Tajikistan - HRBA to Water Governance desk review - June 2008

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edit  ·  Toolkit Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA) to Water Governance
UNDP Regional HRBA to Water Programme for Europe & CIS

Detailed documentation: Background | Regional aspects | Regional Programme | Methodology
PHASE 1: Checklist (Bosnia and Herzegovina | Georgia | Moldova | Tajikistan | Turkey | Ukraine)
PHASE 2: Country Sector Assessments and Proposed Projects (Bosnia and Herzegovina | Tajikistan | Kosovo | Serbia) | Bibliography

Legal Framework: The Rights to Water and Sanitation in International Law | Regional Law | National Law
WaterWiki-resources:Rights to Water and Sanitation: A Handbook for Activists | UN Human Rights Council Resolution on Water and Sanitation | UN Recognises Access to Clean Water as a Basic Human Right | Human Rights-Based Approach | Applying a HRBA to Water:A Case Study | Water-related Legislation and Conventions | The Right to Water - WHO Publication | A UN Convention on the Right to Water - An Idea Whose Time Has Come | International Conference on the Right to Water and Sanitation in Theory and Practice | Q&A: The Right to Water | General Comment 15 (2002) | Q&A: Water Governance | Water and Health | Equitable Access to Water and Human Rights | European Union Water Framework Directive | Essay: What exactly is “The Right to Water”? | Protocol on Water and Health | Protocol on Water and Health/Q&A | Lessons Learned From Rights-Based Approaches in the Asia-Pacific Region | Human Rights-Based Approach Strategies adopted by UNICEF Laos | Utility Privatisation through the Lens of Human Rights | The Right to Water - From Concept to Implementation | The Human Right to Water:Translating Theory into Practice | Report of the Seminar on Human Rights and MDGs, May 2009
External resources: HRBA and Water Governance Fast Facts - UNDP | Applying a HRBA to Developing Cooperation and Programming (UNDP, 2006) | COHRE Manual on the Right to Water and Sanitation | Protocol on Water and Health - Full Document) | COHRE Monitoring Implementation of the Right to Water: A Framework for Developing Indicators | Sub-commission guidelines for the realisation of the right to drinking water and sanitation (2005) | UNFPA - A HRBA to Programming, Practical Implementation Manual and Training Materials (2010) | Operational Guidelines for Implementing a Rights-Based Approach in Water and Sanitation Programming (CoHRE,2008) | COHRE Monitoring Implementation of the Right to Water: A Framework for Developing Indicators | FAQs on a HRBA to Development Cooperation | The Human Rights-Based Approach to Development - The Right to Water | UN Independent Expert Report on the issue of human rights obligations related to water and sanitation 2009 | UN Independent Expert Report on MDGs and right to water and sanitation 2010
Websites: The Rights to Water and Sanitation Information Portal | UN Independent Expert on Right to Water and Sanitation Webpage

This checklist is to enable you to track and assess the status of the main global and regional conventions on human rights with impacts on water management in your country.

Checklist for Country Assessment
The checklist in this section is intended to systematize the way you conduct a baseline assessment in a specific country or region. It will help you to identify gaps in the regulatory and administrative structures of a country, as well as technical capacity needs. It should be underlined that the checklist is not exhaustive. It aims to ensure sufficient level of detail in order for you to make an informed assessment of the situation without being an excessively time and resources consuming.

A sample of the initial section of the checklist is provided below. To print or download the entire checklist, you may want to refer to this file:  Template Check List for Country Assessment.doc

Contents

Status of the main human rights conventions & other relevant instruments

This checklist is to enable you to track and assess the status of the main global and regional conventions on human rights with impacts on water management in your country.

Conventions

  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Ratified (...)
  • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Ratified 1999
  • Convention for the Rights of the Child: Ratified 1993
  • Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination against Women: Ratified 1993
  • Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment: Ratified 1995
  • International Convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination: Ratified 1993

Regional Instruments (Europe)

Transboundary water courses agreements (if applicable)

  1. Although Tajikistan has not signed the UNECE Convention of the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, it is a party to some agreements with neighbouring states regarding joint management of transboundary water sources.

The first international multilateral agreement on transboundary waters in the NIS region - the Agreement between the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Republic of Tajikistan and Turkmenistan on Cooperation in Joint Management of Use and Protection of Water Resources of Interstate Sources 7 was signed in Almaty (Kazakhstan), on 18 February 1992. Full text available (English): mul-54529.doc [1] 2. The agreement on General Principles of Interaction in Rational Use and Protection of Transboundary Water-bodies of the CIS Member States was signed in Moscow in 1998 12, and it entered into force on 6 June 2002. There are three Parties to this CIS Transboundary Water Agreement (CIS TWA): Belarus (from 06.11.1998), the Russian Federation (06.06.2002) and Tajikistan (16.01.2001). The Agreement is based on provisions from the UNECE Water Convention. [2]

Attention should be given to drawing up/developing existing agreements in the following river basins:

  • Amu Darya, shared by Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan;
  • Syr Darya, shared by Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan;
  • Zeravshan, shared by Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. [3]



Assessment of country context for effective implementation of a HRBA to water

This check list aims to facilitate the assessment of the enabling environment in the country as well as identify any socio-political issues in the country.



Priorities for human development in the country (development plan)

In 2005, with the aim of raising the standard of living, the President of Tajikistan initiated the formation of a long-term National Development Strategy (NDS) to 2015 and a medium-term Poverty Reduction Strategy for 2007–2009 (PRS 2007–2009)[4]. The NDS document “puts forward an orderly and MDG-based long-term development process throughout 2007-2015.[5] ” Unclear whether the draft NDS has been adopted.[6]

The Government created sectoral working groups to deal with the following goal, one of which is especially charged with improving access to water and sanitation (see 9):

  1. reform of the state administration;
  2. macroeconomic development;
  3. improvement of the investment climate and development of the private sector and entrepreneurship;
  4. regional cooperation and integration into the world economy;
  5. food security and development of the agro-industrial complex;
  6. development of infrastructure, communications, energy, and industry;
  7. development of the health care system;
  8. development of education and science;
  9. broadened access to water, sanitation, and housing;
  10. strengthened social protection of the population;
  11. guarantee of gender equality;
  12. guarantee of ecological sustainability.[7]



Integration of WSS in the development plan

The national development strategy notes that water supply and sanitation along with major infrastructure projects are essential to economic growth and improvement of living conditions in the country.

Current level of achievement of the MDGs on WSS

Tajikistan is unlikely to meet the MDG targets. [8] Currently, the World Bank estimates show that only 59% of urban population have access to improved water sources. Only about 50% of the total population have access to improved sanitation facilities.

Support in the country for HRBA to Water Governance

No information available.

Respect of rule of law in the country

Tajiks' faith in judicial integrity and the rule of law has never really recovered from the trauma of the civil war, when it was public knowledge that certain factions or militias existed above the law. Given that the Parliament is largely dominated by the ruling party and that the President personally appoints and dismisses the remaining judges and state prosecutors - the opportunities for influence and abuse are manifest. In addition, constitutional provisions conflict regarding court jurisdiction and supremacy to interpret and enforce the law. [9]

Fight against corruption in the country

Corruption levels in the country are rampant. The country ranks 150 out of 157 countries on the TI Corruption Perceptions Index.[10] For more information about measures taken to fight corruption in the country go to http://www.undp.tj/files/reports/pta_en.pdf

Minority and vulnerable and marginalised groups in the country with regard to access to WWS

In the Republic of Tajikistan, there are many population centres, where people take potable water from sources located up to 5 km away from the place of residence. Children have their duty to provide potable water for their households. However, nobody collected information about the distance between the households and the water sources. [11] In this regard children should be regarded as a vulnerable group.

Any discriminatory practices identified and reasons for this

No information available.

Transboundary water courses/bodies problems

A cycle of disputes has developed between the three downstream countries - Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - that are all heavy consumers of water for growing cotton, and the upstream nations - Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The downstream countries require more water for their growing agricultural sectors and rising populations, while the economically weaker upstream countries are trying to win more control over their resources and want to use more water for electricity generation and farming. Tensions focus on the two main rivers of the region that both flow to the Aral Sea - the Syr Darya from Kyrgyzstan through Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan and the Amu Darya from Tajikistan through Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The Amu Darya and its tributaries form part of the border between the Central Asian states and Afghanistan.[12] Tajik-Kyrgyz Water Clash due to unclear boarders and poor communications.[13]

UNDP indicators of human development - vulnerability and poverty in the country

The HDI for Tajikistan is 0.673, which gives the country a rank of 122nd out of 177 countries. Half of Tajikistan’s population is under 18 years of age; two thirds live in rural areas (urban populations 28 per cent )[14]. Economic growth averaging 8 per cent annually has reduced poverty over the past five years, and social reform has become a national priority.[15]

National resources (budget and programmes) – notice that according to UN, countries should spend 1% GDP for WSS

Low allocations. No specific figures found.

Identification of programmes and projects in the country (national and international)

Transboundary Waters Management Experience in Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (TWME-ECCA)
GEF
  • USD 1,944,717
  • 2005-2007
  • The aim of the project is to capture Best Practices, Knowledge and Lessons from GEF-IW (Transboundary Land and Water Management) throughout the RBEC region.
Improved Water Management in Tajikistan
UNDP Tajikistan
  • 2005- 2007
  • Improving water management to enable the broad water access
National Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Planning and Transboundary Dialog in Central Asia (Preparatory Phase)
UNDP/BRC
  • USD 85,000.00
  • 2007-2008
  • Developing a National IWRM Plan and Water Supply & Sanitation Strategy for Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan; fostering transboundary dialog in Central Asia
Khujand Water Supply Improvement Project II
EBRD
  • USD 8.8 million
  • 2008
  • The Khujand Water Supply Improvement Project Phase II would fund additional water supply improvements, including continuation of the network rehabilitation program, rehabilitation and capacity increase of the existing pumping stations, procurement of machinery and equipment and continuation of the metering program.
Water Management Assistance Program for Uzbekistan and Tajikistan
USAid
  • There are three areas of work encompassed within the Water Management Assistance Program for Uzbekistan and Tajikistan: potable water, information technology, and integrated water resources management. The goal of the potable water activity is to improve both the accessibility and quality of potable water delivered to domestic users in the Karakalpakstan region of Northwestern Uzbekistan. The people of these areas of the country are adversely affected not only by the recent drought, but also by the long-term negative impacts of the drying up of the Aral Sea. This component of the Task Order began with a feasibility study and is to continue through the construction and monitoring services.
RETA (for approval in 2008) :Improved Management of Water Resources in Central Asia (formerly Improved Water Resources Management II)
ADB
  • USD 1,5 million
  • 2008
  • Environmental Sustainability

Inclusive Social Development Regional Cooperation

Water Investment Support Facility (Tacis)
EuropeAid
  • EUR 2,699,100
  • 2005-2008
  • The overall objective of the project is to improve access to safe drinking water and adequate water services, as well as strengthening water governance and reducing water pollution.

The specific objective is to provide consultancy services in order to facilitate project finance in the WS&S and IWRM sectors, by means of supporting project preparation on request by IFIs.


Environmental Training for Financial Intermediaries
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
  • EUR 590,000
  • 2005-2006
  • Technical assistance
Development of National Environmental Strategies for

Sustainable Development (Tacis)

EUR 1,851,550
  • EuropeAid
  • 2006-2008
  • The main project objective is to support the countries in improving their national environmental strategies and programmes for sustainable development. The project will also support environmental strategy planning in one key area in each country extending from the national level towards the local communities.
Strengthening Public Participation and Civil Society Support to Implementation of Aarhus Convention (Tacis)
EUR 1,500, 000
  • EuropeAid
  • 2007-2009
  • Support the implementation of provisions of the "Aarhus Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters" in the five Central Asia countries.
Water Governance in Central Asia
EuropeAid
  • EUR 1.800.000
  • 2008-2010
  • The specific objective is have water legislation improved, implemented and enforced, approaching EU standards.
Support to the monitoring of the PRSP in Tajikistan
EuropeAid
  • EUR 649 884
  • 2006-2008
  • The purpose of this contract is to assist the Government to strengthen and improve its development policies by implementing “managing for development results” in relation with the Poverty Reduction Strategy and more specifically in the two focal sectors of Health and Education. “Managing for results” has several benefits. It is simultaneously a management approach and a set of tools for strategic planning, monitoring and evaluating performance, reporting and organizational improvement and learning. It helps at clarifying objectives and priorities, create feedback loops into the organization as part as an iterative responsive decision-making process, to better allocate resources and to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness.
Support to the Establishment of a National Agricultural Advisory Service (SENAS) in Tajikistan
EuropeAid
  • EUR 1,569,150
  • 2007-2010
  • The project objective is to support the establishment of an agricultural advisory system in a bottom-up development process in Kulyab and at least 2 other areas of Tajikistan. Kulyab Agricultural Training and Advisory Service (ATAS) and the Advisory Information Coordination Centre (AICC) within the Ministry of Agriculture were created with support from a previous EC project in 2005 - 2006.
Support to Civil Service Reform and Good Governance
EuropeAid
  • EUR 750 000
  • 2008-2010
  • The project is aimed at contributing to the development of a professional, transparent and effective public administration in Tajikistan. Services will consist of legal advice on the improvement of civil service legislation as well as institutional support to the Department for Civil Service Affairs under the President and the civil service training institute.

Identification of relevant NGOs and service providers

See section 3 “Policy and legislation to implement a HRBA to water” under “competent authorities” for a list of national authorities who will be important stakeholders. Also see discussion paper for a broad description of the main stakeholders and their functions in the region as a whole. In order to be useful this section should be filled in during a country mission as it is difficult to make this kind of assessment through a desktop study.

Main water users (linked to previous but useful to balance interests and prioritise access

Out of the freshwater withdrawal:

  • 91% goes to agriculture;
  • 5% to industry;
  • 4% for domestic use. [16]

Indicators (e.g., number of persons connected, development of disaggregate indicators)

  • Population size: 6.6 million[17]
  • Population using “improved water source”: 59%[18]
  • Population using “improved sanitation”: 51%[19]
  • Urban population connected to centralized water supply systems: 87%[20]
  • Rural population connected to centralized water supply systems: 20%[21]

Figures taken from UNDP Human Development 2006 Report. Note these figures should be considered with caution as there are some differences in the data for “improved access” and specific figures on “access”. An illustrative example is the one above where it was found that over 90% of the population had access to improved water sources, yet some estimation indicate almost 40% of the water pumped do not meet the health criteria. The discrepancies in the data put to the fore, the difficulty in assessing the situation on the ground. Sources: UNDP Human Development Index 2008, http://hdrstats.undp.org/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TJK.html Tajikistan Poverty Reduction Strategy for 2007–2009 http://www.undp.tj/files/reports/prsp2_firstdraft.pdf

Infrastructure


Waste water treatment plants
No information | Nothing in place | Poor conditions | Adequate | Excellent

Over 80% of wastewater treatment plants are out of operation, because of moral and physical wear, while the operating wastewater treatment plants are inefficient. Over the last decade, the number of accidents in the water supply and wastewater collection networks has significantly increased.[22] Water-treatment works of urban piped supplies are generally better equipped, maintained and operated than rural supplies. This is particularly true of the availability of functioning disinfection units, where financially-strapped rural supplies frequently do not have sufficient stocks of disinfectant (i.e. chlorine or hypochlorite). Water disinfection thus takes place seldomly, and often only during and after outbreaks of intestinal infectious diseases. In most utilities, disinfection is carried out by dosing the water with dry chlorine, which is a low-cost method. It is estimated that more than 70% of the water distribution network in Tajikistan is in poor condition due to the lack of regular maintenance, low water pressure, and frequent pipe breaks. [23]


Water infrastructures to convey water to urban areas
No information | Nothing in place | Poor conditions | Adequate | Excellent

Recent figures show 87% [24] of the urban population as being connected to centralized water supply.


Water infrastructure to convey water to rural or isolated areas
No information | Nothing in place | Poor conditions | Adequate | Excellent

Private wells
No information | Nothing in place | Poor conditions | Adequate | Excellent

Strategies and plans developed at national, regional or local level

The implementation plans should establish specific targets, indicators and time frames and identify the national and international resources available. They should be realistic in terms of resources available and timing (prioritisation is needed).


National strategy for equitable management and governance of water
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

Regional/local action plans on water and sanitation
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

Cooperation on transboundary waters
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

Adaptation to climate change plans
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

Water efficiency programmes and incentives
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

Water infrastructure financing strategies
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

FEASIBLE, a computerized decision support tool for in the countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Moldova, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) has been used. It helps develop financing strategies for environmentally related sectors involving costly public infrastructure. It currently may be applied in the water supply, wastewater and solid waste management sectors. FEASIBLE is available free of charge from the OECD by registering on line at www.oecd.org/env/finance.


Other strategies [add lines as needed] e.g., IWRM plan, PRSPs, UNDAF, MDG etc
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

Policy and legislation to implement a HRBA to water

This checklist is for evaluating the adequacy and completeness of the legislation in place in a given country for implementing a HRBA to Water Governance. The checklist asks whether the specific requirements have been adequately established in the national legal order. The check list follow the three main elements of the right to water established in the national legal order. The check list follow the three main elements of the right to water (accessibility, affordability, and water quality and availability), policy and legislation. Monitoring and enforcement are included in the next section.


Basic water management


A right to water and sanitation is formally recognized in the relevant laws/constitution
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Only indirect through Article 18 of the Constitution which provides that ”every person has the right to life”.


Competent authorities and responsibilities clearly identified
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent




Accessibility


Prioritization for water access clearly established in legislation –differentiated by sector
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Provision to extend WSS services to marginalised and vulnerable areas and groups
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Access to traditional water sources in rural areas protected
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Specific provisions on access to water in schools, hospitals, prisons and refugee camps
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

The majority of schools and medical institutions in the country lack access to proper sanitation and safe water. Only 1,718 schools have access to piped water out of 3,694 (including 3,148 rural). [25]

Affordability


Adequate regulatory system in place for private or public water and sanitation service providors - procurement and concession
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Pricing policies transparent with flexibility and cross-subsidies –differences between different sectors
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Specific measures on disconnection to address poor and marginalised people concerns
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent



Water quality and availability (resource allocation)


Water quality standards established and realistic
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

At present, national sanitary norms and regulations for drinking-water quality are being developed (2006). Examples include defining norms for water-quality monitoring in centralized and non-centralized water-supply systems, and setting up administrative zones to protect water sources.[26] A draft of a national law on drinking-water has also been developed, and it is currently under consideration by the government. Generally, the development of legal and normative documents on drinking-water supply and quality is the responsibility of the Republican SES, operating under the Ministry of Health. In the absence of a national drinking-water law, the 1982 Soviet Standard GOST 2874-82 Drinking-water is still the valid legal reference in the Republic of Tajikistan (see Annex C for standard values of parameters included in the RADWQ project).It is worth mentioning that this is only the beginning of the process to develop and harmonize the national water sector and substantial work is anticipated in the near future, which will require financial, technical and consultative support, both from national institutions and international Organisations.[27]


Priority substances identified and regulated (elimination)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Specific rules for drinking water catchments areas
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Waste water treatment regulated in the legislation
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Water discharges and extraction regulated in legislation (e.g., permits
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Standards setting a minimum amount of water for personal and domestic uses per person or household
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Integrated water resource management approach followed in legislation
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

River basin management approach
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent



Please use the space below to list the relevant laws and administrative regulations Water legislation in the Republic of Tajikistan is based on the Constitution, the Water Code, laws, and the Normative and legislative acts recognized by the Republic. The Ministry of Irrigation and Water Resources is responsible, at national level, for policy making and planning and will coordinate and guide water management policy.


Institutional and administrative structures and procedures

For legislation to be effective, adequate institutional and administrative structures and systems need to be in place to ensure that legal requirements are implemented and enforced. Evaluation of the adequacy of institutional and administrative structures needs a different approach towards the elements involved. A coordination structure that consists only of information exchange or that has been named on paper but never meets in fact would be scored as “poor”. A coordination structure that meets on an ad hoc basis would be considered “adequate”. A coordination structure that has the form of a committee or working group, has specific competences set forth in a regulation or memorandum of understanding and is fully operative (e.g. meets regularly) would be scored as “excellent”.


Institutional issues


Decision making body for taking policy decisions (a Ministry)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Structures for coordination among relevant government bodies
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

There is no regulation and coordination structure to deal with the conflicting requirements from different water users and use sectors like Agriculture and Energy. Many Government bodies deal with water sector but none of them has the full responsibility and/or capacity to enforce a unique strategic vision for the sector; [28]


Staff in the relevant Ministries assigned responsibility for water issues
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Regulatory body at national or regional level (different from policy decision)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

River basin management authorities
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Local authorities for service provision
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Consultation bodies (national, regional or local) with equitable representation
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Independent institutions in charge of monitoring the right to WSS (human right commission or regulatory agencies ensuring full transparency and accountability)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent


Administrative structures


Monitoring systems in place to spot water pollution and illegal abstractions (surface and groundwater)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Inspectorates or other structures for enforcement of basic requirements
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Systems for regular reporting to Convention secretariats
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Bodies for cooperation on Transboundary water courses
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent


Monitoring & enforcement


Provisions to carry out monitoring of water status and de-pollution
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

The main responsibility for independent surveillance and monitoring of drinking-water quality rests with the SES at different administrative levels, according to the Tajik Water code (2000). The State Committee for Environmental Protection is responsible for monitoring open water sources such as rivers, canals, ariks and lakes. [29]


Requirements to carry out inspections
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Penalties for breaches of the legislation
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent



Cross-cutting issues

Access to information & transparency


Provisions requiring authorities or private companies to disseminate information on water issues (pollution and polluters)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Provisions ensuring a right to access to information upon request on water information held by authorities or third parties
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Systems for dissemination of information on water pollution (e.g., PRTR in place covering both intentional, unintentional & diffuse releases/transfers)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Administrative systems for prompt responses to requests for information from the general public
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Guidelines on information held by authorities and how to request access to that information
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Secure data management systems to handle commercially sensitive information and personal data
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Guidelines for authorities on how to apply commercial confidentiality requirements, including when to disclose because of public interest
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Public participation


Non-discriminatory right of participation in decision-making process regarding to water (management, services, projects, installations
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Environmental impact assessment legislation including water projects and public participation
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Procedures for enabling public participation in decision making
river basin management plan; provision of water services; regulation and monitoring of service providers; infrastructure and development projects
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Equitable representation of minorities and marginalised groups
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent


Accountability (including access to justice and Redressing mechanisms


Effective right to access to justice on water claims against government and/or private parties (pollution, failure to provide services and so on)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Effective legal remedies when access to information or public participation are denied
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Judicial or administrative body to solve water claims
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Arbitration mechanisms
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent


Please use the space below to list the relevant laws and administrative regulations


Stakeholders capacity

This section is to be used for assessing the technical capacity of various stakeholders to implement a HRBA to WSS. The stakeholders have been divided into governmental officials at central level and local level; civil society, farmers and industry. It is intended to be a first step towards identifying needs for technical assistance, including training and investment in equipment and infrastructure.



Government officials at central level


Central/national laboratory for testing of chemicals in water
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Monitoring instruments for surface and groundwater
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Over the last decade, the Chair of Epidemiology of the Medical University has monitored quality of water in water reservoirs used by population as the main source of water supply. Monitoring is made using state statistical data, annual reports of the centres of state sanitation and epidemiological surveillance, maps of surveys of epidemiological disease spots, and the results of physical, chemical, bacteriological and virologic surveys.[30] Rayon and city Republican Sanitary Epidemiological Service (Republican SES), are responsible for surveying the supplies in their areas, while oblast SESs alsomonitor water quality to provide a backup source of data to the SES measurements. The operators of utility piped supplies (e.g. “Vodocanal” agencies, rural water works, municipalities, government departments) should inspect the water production process and monitor its impact on water quality. The State Committee for Environmental Protection is responsible for monitoring open water sources such as rivers, canals, ariks and lakes. [31]


Computers and internet access for all officials responsible for water management
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Databases of information on chemicals and priority substances, polluters
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Officials trained in HRBA (human rights standards) and water issues
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Trained inspectorates and enforcement authorities
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent


Government officials at regional & local levels


Regional and Local authorities trained on HRBA to WSS
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Databases of information on chemicals and priority substances, polluters
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Computers & internet access for local officials responsible for chemicals management
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Local laboratories for testing drinking water
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Before 1991, all organizations of Tajikistan, which supplied water and/or received wastewater, had their laboratories which controlled quality of water supplied to users, as well as quality of wastewater. Currently, no control is exercised, as a rule, over quality of water and wastewater in rural areas. [32]


Transportation & communication equipment to enable monitoring/ inspection/enforcement
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent


CSO, NGOs and others


Civil society aware of their rights and how to exercise them
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Civil society organised and active (providing training, participating, advocacy activities)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Computers with internet access
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Information on low cost technologies
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent


Water services providers


Low cost technologies
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Water treatment technologies (primary, secondary)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Monitoring equipment
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent


Farmers & agricultural workers


Training on safe pesticide management, including waste management and access to information on alternative pest control methods
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Awareness on impact of agricultural and farming practices in water (private wells)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent


Industry (including industry workers)


Training on impacts of industrial activities on water
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Capacity (equipment, skills) to self-monitor releases of chemicals
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Wastewater treatment in place
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent


Health practitioners


Doctors & other health workers trained to identify cases of water born diseases
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Monitoring of health issues related to poor access to WSS and reporting
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Computers with internet access / access to Internet-based health information
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent


Awareness raising and education campaigns


Education programmes on water
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Dissemination of technologies
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Gender and marginalised groups problems addressed
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Hygiene promotion campaign
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent




International programmes

See above section #Identification of programmes and projects in the country (national and international)

References

  1. TRANSBOUNDARY WATER COOPERATION IN THE NEWLY INDEPENDENT STATES, Moscow-Geneva, 2003 http://www.waterwiki.net/images/3/3e/RegionUNECETransboundary.pdf
  2. TRANSBOUNDARY WATER COOPERATION IN THE NEWLY INDEPENDENT STATES, Moscow-Geneva, 2003 http://www.waterwiki.net/images/3/3e/RegionUNECETransboundary.pdf
  3. TRANSBOUNDARY WATER COOPERATION IN THE NEWLY INDEPENDENT STATES, Moscow-Geneva, 2003 http://www.waterwiki.net/images/3/3e/RegionUNECETransboundary.pdf
  4. Tajikistan Poverty Reduction Strategy for 2007–2009 http://www.undp.tj/files/reports/prsp2_firstdraft.pdf
  5. UNDP Country Office Tajikistan website, http://www.undp.tj/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=78&Itemid=82
  6. Tajikistan National Development Strategy 2015, http://www.untj.org/principals/files/nds/nds_first_draft.pdf
  7. Tajikistan National Development Strategy 2015, http://www.undp.tj/files/reports/nds_eng.pdf
  8. Tajikistan MDG Needs Assessment, February 2005, http://www.untj.org/mdg/files/Water%20Supply%20Report%20eng.pdf
  9. http://freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=140&edition=2&ccrcountry=100&section=61&ccrpage=8
  10. http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi
  11. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/8/47/38936914.pdf
  12. http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=1440&l=1
  13. http://iwpr.net/index.php?apc_state=hen&s=o&o=l=EN&p=rca&s=f&o=343749
  14. OECD Financing Water Supply and Sanitation in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2005, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/46/36388760.pdf
  15. http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/Tajikistan.html
  16. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ti.html
  17. UNDP Human Development Index 2008, http://hdrstats.undp.org/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TJK.html
  18. UNDP Human Development Index 2008, http://hdrstats.undp.org/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TJK.html
  19. UNDP Human Development Index 2008, http://hdrstats.undp.org/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TJK.html
  20. Tajikistan Poverty Reduction Strategy for 2007–2009 http://www.undp.tj/files/reports/prsp2_firstdraft.pdf
  21. Tajikistan Poverty Reduction Strategy for 2007–2009 http://www.undp.tj/files/reports/prsp2_firstdraft.pdf
  22. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/8/47/38936914.pdf
  23. http://www.untj.org/files/reports/RADWQ.pdf
  24. Tajikistan Poverty Reduction Strategy for 2007–2009 http://www.undp.tj/files/reports/prsp2_firstdraft.pdf
  25. OECD Financing Water Supply and Sanitation in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, 2005, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/29/46/36388760.pdf
  26. http://www.untj.org/files/reports/RADWQ.pdf
  27. http://www.untj.org/files/reports/RADWQ.pdf
  28. Outlines of Tajikistan Water Sector-Wide Strategy Paper _Draft 07/10/2005:
  29. http://www.untj.org/files/reports/RADWQ.pdf
  30. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/8/47/38936914.pdf
  31. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/8/47/38936914.pdf
  32. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/8/47/38936914.pdf

See also

External Resources

Attachments

 Country Assessment.Moldova.June2008.pdf

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