objective Decision Analysis with Engineering and Business Applications. New York, Wiley.
  • Goldberg, D. E. 1989. Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning. Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley.
  • Goldberg, D. E. and Kuo, C. H. 1987. Genetic Algorithms in Pipeline Optimization. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 128–41.
  • Grygier, T. C. and Stedinger, J. R. 1985. Algorithms for Optimizing Hydropower System Operation. Water Resources Research, Vol21, No. 2, pp. 114–22.
  • Gulliver, P. H. 1979. Disputes and Negotiation: A Cross-cultural Perspective. Studies on Law and Control. New York, Academic Press.
  • Haimes, Y. Y. 1977. Hierarchical Analysis of Water Resources Systems. New York, McGraw Hill.
  • ––––. 1994. Risk Management: A Requisite for Sustainable Development. Proceedings, International UNESCO Symposium “Water Resources Planning in a Changing World,” pp. II/3–II/16. Karlsruhe.
  • Haimes, Y. Y.; Kindler, J.; and Plate, E. J. 1987. The Process of Water Resources Project Planning: A Systems Approach. Studies and Reports in Hydrology, Report 44. UNESCO
  • Hall, W. A. and Buras, N. 1961. The Dynamic Programming Approach to Water Resources Development. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 66, No. 2, pp. 517–20.
  • Hall, W. A. and Dracup, J. 1970. Water Resources Systems Engineering. New York, McGraw- Hill.
  • Hartman, L. 1986. Methodological Guidelines for Integrated Environmental Evaluation of Water Resources Development. The Impact of Large Water Projects, pp. 467–84.Paris, UNEP– UNESCO 1990.
  • Harvard Law School. 1994. Proceedings, Computer-assisted Negotiation and Mediation Symposium, Programme on Negotiation. Cambridge, Mass.
  • Helweg, O. 1985. Water Resources Planning and Management. New York, Wiley.
  • Hicks, R. H.; Gaguor, C. R.; Jacoby, S. L.; and Kowalikn, J. S. 1974. Large Scale Nonlinear Optimization of Energy Capability for the Pacific Northwest Hydroelectric System. Proceedings. New York, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
  • High Performance Systems. 1992. Stella II: An Introduction to Systems Thinking. Nahover, N.H., High Performance Systems, Inc.
  • Higler, L. W. G. 1986. Classification of Water Systems for the Environmental Evaluation of Water Resources Development. The Impacts of Large Water Projects pp. 487–506. Paris, UNEP–UNESCO, 1990.
  • Hillier, F. S. and Lieberman, G. J. 1980. Introduction to Operations Research. 3rd edn. Oakland, Calif., Holden-Day.
  • Hipel, K. W. 1992. Multiple Objective Decision Making in Water Resources. Foreword of Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 1.
  • ––––. 2001. Conflict Resolution. In: M. K. Tolba, Our Fragile World: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Development: Forerunner to the Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems. Vol 1. pp. 935–52. Oxford, UK, EOLSS.
  • Hipel, K. W.; Kilgour, D. M.; Fang, L.; and Peng, X. 1997a. Applying the Decision Support System GMCR II to Negotiations Over Water: Negotiations over Water. In: U. Shamir (ed.), Proceedings of the Haifa Workshop. pp. 50–70 IHP Technical Documents in Hydrology, No. 53.
  • ––––. 1997b. The Decision Support System GMCR in Environmental Conflict Management. Applied Mathematics and Computation, No. 83, pp. 117–52.
  • Hipel, K. W.; Kilgour, D. M.; and Rajabi, S. 1999. Chapter 27: Operations Research and Refinement of Courses of Action. In: A. P. Sage and W. B. Rouse, Handbook of Systems Engineering and Management, pp. 1077–118. New York, Wiley.
  • Hipel, K. W.; Kilgour, D. M.; Fang, L.; and Li, K. W. 2002. Resolution of Water Conflicts between Canada and the United States. Paper submitted for the PCCP Project report. UNESCO.
  • Hobbs, B. F. and Meier, P. 2000. Energy Decisions and the Environment: A Guide to the Use of Multicriteria Methods. Boston, Mass., Kluwer.
  • Holland, J. H. 1975. Adaptation in Natural and Artificial System. Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press.
  • Holznagel, B. 1986. Negotiation and Mediation: The Newest Approach to Hazardous Waste Facility Siting. Environmental Affairs, Vol. 13, pp. 329–78.
  • Houcks, M. H. 1982. Real-time Daily Reservoir Operation by Mathematical Programming. Water Resources Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 196–200.
  • Howard, N. 1999. Confrontation Analysis: How to Win Operations Other Than War. Washington, D.C., CCRP Publications Series, Department of Defense.
  • Howe, C. W.; Schurmeier, D. R.; and Shaw, W. D. Jr. 1986. Innovative Approaches to Water Allocation: The Potential for Water Markets. Water Resources Research, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 439–45.
  • Ilich, N. and Simonovic, S. P. 1998. An evolution Program for Pipeline Optimization. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 232–40.
  • International Joint Commission. 1988a. Flathead River International Study Board Report. Ottawa, Ontario; Washington, D.C.
  • International Joint Commission. 1988b. Impacts of a Proposed Coal Mine in the Flathead River Basin. Ottawa, Ontario; Washington, D.C.
  • Ito, K.; Xu, Z. X.; Jinno, K.; Kojiri, T.; and Kawamura, A. 2001. Decision Support System for Surface Water Planning in River Basins. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 127, No. 4, pp. 272–6.
  • IUCN. 1994. Analysis and Synthesis of National Reviews for the Danube River Basin Environmental Programme. Gland, Switzerland, IUCN Headquarters. IWMI. 2000. World Water Supply and Demand 1995 to 2025. Colombo, Sri Lanka, International Water Management Institute.
  • Jamieson, D. G. and Fedra, K. 1996. The “WaterWare” Decision Support System for River Basin Planning 1: Conceptual Design. Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 177, pp. 163–75.
  • Jain, R. 1976. Decision Making in the Presence of Fuzzy Variables. IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 6, pp. 698–703.
  • Jelassi, M. T. and Foroughi, A. 1989. Negotiation Support Systems: An Overview of Design Issues and Existing Software. Decision Support Systems, Vol. 5, pp. 167–81.
  • Jelassi, M. T.; Kersten, G. E.; and Zionts, S. 1990. An Introduction to Group Decision and Negotiation Support. In: C. Bana e Costa, Readings in Multiple Criteria Decision Aid, pp. 537–68. Heidelberg, Springer Verlag.
  • Jones, E. H. 1988. Analytical Mediation: An Empirical Examination of the Effects of Computer Support for Different Levels of Conflict in Two-party Negotiation. Ph.D. Thesis. Indiana University.
  • Just, R. E.; Frisvold, G.; Harrison, V.; Oppenheimer, J.; and Zilberman, D. 1998. Using Bargaining Theory and Economic Analysis as an Aid to Trans-boundary Water Cooperation, In: R. E. Just and S. Netanyahu, Conflict and Cooperation on Trans-boundary Water Resources, pp. 411–26. Boston, Dordrecht, London, Kluwer Academic.
  • Keeney, R. L. and Wood, E. F. 1977. An Illustrative Example of the use of Multi-attribute Utility Theory for Water Resources Planning. Water Resources Research, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 705– 12.
  • Kersten, G. E. 1988. A Procedure for Negotiating Efficient and Non-efficient Compromises. Decision Support Systems, Vol. 4, pp. 167–77.
  • ––––. 1998. Negotiation Support Systems and Negotiating Agents. Colloque SMAGET: October 5–8 1998.
  • Kersten, G. E. and Noronha, S. J. 1997. Introduction to Negotiation Support: Issues, Processes and Methods. http://interneg.carleton.ca/interneg/training/presentations/nss_gdss_intro/
  • Kilgour, D. M.; Fang, L.; and Hipel, K. W. 1995. GMCR in Negotiations. Negotiation Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 151–6.
  • ––––. 1996. Negotiation Support Using the Decision Support System GMCR. Group Decision and Negotiation, Vol. 5, 4–6, pp. 371–84.
  • Kim, K. and Park, K. 1990. Ranking Fuzzy Numbers with Index of Optimism. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 35, pp. 143–50.
  • Kindler, J. 1988. On the Multi-objective Framework of Environmentally Sound and Sustainable Water Resources Management. Water Resources Development, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 117–23.
  • Kirkpatrick, D.; Gelatt, C. D. Jr.; and Vecchi, M. P. 1983. Optimization by Simulated Annealing, Science, Vol. 220, No. 4598, pp. 671–80.
  • Kovacs, G. 1986. Decision Support System for Managing Large International Rivers. The Impact of Large Water Projects. Paris, UNEP-UNESCO, 1990, pp. 435–48.
  • Ko, S.; Fontane, D.; and Labadie, J. 1992. Multi-objective Optimization of Reservoir Systems Operation. Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 111–27.
  • Kumari, R. C. 1995. Optimal Operation for Reservoir Systems Using Genetic Algorithms. MTech. Thesis. Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, India.
  • Kuncheva, L. 1994. Pattern Recognition with a Model of Fuzzy Neuron Using Degree of Consensus. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 66, pp. 241–50.
  • Lai, Y-J; Liu, T-Y; and Hwang, C-L. 1994. TOPSIS for MODM. European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 76, pp. 486–500.
  • Lancaster, C. L. 1990. Dispute Resolution Experience: The Engineer’s Role. In: W. Viesmann Jr. and E. T. Smerdon, Managing Water-related Conflicts: The Engineer’s Role, pp. 194–207. New York, American Society of Civil Engineers.
  • Landry, M.; Pascot, D.; and Briolat, D. 1985. Can DSS Evolve Without Changing Our View of the Concept of “Problem”? Decision Support Systems, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 25–36.
  • Lee, Y. W.; Dahab, M.; and Bogardi, I. 1994. Fuzzy Decision Making in Groundwater Nitrate Risk Management. Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 135–48.
  • Le-Huu, T. 2001. Potential Water Conflicts And Sustainable Management of International Water Resources Systems. Water Resources Journal of United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), No.ST/ESCAP/SER.C/210, pp. 1–13.
  • Leung, Y. 1982. A Concept of a Fuzzy Ideal for Multicriteria Conflict Resolution. In: M. Gupta and E. Sanchez, Fuzzy Information and Decision Processes. New York, Elsevier.
  • Lewis, F. 1993. Decision-aiding Software for Group Decision Making. In: S. Nagel, Computeraided Decision Analysis: Theory and Applications. Westport, Conn., Quorum.
  • Ling, C. W. 1993. Characterizing Uncertainty: A Taxonomy and an Analysis of Extreme Events. M.Sc. Thesis, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Virginia, USA.
  • Loucks, D. P. 1994. Sustainability: What Does This Mean For Us and What Can We Do About It. Proceedings, International UNESCO Symposium “Water Resources Planning in a Changing World.” Karlsruhe, pp. I/3–I/12.
  • ––––. Speech at Valencia. Decision Support Systems for Shared Vision Modeling: Challenges and Future Directions.
  • Loucks, D. P.; Stedinger, J. R.; and Haith, D. A. 1981. Water Resources Systems Planning and Management. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, pp. 320–32.
  • Loucks, D. P.; Salewicz, K. A.; and Taylor, M. R. 1989. IRIS: An Interactive River System Simulation Model, General Introduction and Description. Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University.
  • ––––. 1990. IRIS: An Interactive River System Simulation Model: User’s Manual. Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell University.
  • Lowi, M. 1993. Water and Power: The Politics of a Scarce Resource in the Jordan River Basin. Cambridge University Press.
  • Lund, J. and Palmer, R. 1986. Subjective Evaluation: Linguistic Scales in Pair-wise Comparison Methods. Civil Engineering Systems, Vol. 3, pp. 182–6.
  • ––––. 1997. Water Resources System Modeling for Conflict Resolution. Water Resources Update, Vol. 3, No. 108, pp. 70–82.
  • Lyneis, J.; Kimberly, R.; and Todd, S. 1994. Professional Dynamo: Simulation Software to Facilitate Management Learning and Decision Making. In: J. Morecroft and J. U. Sterman, Modeling for Learning Organizations. Waltham, Mass., Pegasus Communications.
  • Maass, A.; Husschmidt, M. M.; Dorfman, R.; Thomas, H. A.; Marglin, S. A.; and Sair, G. M. 1962. Design of Water Resources Systems. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press.
  • Mandel, R. 1992. Sources of International River Basin Disputes. Conflict Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 25–56.
  • Manitoba Hydro. 1989. Perspective 2000. Winnipeg, Canada, Manitoba Hydro.
  • Mares, M. 1994. Computation over Fuzzy Quantities. London, CRC.
  • Mastenbroek, W. 1989. Negotiate. Oxford, UK, Blackwell.
  • Mays, L. W. and Tang, Y. K. 1992. Hydrosystems Engineering and Management. New York, McGraw-Hill.
  • McCaffrey, S. 1998. The UN Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Prospects and Pitfalls. In: S. M. A. Salman and L. B. de Chazournes, International Watercourses: Enhancing Cooperation and Managing Conflict, pp. 17–28. Washington DC, World Bank, Technical Paper No. 414.
  • McKinney, D. C. and Lin, M. D. 1994. Genetic Algorithm Solution of Groundwater Management Models. Water Resources Research, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 1897–1906.
  • McDonald, A. 1988. International River Basin Negotiations: Building a Database of Illustrative Successes. Working Paper, WP-88-096. Laxenburg, Austria, IIASA.
  • Meister, D. B. and Fraser, N. M. 1992. An Architecture for a Prescriptive Negotiation Support System. Support Systems for Decision and Negotiation Processes, Preprints of the IFAC/FORS/IIASA/TIMS Workshop. Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
  • Modèles et Systèmes Multi-agents pour la Gestion de l’Environement et des Territoires Cemagref ENGREF, Clermont-Ferrand, France, 1998, pp. 307–16.
  • Moore, C. W. 1986. The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict. San Francisco, Calif., Jossey-Bass.
  • Moral-Seytoux, H. J. 1976. Optimization and Uncertainty. In: H. W. Shen, Stochastic Approaches to Water Resources, Vol.I, Fort Collins, Colo.
  • Munda, G.; Nijkamp, P.; and Rietveld, P. 1995. Qualitative Multicriteria Methods for Fuzzy Evaluation Problems: An Illustration of Economic–Ecological Evaluation. European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 82. pp. 79–97.
  • Murphy, L. J.; Simpson, A. R.; and Dandy, G. C. 1993. Design of a Network Using Genetic Algorithms. Water, Vol. 20, pp. 40–2.
  • Murtagh, B. A. and Saunders, M. A. 1995. MINOS 5.4 User’s Guide. Technical Report SOL 83- 20R, Stanford, Calif., Systems Optimization Laboratory, Department of Operations Research, Stanford University.
  • Nachtnebel, H. P. 1997. Views on International Water Conflicts: The Referee’s Position and Bilateral Agreements. In: U. Shamir, Negotiation Over Water. Proceedings of the Haifa Workshop. IHP-V Technical Documents in Hydrology, No. 53, 2001, pp. 114–41.
  • Nachtnebel, H. P.; Eder, G.; and Bogardi, I. 1994. Evaluation of Criteria in Hydropower Utilization in the Context of Sustainable Development. Proceedings, International UNESCO Symposium “Water Resources Planning in a Changing World.” Karlsruhe, pp. IV/13–IV/24.
  • Nishizaki, I. and Seo, F. 1994. Interactive Support for Fuzzy Trade-off Evaluation in Group Decision Making. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 68, pp. 309–25.
  • Nunamaker J. F. Jr. 1989. Experience with and Future Challenges in GDSS (Group Decision Support Systems). Preface of: Decision Support Systems, Vol. 5, pp. 115–18.
  • Oliveira, R. and Loucks, D. P. 1997. Operating Rules for Multireservoir Systems. Water Resources Research, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 839–52.
  • Painter, A. 1995. Resolving Environmental Conflicts through Mediation. In: A. Dinar and E. T. Loehman, Water Quantity/Quality Management and Conflict Resolution: Institutions, Processes and Economic Analyses. Westport, Conn., Praeger.
  • Palmer, R. and Lund, J. 1985. Multi-objective Analysis with Subjective Information. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 111, No. 4, pp. 399–416.
  • Palmer, R. N.; Keys, A. M.; and Fisher, S. 1993. Empowering Stakeholders Through Simulation in Water Resources Planning. Proceedings, Twentieth Annual National Conference on Water Resources Planning and Management Division, pp. 451–4. ASCE, Seattle, N.Y.
  • Poole, M. S.; Holmes, M.; and Desanctis, G. 1991. Conflict Management in a Computer Supported Meeting Environment. Management Science, Vol. 37, No. 8, pp. 926–53.
  • Postel, S. 1999. Water Wars I: Farms versus Cities and Nature. Pillar of Sand: Can the Irrigation Miracle Last? Chapter 6, pp. 110–32, 281–5. New York and London, W.W. Norton.
  • Powersim Corporation. 1996. Powersim 2.5 Reference Manual. Herndon, Va., Powersim Corporation Inc.
  • Raiffa, H. 1982. The Art and Science of Negotiation. Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., Belknap.
  • Rajabi, S.; Hipel, K. W.; and Kilgour, D. M. 1999. Water Supply Planning under Interdependence of Actions: Theory and Application. Water Resources Research, Vol. 35, No. 7, pp. 2225–35.
  • ––––. 2001. Multiple Criteria Screening of a Large Water Policy Subset Selection Problem. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, ASCE, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 533–46.
  • Rajabi, S.; Kilgour, D. M.; and Hipel, K. W. 1998. Modeling Action: Interdependence in Multiple Criteria Decision Making. European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 110, No. 3, pp. 490–508.
  • Reitsma, R. F. 1996. Structure and Support of Water Resources Management and Decision Making. Journal of Hydrology, No. 177, pp. 253–68.
  • Reznicek, K. K. and Simonovic, S. P. 1990. An Improved Algorithm for Hydropower Optimization. Water Resources Research, Vol. 26, No. 20, pp. 189–98.
  • Ribeiro, R.; Powell, P.; and Baldwin, J. 1995. Uncertainty in Decision Making: An Abductive Perspective. Decision Support Systems, Vol. 13, pp. 183–93.
  • Rogers, P. 1993. The Value of Cooperation in Resolving International River Basin Disputes. National Resources Forum, May, pp. 117–31.
  • Rogers, P. P. and Fiering, M. B. 1986. Use of Systems Analysis in Water Management. Water Resources Research, Vol. 22, No. 9, pp. 146–58.
  • Rosenthal, R. E. 1980. The Status of Optimization Models for the Operation of Multi-reservoir Systems With Stochastic Inflows and Nonseparable Benefits. Chattanooga, Tenn., Research Report 75, Tennessee Water Resources Research Center.
  • Rothman, J. 1997. Resolving Identity-based Conflict in Nations, Organizations, and Communities. San Francisco, Calif., Jossey-Bass.
  • Rumbaugh, J.; Blaha, M.; Premerlani, W.; Eddy, F.; and Lorensen, W. 1991. Object-oriented Modeling and Design. New Jersey, USA, Prentice Hall.
  • Saaty, T. 1980. The Analytic Hierarchy Process. New York, McGraw-Hill. Sage, A. P. and Rouse, W. B. 1999. Handbook of Systems Engineering and Management. New York, Wiley.
  • Sakawa, M. 1993. Fuzzy Sets and Interactive Multi-objective Optimization. New York, Plenum.
  • Samson, P. and Charrier, B. 1997. International Freshwater Conflict: Issues and Prevention Strategies. Green Cross International, August. http://www.greencrossinternational.net/GreenCrossPrograms/waterres/gcwater/study.html.
  • Savic, D. A. and Walters, G. A. 1997. Genetic Algorithms for Least Cost Design of Water Distribution Networks. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 123, No. 2, pp. 67–77.
  • Schwarz, R. M. 1994. The Skilled Facilitator: Practical Wisdom for Developing Effective Groups. San Francisco, Calif., Jossey-Bass.
  • Seo, F. and Sakawa, M. 1985. Fuzzy Multi-attribute Utility Analysis for Collective Choice. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol. 15, No. 1. pp. 45–53.
  • Shane, R. M. and Gilbert, K. G. 1982. TVA Hydro Scheduling Model: Practical Concepts. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 108, No. 1, pp. 21–36.
  • Sigvaldason, O. T. 1976. A Simulation Model for Operating a Multireservoir System. Water Resources Research, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 263–78.
  • Simonovic, S. P. 1989. Application of Water Resources Systems Concepts to the Formulation of a Water Master Plan. Water International, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 37–51.
  • ––––. 1991. Knowledge-based Systems and Operational Hydrology. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 1–11.
  • ––––. 1992. Reservoir Systems Analysis: Closing the Gap between Theory and Practice. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 118, No. 3, pp. 262–80.
  • ––––. 1996a. Decision Support Systems for Sustainable Management of Water Resources: 1. General Principles. Water International, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 223–32.
  • ––––. 1996b. Decision Support Systems for Sustainable Management of Water Resources: 2. Case Studies. Water International, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 233–44.
  • ––––. 2000. Tools for Water Management: One View of the Future. Water International, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 76–88.
  • ––––. 2002. Two New Non-structural Measures for Sustainable Management of Floods. Water International, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 38–47.
  • Simonovic, S. P. and Marino, M. A. 1980. Reliability Programming in Reservoir Management, 1. Single Multipurpose Reservoir. Water Resource Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 844–8.
  • Simonovic, S. P. and Burn, D. H. 1989. An Improved Methodology for Short-term Operation of a Single Multipurpose Reservoir. Water Resources Research, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 1–8.
  • Simonovic, P. P. and Savic, D. 1989. Intelligent Decision Support for Reservoir Management and Operations. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 367–84.
  • Simonovic, S. P. and Bender, M. J. 1996. Collaborative Planning-support System: An Approach for Determining Evaluation Criteria. Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 177, pp. 237–51.
  • Simonovic, S. P. and Fahmy, H. 1999. A New Modeling Approach for Water Resources Policy Analysis. Water Resources Research, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 295–304.
  • Simonovic, S. P.; Fahmy, H.; and El-Shorbagy, A. 1997. The Use of Object-oriented Modeling for Water Resources Planning in Egypt. Water Resources Management, Vol. 11, pp. 243–61.
  • Simpson, A. R.; Dandy, G. C.; and Murphy, L. J. 1994. Genetic Algorithms Compared with Other Techniques for Pipe Optimization. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 120, No. 4, pp. 423–43.
  • Siskos, J. 1982. A Way to Deal with Fuzzy Preferences in Multicriteria Decision Problems. European Journal of Operations Research, Vol. 10, pp. 314–24.
  • Slowinski, R. 1986. A Multi-criteria Fuzzy Linear Programming Methods for Water Supply System Development Planning. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, Vol. 19, pp. 217–37.
  • Sokolov, V. and Dukhovny, V. 2002. Lessons On Cooperation Building To Manage Water Conflicts in The Aral Sea Basin. Paper submitted for the PCCP Project report: Case Studies, UNESCO.
  • Spector, B. 2001. Transboundary Disputes: Keeping Backyards Clean. In: W. Zartman, Preventive Negotiation: Avoiding Conflict Escalation. Lanham, Md., Rowman and Littlefield. Sreenath, N. 2001. Global Modeling and Reasoning Support Tools, Oxford, UK, EOLSS.
  • ––––. 2002. A Brief Description on GLOBESIGHT. Paper submitted for the PCCP Project report on Systems Analysis Techniques, UNESCO.
  • Tecle, A. and Duckstein, L. 1994. Concepts of Multicriterion Decision Making. In: J. J. Bogardi and H. P. Nachtnebel, Multicriteria Decision Analysis in Water Resources Management. Report WS14, International Hydrological Programme, pp. 33–62. Paris, France, UNESCO.
  • Teich, J. E.; Wallenius, H.; Kuula, M.; and Zionts, S. 1995. A Decision Support Approach for Negotiation with an Application to Agricultural Income Policy Negotiations. European Journal of Operations Research, Vol. 81, pp. 76–87.
  • Thiessen E. and Loucks, D. P. 1992. Computer Assisted Negotiation of Multi-objective Water Resource Conflicts. Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 163–77.
  • Thiessen, E. M.; Loucks, D. P.; and Stedinger, J. R. 1998. Computer-assisted Negotiations of Water Resources Conflicts. Group Decision and Negotiation, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 109–29.
  • Trolldalen, J. M. 1992. International River Systems. International Environmental Conflict Resolution: The Role of the United Nations. Chapter 5, pp. 61–91. Oslo, Washington DC, World Foundation for Environment and Development.
  • Tversky, A. and Kahneman, D. 1990. Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. In: G. Shafer and J. Pearl, Readings in Uncertain Reasoning. San Matio, Calif., Morgan Kaufmann.
  • UN Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses, April 11 1997.
  • UNESCO. 2000. Water Related Vision of the Aral Sea Basin: for the Year 2025. With the cooperation of the Scientific Advisory Board for the Aral Sea Basin (SABAS).
  • UNESCO GENIE Coordinating Center. 2000. Globesight Tutorial Manual: Systems Program. Cleveland, Ohio, Case Western Reserve University.
  • Vali, A. M.; Susiarjo, G.; and Sreenath, S. N. 2002. Future Development of the Aral Sea Basin Countries. Paper submitted for the PCCP Project report. UNESCO.
  • Ventana Systems. 1995. Vensim User’s Guide. Belmont, Mass., Ventana Systems Inc.
  • Wang, M. and Zheng, C. 1998. Groundwater Management Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms and Simulated Annealing: Formulation and Comparison. Journal of American Water Resources Association, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 519–30.
  • Wang, Q. J. 1991. The Genetic Algorithm and its Application to Calibrating Conceptual Rainfallrunoff Models. Water Resources Research, Vol. 27, No. 9, pp. 2467–71.
  • Wardlaw, R. and Sharif, M. 1999. Evaluation of Genetic Algorithms for Optimal Reservoir System Operation. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, ASCE, Vol. 125, No. 1, pp. 25–33.
  • WRMI. Conflict Resolution. Water Resources Management Inc. http://www.wrmi.com/wrmi/webpage/tech.htm
  • Watershed Information Network. Managing Conflict: A Guide for Watershed Partnerships. http://www.ctic.purdue.edu/KYW/Brochures/ManageConflict.html
  • WCED. 1987. World Commission on Environment and Development. Our Common Future. Oxford University Press.
  • Wescot, J. L. Jr. 1996. Main Currents in Early Multilateral Water Treaties: A Historical– Geographic Perspective, 1648–1948. Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 39–74.
  • White, G. F. 1986. The Role of Scientific Information in Anticipation and Prevention of Environmental Disputes. In: R. W. Kates and I. Burton, Geography, Resources, and Environment: Vol. I, Selected Writings of Gilbert F. White. pp. 377–92. Chicago, London, University of Chicago Press.
  • WMO. 1995. INFOHYDRO Manual: Hydrological Information Referral Service. Operational Hydrology Report No. 28, WMO-No. 683, Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Wolf, A. T. 1998. Conflict and Cooperation Along International Waterways. Water Policy, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 251–65
  • ––––. 2000. Indigenous Approaches to Water Conflict Negotiations and Implications for International Waters. International Negotiation, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 357–73.
  • ––––. 2002. Conflict Prevention and Resolution in Water Systems. Cheltenham, UK, Edward Elgar.
  • World Cotton Outlook. www.cotlook.com.
  • Wurbs, R. A. 1993. Reservoir System Simulation and Optimization Models. Journal of Water Resources and Management. ASCE, Vol. 119, No. 4, pp. 455–72.
  • ––––. 1998. Dissemination of Generalized Water Resources Models in the United States. Water International, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp.190–8.
  • Yager, R. 1981. A Procedure for Ordering Fuzzy Subsets of the Unit Interval. Information Science, Vol. 24, pp. 143–61.
  • Yeh, W. W-G. 1981. Real-time Reservoir Operation: The California Central Valley Project Case Study. In: G. H. Toebes and A. A. Sheppard, Proceedings, National Workshop on Reservoir System Operations. New York, ASCE.
  • ––––. 1985. Reservoir Management and Operation Models: A State-of-the-art Review. Water Resources Research, Vol. 21, No. 12, pp. 1797–1818.
  • Yoffe, S. and Ward, B. 1999. Water Resources and Indicators of Conflict: A Proposed Spatial Analysis. Water International, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 377–84.
  • Young, Y. K. 1967. Finding Reservoir Operation Rules. Journal of Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 93, No. 6, pp. 297–321.
  • Zadeh, L. 1965. Fuzzy Sets. Information and Control, Vol. 8, pp. 338–53.
  • Zeleny, M. 1973. Compromise Programming. In: J. Cochrane and M. Zeleny, Multiple Criteria Decision Making. Columbia, S.C., University of South Carolina Press.
  • ––––. 1982. Multiple Criteria Decision Making. New York, McGraw-Hill.
  • Zimmerman, H. 1987. Fuzzy Sets, Decision Making, and Expert Systems. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic.

See also

External Resources

Attachments

 State-of-the-Art Report on Systems Analysis Methods for Resolution of Conflicts in Water Resources Management.pdf

3908 Rating: 2.0/5 (34 votes cast)