Tajikistan

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Latest 4 maps for / including Tajikistan (more..):
Tajikistan is part of:
Asia & Pacific · Central Asia · Europe & CIS ·
Water Basins of Tajikistan:
Amu Darya · Aral Sea · Ferghana Valley · Isfara · Syr Darya · Tarim · Vahksh ·
Facts & Figures edit
flag_Tajikistan.png
Capital Dushanbe
Neighbouring Countries Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan
Total Area 143,100 km2
  - Water 400 km2 (0.28%) / 28 m2/ha
  - Land 142,700 km2
Coastline 0 km
Population 6,506,980 (45 inhab./km2)
HDIA 0.503 (2007)
Gini CoefficientA 34.6 (1995)
Nominal GDPB $4,788 million
GDP (PPP) Per CapitaB $1,800
National UN Presence FAO, UNDP, UNHCR, WHO, UNICEF, WB, UNESCO, UNISDR
Land UseC
  - Cultivated Land 10,574 km2 (7.41%)
     - Arable 9,304 km2 (6.52%)
     - Permanent Crops 1,270 km2 (0.89%)
     - Irrigated 7,220 km2
  - Non cultivated 126 km2 (92.59%)
Average Annual RainfallD 691 mm
Renewable Water ResourcesE 99.7 km3
Water WithdrawalsF 11.96 km3/yr
  - For Agricultural Use 92%
  - For Domestic Use 4%
  - For Industrial Use 5%
  - Per Capita 1,942 m3
Population with safe access to
  - Improved Water Source 59%
     - Urban population 92%
     - Rural population 48%
  - Improved Sanitation 51%
     - Urban population 98%
     - Rural population 45%
References & Remarks
A UNDP Human Development Report
B CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia
C CIA World Factbook Country Profiles
D Aquastat - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
E CIA World Factbook
F Earthtrends

Contents

News

Country Profile: Climate, Geography, Socio-Economic Context

Tajikistan is situated in south-east Central Asia, with an area of 143,100 km2. Tajikistan borders Uzbekistan in the west, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in the north, China in the east and Afghanistan in the south. The state boundary is 3,000km long. Tajikistan is a mountainous country, with mountains occupying around 93% of its territory. In addition, over half the territory is situated at the elevation of over 3,000 meters. Geographically, the western part of the country is wedged by desert and semi-desert areas of the Touran lowlands that gradually turn into foothills; in the east, the country territory abuts with gigantic mountain ranges and Central Asian highlands – Tibet and Tien-Shan. This geographic situation accounts for a great variety of natural conditions.


The climate of Tajikistan comprises a variety of temperature ranges, moisture conditions, precipitation character, and the intensity of solar radiation. Depending on the elevation, average annual temperatures may vary from + 17 to - 6°С. Maximum and minimum temperatures may vary from +47 до - 63°С. Average annual amount of atmospheric precipitation constitutes from 70 to 1,800 mm and more. The terrain similarly varies. The northern territories include theFerghana Valley and a relatively low Kuramin Ridge. The central part of the country is covered with mountains ranges of Kuhistan, and the eastern part is dominated by the Pamir – the most severe mountainous area of the republic (I. Somoni Peak is 7,495m). The south-western part of Tajikistan is occupied by low ridges and wide valleys,l whilst the southern corner point(Aivadj) is located at 300m above sea level.


Around 6% of the country territory is covered with glaciers and permanent snows prevailing at 3,500 – 5,000 m. Glaciers are of real importance for Tajikistan as they serve not only as water depositories but also river flow and climate regulators. There are over 8.5 thousand glaciers in the country with the total area of 8,470 km2. The biggest rivers of Central Asia – Syr Darya, Amu Darya, Pianj, and Zerafshan – flow on the territory of the republic. Most rivers in Tajikistan are mountainous rivers originating at the elevation of 3,000m. The average annual flow is over 50 km3. There are almost 1,300 lakes in Tajikistan covering the total area of 705 km2. Very few of them are big. The biggest lake is Karakul in the Eastern Pamir situated at 3,914m above sea level. Other lakes of prime importance are Iskanderkul, Sarez, and Yashilkul. The area is also characterized by temporary lakes formed by glaciers or rock-falls and landslides. Besides natural lakes, there are man-made reservoirs: Kairakkum, Nurek, and others.


Tajikistan is a developing country. It's economic development is influenced by a number of objective factors: (1) it is landlocked; (2) it is far away from developed world economic centres; (3) it has a shortage of accessible oil and gas deposits; (4) it is fragmented into regions because of its natural and geographical features; (5) it has a small domestic market; (6) there is political instability in the surrounding region; and (7) there are high transaction costs associated with natural disaster recovery efforts and combating drug trafficking and terrorism.[1]

Country Profile: Water Bodies and Resources

Tajikistan has substantial freshwater resources, more than any other Central Asian country. The mountainous areas of Tajikistan are a principal source of water for the Aral Sea basin. These territories are characterized by an arctic climate, with a low average temperature, continuous cloudiness and a high level of fog. There are 1,300 natural lakes in Tajikistan with a total water surface area of 705 square kilometres and a total capacity of about 50 cubic kilometres. About 78 percent of the lakes are situated in the mountain zone more than 3,500 metres above sea level. Precipitation, melting glaciers, and snowfields deposit 50.9 billion cubic meters of water in the country annually. There are 1300 natural lakes, covering a total area of 705 square kilometers and holding 46.3 cubic kilometers of water, of which 20 cubic kilometers are freshwater. Tajikistan also has nine reservoirs covering a total surface area of 664 square kilometers and holding 15.3 cubic kilometers. The largest of these are the Nurek and Kairakkum. Several major rivers flow through the country, including the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya with its tributaries the Vakhsh, the Pyandzh, and the Kafirigan. The country has potential groundwater reserves of 6.9 cubic kilometers per year, although actual exploitation is lower, reaching 2.5 cubic kilometers per year.


Groundwater used in national economy is mainly located in quaternary alluvium of the large river valleys (Syr Darya, Kafirnigan, Vakhsh, Kyzylsu, Yakhsu) and intermountain depressions. According to resent surveys, potential reserves of groundwater make 17 cub. km/year. Exploited reserves are estimated at 2-3 cub. km/year. On average, households, drinking water supply, industrial processes, and irrigation of lands consume 6,500 thousand cub. m of water per day. Fresh groundwaters are spread within earth horizons 1 to 100 meters.


Tajikistan constructed an extensive system of irrigation and drainage facilities during the 1950s and 1960s. Irrigated farming dominates water consumption by volume (over 90 percent). Agriculture in Tajikistan at present and for the foreseeable future will remain one of the priority areas of the economy. In 2009 the World Bank reported that nearly 70% of cropland was irrigated; the Government of Tajikistan estimates that 88% of arable land (815,000 hectares – a greater total area than cropland) is irrigated. However, much of the irrigation system is either completely derelict or in urgent need of repair. The overall delivery efficiency of irrigation systems in Tajikistan is low, with losses from evaporation, seepage, general system deterioration, and unauthorized abstraction. As a result, only an estimated 630,000 hectares are still even partially irrigated. Increased soil salinity and waterlogging are common problems. Although Water Use Associations are being formed, the centralized design and management of the irrigation systems continue to lead to inefficient operation.


The nation’s hydropower potential is enormous, the third largest in the world after Russia and the United states, with a technically feasible annual capacity to produce over 500 billion kilowatt hours. Hydropower generated 98% of the country’s electricity in 1994 and continues to be a significant power source. An estimated 90% of the current power-generating capacity in Tajikistan is hydroelectric, and this power can be produced at only US $.004 per kilowatt hour, which is low compared to production costs of other energy resources. However, many Tajik households lack access to electricity in the winter months (October to May), when water used to generate hydroelectricity often freezes. During these months, rural households receive at most four to five hours of electricity per day, and on some days receive none. This causes a dependence on wood fires and kerosene, which results in respiratory disease and environmental degradation. The Tajik Aluminum plant, the largest in central Asia, alone consumes 40% of the nation’s electrical power.


Water for hydroelectricity is a source of considerable tension between Tajikistan and its neighbors. The Soviet irrigation networks carried water across national boundaries and depended on fuel and water transfer agreements between neighboring countries. In the absence of effective bilateral and multilateral agreements over the past two decades, cross-border tension over water has increased. When Tajikistan’s water freezes in the winter months, the country must rely on imported electricity from Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, but shortages in these countries have restricted the supply available for export to Tajikistan. If Tajikistan uses its (nonfrozen) water reserves extensively to produce electricity during the winter, the water reserves are not sufficiently replenished to supply its neighbors’ summer irrigation needs. Past fuel transfer agreements supplied Tajikistan’s winter fuel needs, but these have been broken or neglected.


Tajikistan is in dispute with Uzbekistan over management of the Amu Darya. The Government plans to build a hydropower dam (the Rogun) that would give Tajikistan almost complete control over the river. This has increased tension with Uzbekistan, whose water security would be challenged by such a development.


Tajikistan’s water resources are under threat due to the geography of the country as well as use-decisions. Irrigated areas are subject to substantial erosion, landslides and deforestation, which cause waterlogging and increased soil salinity. Water pollution is increasing with industrial production. The growing reality of climate change poses a serious threat, as rising temperatures lead to increased glacier-melt that could be disastrous to the country’s water supply and hydropower potential.


Only about 15% of the 4.6 million people, who live in rural areas, are currently served by drinking water. During the winter months, reduced availability of power supplies typically restrict water supply to 2 hours per day and many rural people pay $3–5 per cubic meter (m3) to have water delivered by truck to their village. Morbidity due to unsafe drinking water is an acknowledged contributor to poverty in rural areas. There are 669 publicly owned water supply schemes in Tajikistan, but due to lack of funding and damage sustained during the civil war, most of these are in a state of disrepair. Opportunities to improve water supplies are hampered by institutional barriers and existing taxation rules.


In the Soviet era, the state did not charge for general use of water, and for many years did not charge for irrigation. In recent years, however, the state has begun charging for water supplied through its water supply system. Household consumers who are connected to the water delivery system pay for water supply services. Because there are no meters, fees are estimated based on the number of people living in each dwelling unit and the estimated per capita consumption. In rural areas, many people pay to have drinking water delivered by truck because they are not served by the national water delivery system.

Country Profile: Legal and Institutional Environment

Legal Framework

Water legislation in the Republic of Tajikistan is based on the Constitution, the Tajik Water Code (2002), laws on Water (2000) and Sanitation (2003), and the normative and legislative acts recognized by the Republic. The Constitution of Tajikistan gives exclusive ownership of water to the state. Tajikistan’s 2000 Water Code governs water management, permitting, dispute resolution, and usage planning. In connection with the adoption of the Water Code, the Republic is carrying out an inventory of all legislative acts, 'from top to bottom', to reveal and remove internal inconsistencies, eliminate what is obsolete and set out new legislation. Due to the strategic importance and complexity of the water management system, some structures of particular importance are expected to remain under government ownership and funding.

Tajikistan has ratified or signed the following international human rights conventions and other water-relevant instruments:

Conventions

  • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights(ratified 4th April 1999);
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child (ratified 25th November 1993);
  • Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination against women (ratified 25th November 1993);
  • Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (10th February 1995);
  • International Convention on the elimination of all forms of racial Discrimination (10th February 1995);

Regional Instruments

  • UNECE Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters(accession 17th July 2001);
  • Kiev Protocol on Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (signed 21st May 2003).

At present, Tajikistan is neither a signatory nor party to:

  • Council of Europe Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms;
  • Council of Europe Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities;
  • UNECE Convention of the Protection and Use of Transboundary Waters and International Lakes;
  • UNECE Protocol on Water and Health.


Institutional Framework

The Ministry of Water Resources is responsible for water resources research, planning, development and distribution. The minstry is charged with construction, operation and maintenance of irrigation and drainage canals between and among farms. Further responsibilities include controlling water use and quality; distributing water to central farm access points; planning measures for maintenance and improvement of the soil; and assisting Water User Associations (see below) with implementing technology. The Ministry of Water Resources has provincial and district offices.


The Ministry of Energy and Industry manages water supplies for electric power generation. Water resources are managed jointly by the state and local governments, which fix quotas for intake of water and collect charges.


The Ministry of Agriculture is accountable for developing land-reclamation programs at the farm level, and for operating and maintaining irrigation networks at the farm level.


The state enterprise Tajikilkomkhoz holds responsibility for the domestic water supply and treatment of wastewater, and the Ministry of Environment is charged with protection of water resources.


Water User Associations (WUAs), the first of which appear to have been created between 1999 and 2004, are empowered to operate and maintain on-farm irrigation systems. WUAs are private associations, not run by the government. They are being established throughout Tajikistan at the instigation and with the support of international donor projects, international NGOs and the Ministry of Water Resources and Land Reclamation (MWRLR). The MWRLR has also established a Water User’s Association Support Unit (WUASU) to provide support to the WUAs.


The government restricts the quantity of water that businesses can use and the amount of pollutants that they can discharge into the water. The state can place quota restrictions on the quantity of water used by individual business entities. Enforcement is hampered by inadequate infrastructure for monitoring and enforcement.


Government Reforms and Interventions

Fees for irrigation services were first introduced in 1996. From 2001 to 2005, the cost of water tripled; however, tariff rates are still too low to cover the operating and maintenance costs of irrigation systems. Through agreements with the World Bank, Tajikistan is committed to eventually fully finance operation and maintenance costs with user fees.


The Government of Tajikistan is attempting to increase its hydroelectric capacity with three major new dams. One of these, Sangtuda-I, was funded by Russia and began operations in 2009. Another, Sangtuda-2, was funded by Iranian investment, and is not yet complete. A final project, the Rogun Dam, is still in the planning stages. The Tajik government has prioritized the Rogun Dam as a “national project” and is trying to raise funds domestically through bonds, although this effort has not proved successful to date (the project lost funding from a Russian Aluminum producer in 2007).


Tajikistan has initiated two water-related actions at the United Nations General Assembly over the past seven years. It first initiated the Proclamation of 2003 as the International Year of Fresh Water, and then the Declaration of 2005–2015 as the International Decade for Action: Water for Life. Tajikistan has hosted several international forums on water, on topics such as: Fresh Water (2003); Regional Cooperation in Transboundary River Basins (2005); and Water-related Disaster Reduction (2008).

Country Profile: Water Sector Coordination

See Sector coordination sub-page for detailed description

Country Profile: Trends in Water Use, Management and Sanitation

Country Profile: Challenges and Opportunities

Tajikistan has plentiful water resources (deriving from Pamir Mountains) but more challenges, especially in terms of water governance. ‘With annual production of over 13,000cubic metres of water per capita, Tajikistan is one of the most water wealthy states in the world, yet the country is able to provide just 59% of its population with access to safe drinking water [2]. Tajikistan has the worst access to safe drinking water in all of Central Asia, and outbreaks of waterborne disease diseases poses a serious risk to human health. Moroever, just under 1/4 of water supply systems are not functioning, approximately half do not meet sanitary requirements, and the systems provide water with outages and do not guarantee regular and sustainable access to safe drinking water. Water governance needs significant improvements. Many government bodies and institutions deal with the water sector, but none has overriding responsibility or capacity to enforce a unique strategic vision for the sector.


The water sector has faced grave problems during post-soviet independence. Hardships of post-soviet economic transition & civil war (1992-1997) have taken a toll on the water supply infrastructure. Low levels of official budget allocations and difficulties collecting user fees have severely limited domestic financing, which has been insufficient to meet the needs of capital investment. Even if increased funding was made available, it is unlikely water authorities would be able to effectively apportion resources among the sectors many and competing needs. The transition to a market economy and difficulties related to management of reforms put a special mark to development of water supply and sewerage, particularly in rural areas of RT. Emergence of un-owned objects, inability to maintain and operate water supply and sewerage facilities, low tariffs for services, quality of which does not meet standards, loss of facilities and production capacity, staff issues, loss of common accounting and reporting systems, sharp decrease of state aid, untimely payments and debts of water users, inability to attract investments aggravated already difficult situation in the sector of water supply and sewerage.During the latter Soviet period most rural villages had functioning piped water supply systems operated by their collective farm administrators or other authorities, of these piped systems, few are functioning today due to the local administrative vacuum caused by the post-Soviet break-up of these farms and the lack of maintenance and damage during the country’s long civil war. As these systems have been abandoned, villagers have become responsible for finding their own water.


“The poor quality of strategic plans for the restoration and development of the sector and the lack of a real system of economic incentives for administrative organizations are limiting opportunities to achieve a comprehensive resolution of the sector’s problems and to attract investment. Other negative factors include a shortage of qualified personnel, the lack of an agency responsible for implementing a unified policy in the sector, as well as the failure to resolve problems associated with placing water supply, sanitation and housing and municipal services facilities under the control of local authorities.”[3]


In addition, water in the piped systems is heavily polluted and of a poor quality. Due to increased human activity, the water is strongly contaminated with nitrates, sulphate, calcium, magnesium and various bacteria. Due to leaks in the system and the interruptions to supply of the water the contaminants from soil are being sucked into the system and the water is strongly contaminated with nitrates, sulphate, calcium, magnesium and various bacteria. The poor quality of water results in water related diseases such as typhus, dysentery, intestinal infections, and hepatitis. Kidney stones are reported as a major health problem, caused by the hardness of the water. Moreover, there are significant (average 50-60%) losses/leakages arising from the dilapidated water supply systems. Excessive water consumption and inability to calculate water usage are further problems. The level of water consumption in cities is extremely high. Without installing water metres in households and improving collection rate, it will be extremely difficult for Tajikistan to reduce the excessive water consumption, and mobilize internal and international resources for maintenance and development of water supply systems. [4]


Nevertheless, Tajikistan has great hydropwer potential, given it has 55% of all of the water resources in Central Asia. It is a truly rich water resource country; problems of water access are not due to a lack of availability, but rather a lack of good governance.


Donor Involvement
  • UNDP implements several national and regional projects on the effective management of water resources. With 13 years of experience in water management, UNDP is at the forefront of development efforts in the water sector in Tajikistan, providing more than 1 million people access to clean drinking water.
  • World Bank: The Bank is one of the main sponsors of efforts to improve water supply and sanitation in urban areas. Besides their on-going grant support for improvements of the Dushanbe Vodokanal, they currently support a $15 million grant program for 11 cities in the 20,000 to 50,000 population range (Vahdat as described above being one). The project has two primary components and is implemented by a project implementation office housed under the State Unitary Enterprise:
    • Physical improvements (pipeline replacement, furnishing vehicles and equipment, leak detection and repair).
    • Institutional strengthening of the vodokanals in each city.
  • UNICEF has acted as Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Sector Lead for a number of years in Tajikistan. In this role, they have periodically convened government, donors and international humanitarian organizations working in the sector and conducted evaluations of the sector. However, they have not played a particularly key role of late. Their field activities in the sector (hygiene promotion, and latrine construction in schools) are only a sub-component of their education program.
  • USAID has supported many water and sanitation activities as part of its humanitarian assistance in recent years. Since 2000, USAID has been working in Central Asia to improve the integrated management of natural resources. The USAID Special Initiatives Water Project focuses on providing governments with technical assistance and commodity support to improve management of critical water resources. USAID has succeeded in helping the government reorganize its management of river basin resources on hydrographic units rather than political subdivisions. USAID has provided technical assistance and equipment to rehabilitate pump stations and infrastructure and to improve communication systems. The agency provides ongoing support for the creation of water user’s associations, including a Water User Association support program implemented by Winrock International, and management of irrigation networks. Currently, the primary project contributing to increased access to improved water supply is the Local Governance Community Participation Program (LGPC). The Urban Institute is currently implementing this project that provides training and technical assistance, and funds (using small grants of $20,000 or less) basic water supply systems in rural areas. The work in Niyozbek Village described above is on example. The project also helps improve solid waste management in both cities and towns. Urban Institute performs hydraulic modeling of distribution systems and uses modern leak detection equipment to identify leaks and focus repairs in village water systems.
  • Swiss Agency for Development & Cooperation (SDC) is taking a lead role in support to the water supply sector. The focus of their current efforts include:
    • Promoting policy dialog with the Ministries of Land Reclamation and Water Resources, Housing and Reconstruction and others, with the goal of leading to sector-wide reforms; 2. Addressing ministerial reform;
    • Encouraging networking of relevant organizations, including relevant past experience, community tasks and responsibilities, and problems of poor materials; and
    • Piloting a model to sustainably expanding piped water access in rural areas that includes setting up a District Trust Fund. This effort includes an on-going project (started last year) in rural Sughd Oblast rehabilitating a defunct water system and building new ones.
  • Oxfam - Oxfam’s WASH sector strategy is to (1) gather information, (2) continue their fieldwork in Katlon Oblast on water supply and sanitation, and (3) advocate for sector policy reform. They are widely recognized as one of the international humanitarian organizations that has made consistent and high-quality contributions to the sector in Tajikistan. The Team had the impression that the contributions of other international organizations have been less consistent and influential at the national level.

Articles

Recently updated articles on Tajikistan
  1. UNDP GoAL WaSH ‎(17,239 views) . . Sara Andersson
  2. Emergency Rehabilitation of Rural Water Supply Systems in Khatlon and Sughd Regions of Tajikistan ‎(4,245 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Image:UNDPGoALWASHFinalTAJIKISTANRussian.pdf ‎(850 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Image:UNDPGoALWASHFinalTAJIKISTANEnglish.pdf ‎(838 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. Tajikistan/publications ‎(1,440 views) . . WikiBot
  6. Tajikistan/who is who ‎(1,389 views) . . WikiBot
  7. Tajikistan/Maps ‎(1,298 views) . . WikiBot
  8. Tajikistan/articles ‎(1,506 views) . . WikiBot
  9. Tajikistan/projects ‎(1,868 views) . . WikiBot
  10. Small hydropower in Central Asia ‎(2,269 views) . . WikiBot


See the complete list of WaterWiki articles on Tajikistan

Projects and Case Studies

Projects in or about Tajikistan

(this is a list of the 15 most recently updated entries. To see all projects click here)

  1. A Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA) to Improve Water Governance in Europe & CIS ‎(44,769 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Amu Darya Assessment of Environment and Security Linkages and Impact ‎(4,412 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Promoting IWRM and Fostering Transboundary Dialogue in Central Asia ‎(18,608 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Regional Research Network Water in Central Asia (CAWa) ‎(4,482 views) . . Katy Unger-Shayesteh
  5. Harmonization and Approximation of Water Standards and Norms in Central Asia ‎(4,198 views) . . Katy.norman
  6. Setting up a Project Formulation and Coordination Support group for sustainable transboundary management of radioactive waste in Central Asia ‎(1,785 views) . . Katy.norman
  7. A comprehensive study on glacial melting in Central Asia ‎(2,187 views) . . Katy.norman
  8. Central Asia – Regional and National Water Sector Review ‎(18,935 views) . . Juerg.staudenmann
  9. Water Flume Metres for Water User Associations ‎(2,918 views) . . WikiBot
  10. Water Productivity Improvement at Plot Level ‎(2,483 views) . . WikiBot
  11. The Swiss Support to Hydro-meteorological Services in the Aral Sea basin Project ‎(2,706 views) . . WikiBot
  12. Regional Rural Water Supply Project (SDC) ‎(2,481 views) . . WikiBot
  13. Integrated Water Resources Management Ferghana Valley ‎(2,890 views) . . WikiBot
  14. Ferghana Valley Water Resources Management Project ‎(5,504 views) . . WikiBot
  15. Canal Automation in Ferghana Valley ‎(3,095 views) . . WikiBot


Case studies in or about Tajikistan

(by popularity)

  1. Water Conflict and Cooperation/Aral Sea Basin ‎(25,746 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Tajikistan/sector assessment ‎(20,048 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Tajikistan - Mobilization of labor remittances into infrastructure rehabilitation ‎(15,313 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Lessons on Cooperation Building to Manage Water Conflicts in the Aral Sea Basin ‎(7,108 views) . . Katy.norman


See the complete list of WaterWiki documented projects in Tajikistan

Publications

5 most recently updated publications on Tajikistan
  1. Tajikistan Water Sector Strategy Paper ‎(2,514 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Tajikistan, Environmental Performance Review ‎(3,138 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Moving Mountains: The UN Appeal for Tajikistan 2005 ‎(3,390 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Tajikistan Millennium Development Goals Report 2003 ‎(3,187 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. Central Asia Regional Environmental Action Plan for Water Pollution ‎(4,989 views) . . Katy.norman


5 most popular publications on Tajikistan
  1. Water Conflict and Cooperation/Aral Sea Basin ‎(25,746 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Lessons on Cooperation Building to Manage Water Conflicts in the Aral Sea Basin ‎(7,108 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Central Asia Regional Environmental Action Plan for Water Pollution ‎(4,989 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Politics of Water in Post-Soviet Central Asia ‎(3,528 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. UNDP 2003: Water-related legal and institutional structures in Central Asia ‎(3,489 views) . . WikiBot


See the complete list of WaterWiki documented publications on Tajikistan

Who is Who

People working in Tajikistan
  1. Siegfried Leffler ‎(5,089 views)
  2. Vadim Sokolov ‎(4,307 views)
  3. Christine.roth ‎(6,057 views)
  4. Christina.carlson ‎(4,822 views)
  5. Magdalena Banasiak ‎(4,661 views)
  6. Craig Steffensen ‎(4,182 views)
  7. Sukhrob.khoshmukhamedov ‎(4,664 views)
  8. Karl.nilsson ‎(1,015 views)
  9. Cheickna.diawara ‎(3,935 views)


See the complete list of Waterwiki users working in Tajikistan

Organizations working in Tajikistan
  1. ICWC ‎(5,422 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. CAREC - Central Asian Regional Economic Cooperation ‎(8,202 views) . . Katy.norman


See the complete list of WaterWiki documented organizations in Tajikistan

References

  1. National Development Strategy, p.6
  2. MDG Needs Assessment p2
  3. National Development Strategy, p.50
  4. MDG Needs Assessment, p.6

See also

Tajikistan/sector assessment

External Resources

Water Strategy

UNDP Tajikistan Online Library

Attachments

 WaterSectorDevelopmentStrategy2006.pdf
 NationalHumanDevelopmentReport2003.pdf
 NationalDevelopmentStrategy.pdf
 MDGNeedsAssessmentofWSSSector2005.pdf
 TajikistanNationalWaterReport2006.pdf

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