Turkey - HRBA to Water Governance desk review - June 2008

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edit  ·  Toolkit Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA) to Water Governance
UNDP Regional HRBA to Water Programme for Europe & CIS

Detailed documentation: Background | Regional aspects | Regional Programme | Methodology
PHASE 1: Checklist (Bosnia and Herzegovina | Georgia | Moldova | Tajikistan | Turkey | Ukraine)
PHASE 2: Country Sector Assessments and Proposed Projects (Bosnia and Herzegovina | Tajikistan | Kosovo | Serbia) | Bibliography

Legal Framework: The Rights to Water and Sanitation in International Law | Regional Law | National Law
WaterWiki-resources:Rights to Water and Sanitation: A Handbook for Activists | UN Human Rights Council Resolution on Water and Sanitation | UN Recognises Access to Clean Water as a Basic Human Right | Human Rights-Based Approach | Applying a HRBA to Water:A Case Study | Water-related Legislation and Conventions | The Right to Water - WHO Publication | A UN Convention on the Right to Water - An Idea Whose Time Has Come | International Conference on the Right to Water and Sanitation in Theory and Practice | Q&A: The Right to Water | General Comment 15 (2002) | Q&A: Water Governance | Water and Health | Equitable Access to Water and Human Rights | European Union Water Framework Directive | Essay: What exactly is “The Right to Water”? | Protocol on Water and Health | Protocol on Water and Health/Q&A | Lessons Learned From Rights-Based Approaches in the Asia-Pacific Region | Human Rights-Based Approach Strategies adopted by UNICEF Laos | Utility Privatisation through the Lens of Human Rights | The Right to Water - From Concept to Implementation | The Human Right to Water:Translating Theory into Practice | Report of the Seminar on Human Rights and MDGs, May 2009
External resources: HRBA and Water Governance Fast Facts - UNDP | Applying a HRBA to Developing Cooperation and Programming (UNDP, 2006) | COHRE Manual on the Right to Water and Sanitation | Protocol on Water and Health - Full Document) | COHRE Monitoring Implementation of the Right to Water: A Framework for Developing Indicators | Sub-commission guidelines for the realisation of the right to drinking water and sanitation (2005) | UNFPA - A HRBA to Programming, Practical Implementation Manual and Training Materials (2010) | Operational Guidelines for Implementing a Rights-Based Approach in Water and Sanitation Programming (CoHRE,2008) | COHRE Monitoring Implementation of the Right to Water: A Framework for Developing Indicators | FAQs on a HRBA to Development Cooperation | The Human Rights-Based Approach to Development - The Right to Water | UN Independent Expert Report on the issue of human rights obligations related to water and sanitation 2009 | UN Independent Expert Report on MDGs and right to water and sanitation 2010
Websites: The Rights to Water and Sanitation Information Portal | UN Independent Expert on Right to Water and Sanitation Webpage

Contents

Status of the main human rights conventions & other relevant instruments

This checklist is to enable you to track and assess the status of the main global and regional conventions on human rights with impacts on water management in your country.

Conventions

  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights: ?
  • International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Ratified (2000/2003)
  • Convention for the Rights of the Child: Ratified (1990/1995)
  • Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination against Women: Ratified (1985)
  • Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment: Ratified (1988)
  • International Convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discrimination: Ratified (1990/1995)

Regional Instruments (Europe)

Transboundary water courses agreements (if applicable)

  1. Agreement between the Republic of Turkey and the Republic of Bulgaria on determination of the boundary in the mouth area of the Mutludere/Rezovska River and delimitation of the maritime areas between the two States in the Black Sea.

Basin: Mutludere/Rezovska Date of text: 04 December 1997. Entry into force notes: The Agreement shall enter into force on the date of the exchange of the instruments of ratification by the contracting Parties (art. 8). Type of text: Agreement Full text available (English): bi-17355.pdf Source: FAO Waterlex available at: ([1]).

Assessment of country context for effective implementation of a HRBA to water

This check list aims to facilitate the assessment of the enabling environment in the country as well as identify any socio-political issues in the country.

Priorities for human development in the country (development plan)

Turkey’s ninth National Development Report clearly states “the main purpose of the policies in the area of human development and social solidarity will be to raise the quality of life and welfare of the society by ensuring that all segments of the population benefit sufficiently from the basic public services as well as a multi-dimensional social protection network.” Turkey’s Ninth National Development Plan for 2007-2013 available at: ([2])

Integration of WSS in the development plan

WSS form part of the development plan outlined above. Turkey’s Ninth National Development Plan for 2007-2013 available at: ([3])

Support in the country for HRBA to Water Governance

No information found.

Indicators (e.g., number of persons connected, development of disaggregate indicators)

  • Population size:' 73 million [1]
  • Population using “improved water source”: 59% [2]
  • Population using “improved sanitation”: 51% [3]
  • Urban population connected to centralized water supply systems: no information
  • Rural population connected to centralized water supply systems: no information

Figures taken from The Human Development Index 2008. Note these figures should be considered with caution as there are some differences in the data for “improved access” and specific figures on “access”. An illustrative example is the one above where it was found that over 90% of the population had access to improved water sources, yet some estimation indicate almost 40% of the water pumped do not meet the health criteria. The discrepancies in the data put to the fore, the difficulty in assessing the situation on the ground.


Any discriminatory practices identified and reasons for this

No information available.


Minority and vulnerable and marginalised groups in the country with regard to access WWS

No information available.


Main water users (linked to previous but useful to balance interests and prioritise access)

Most of the freshwater withdrawal 5% is used in industry. About 74% is estimated to go into agricultural sector and 11% is for domestic use. ([4])

Respect of rule of law in the country

The EU accession process will be carried out based on the rule of law and mutual benefit principle, with a long-term perspective and a rational approach. Therefore, efforts towards increasing the quality of judging process and main components of this process will be continued; legal and institutional regulations, which will ensure the fast, fair, reliable and proper operation of the judging process, in the framework of the rule of law and state of law requirements, will be realized. Turkey’s Ninth National Development Plan for 2007-2013 available at: ([5])

Fight against corruption

Turkey ranks 64th out of 179 countries on the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index. For reports on the state of corruption in Turkey go to [6] .

Transboundary water courses/bodies problems

The two important rivers originating in Turkey -- the Tigris and the Euphrates -- have long been the subject of disagreements with water-stressed Syria and Iraq, which are traversed by both rivers. Turkey is being accused by Syria and Iraq of depriving them of much needed water as Turkey continues to support the construction of a series of dams along the Euhrates and Tigris rivers. It is also embarking on an ambitious project to sell water from its Manavgat river across the Middle East.


National resources (budget and programmes) – notice that according to UN, countries should spend 1% GDP for WSS

According to World Bank figures presented in the 2006 Public Expenditure Review for Turkey show % of budget spent for WSS. For Water Resources-Irrigation 0.2% was spent in 2006/2007. For Drinkable Water and Water for Sanitation 0.2% was spent in 2006/2007.


UNDP indicators of human development – vulnerability and poverty in the country

Turkey is one of the countries with a relatively large population compared to its neighbors in the region. This is why the figures presented in the 2008 Human Development country fact sheet may seem alarming. According to UNDP estimates, the population living below the national poverty line1990-2004 was 27%. [7] .


Identification of programmes and projects in the country (national and international)

Control of eutrophication, hazardous substances and related measures for rehabilitating the Black Sea ecosystem (Tranche II) (GEF-IW FSP)
GEF, UNDP (Implementing Agency), UNOPS (Executing Agency)
  • 2004-2007
  • Grant total USD 11,332,106
  • The project (BSERP) supports regional aspects of nutrient control in the Black Sea coastal countries. It also aims to strengthen the role of the Black Sea Commission to ensure the formulation, adoption, and implementation of a suite of harmonized legal and policy instruments for tackling the problem of eutrophication and release of certain hazardous substances; and to facilitate ecosystem recovery, including through sustainable use of living marine resources.
Strategic Workplan to Strengthen the Regional Capacity on Water Governance
UNDP/BRC
  • EUR 350,000.00
  • Water Governance Community Strengthening
Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in the Dalmatian Coast (Croatia) through Greening Coastal Development
UNDP/BRC
  • 2006-2013
  • USD 31,643,500.00
  • To effectively transform the actions of private operators in the tourism, agriculture and fisheries sectors in the four coastal counties.
Integrated Ecosystem Management in the Prespa Lakes Basin of Albania, FYR-Macedonia and Greece
UNDP Macedonia
  • 2006-2010
  • USD 4,125,000.00
  • The conservation of biodiversity and water resources of the Prespa Lakes Basin and pollution mitigation through the adoption of integrated management
Upgrading of Municipal Services
GTZ
  • 2002-2006
  • The management of water supply and wastewater disposal has improved, as has solid waste management in selected cities and municipalities in the country’s structurally weak eastern areas.

Adequate supplies of drinking water are secured, treatment and disposal of wastewater is technically sound, and waste management is generally regulated and has become financially viable.

“Every Drop Matters” – a Regional Water Partnership Initiative between UNDP Europe & CIS and The Coca Cola Company Eurasia and Middle East Division
Coca Cola / EMED (US$ 5m); UNDP (US$ 1.25m); others
  • 2006-2011
  • minimum USD 6.25million
  • This Regional Partnership Project aims to provide the framework and a joint action plan for water-related programming in the countries of Europe and the CIS, with a particular focus on increased access to safe drinking water, facilitating the use of environmentally sound industrial technologies, and outreach and awareness raising activities to promote responsible water resource management.

This Regional Public Private Sector Partnership Initiative will initially focus on countries under the coverage area of UNDP-RBEC as well as Coca-Cola EMED, and on the following three intervention areas: 1. Improved Access to Safe Drinking Water 2. Improved regional and industrial water management 3. Advocacy and communication

Twinning Project for Strengthening the Ministry of Health to Harmonise and Implement Legislation in the Field of Water for Public Health Protection
A project financed by the Pre-Accession
  • Economic Programme of the European Union
  • The main objective is to prepare Turkey for accession to the European Union in the area of drinking water, bathing water and mineral water. It consist to support the Turkish government in its efforts towards strengthening the capacity in legal, institutional and technical and investment matters related to the approximation process in the field of environment and public health. ([8])

Identification of relevant NGOs and services providers

See section 3 “Policy and legislation to implement a HRBA to water” under “competent authorities” for a list of national authorities who will be important stakeholders. Also see discussion paper for a broad description of the main stakeholders and their functions in the region as a whole. In order to be useful this section should be filled in during a country mission as it is difficult to make this kind of assessment through a desktop study. This webpage also provides useful listings of relevant private sector stakeholders ([9]) .


Identification of key stakeholders for the implementation of a HRBA to water

See next section 'Policy and legislation to implement a HRBA to water' under “competent authorities” for a list of national authorities who will be important stakeholders. Also see discussion paper for a broad description of the main stakeholders and their functions in the region as a whole. On a more country-specific level, the list of projects in previous section will indicate the main international actors present.

Policy and legislation to implement a HRBA to water

This checklist is for evaluating the adequacy and completeness of the legislation in place in a given country for implementing a HRBA to Water Governance. The checklist asks whether the specific requirements have been adequately established in the national legal order.


The checklist scale is
No information | Nothing in place | Poor (framework only) | Adequate (basic regulations) | Excellent (detailed regulations)

This section is for evaluating the adequacy and completeness of the legislation in place in a given country for implementing a HRBA to water. The checklists ask whether the specific requirements have been adequately established in the national legal order. The check list follow the three main elements of the right to water (accessibility, affordability, and water quality and availability), policy and legislation. Monitoring and enforcement are included in next section.

Basic water management


A right to water and sanitation is formally recognized in the relevant laws/constitution
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

No specific provision found. The Constitution Art. 17 provides for the Right to Life. Constitution of Turkey ([10])

Competent authorities and responsibilities clearly identified
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Accessibility and Affordability


Prioritization for water access clearly established in legislation –differentiated by sector
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Provision to extend WSS services to marginalised and vulnerable areas and groups
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Access to traditional water sources in rural areas protected
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Specific provisions on access to water in schools, hospitals, prisons and refugee camps
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Adequate regulatory system in place for private or public water and sanitation service providers – procurement and concession
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Pricing policies transparent with flexibility and cross-subsidies –differences between different sectors
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Specific measures on disconnection to address poor and marginalised people concerns
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent



Water quality and availability


Water quality standards established and realistic
No information | Nothing in place |Poor| Adequate | Excellent

Priority substances identified and regulated (elimination)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Specific rules for drinking water catchments areas
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Waste water treatment regulated in the legislation
No information | Nothing in place | Poor| Adequate | Excellent

Water discharges and extraction regulated in legislation (e.g., permits
No information | Nothing in place | Poor| Adequate | Excellent

Standards setting a minimum amount of water for personal and domestic uses per person or household
No information | Nothing in place | Poor| Adequate | Excellent

Integrated water resource management approach followed in legislation
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

River basin management approach
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent



Governance


Non-discriminatory right of participation in decision-making process regarding to water (management, services, projects, installations
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Environmental impact assessment legislation including water projects
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent
  • The EIA procedure has been established, but further improvement of the EIA regulation is needed to make

it fully effective. There is a significant need for personnel qualified to conduct EIAs, both in the public and the private sectors. Managers and consultants from a growing number of companies are being trained for this purpose.Although participation mechanisms such as local environment committees, the EIA procedure, and Councils for the Environment and Forestry exist, public participation is a relatively new process in many instances.The absence of environmental reporting by industry has in a number of cases tended to exacerbate conflicts with NGOs and the public. Environmental NGOs will need to address a range of issues in order to establish themselves as stimulating and constructive partners for environmental progress.


Procedures for enabling public participation in decision making
river basin management plan; provision of water services; regulation and monitoring of service providers; infrastructure and development projects
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Equitable representation of minorities and marginalised groups
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent


Monitoring & enforcement


Provisions to carry out monitoring of water status and de-pollution
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Current legislation includes monitoring requirements.


Requirements to carry out inspections
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Yes, not very effective mainly due to the small number of inspectors.


Penalties for breaches of the legislation
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Penalties for breaches are in place. These however, are generally not considered deterrent enough.



Redressing mechanisms (Access to justice)


Effective right to access to justice on water claims against government and/or private parties (pollution, failure to provide services and so on)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent
  • Law on Penalties (Articles 181, 182)

Effective legal remedies when access to information or public participation are denied
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Judicial or administrative body to solve water claims
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Arbitration mechanisms
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent


Please use the space below to list the relevant laws and administrative regulations



Strategies and plans developed at national, regional or local level

The implementation plans should establish specific targets, indicators and time frames and identify the national and international resources available. They should be realistic in terms of resources available and timing (prioritisation is needed).


National strategy for equitable management and governance of water
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

Regional/local action plans on water and sanitation
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

Cooperation on transboundary waters
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent
  • Turkey is expected to be preparing to reform its tight policy on transboundary rivers and water resources in order to comply with EU criteria and international law.

Adaptation to climate change plans
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent
  • The key requirements for climate change adaptation in Turkey are stipulated in Turkey’s Ninth Development Plan 2007-2013 (paragraph 461) and in rural development strategies such as The Regional Development Plan for the Eastern Black Sea Region (2002). These requirements will be addressed by developing a National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy which will complement the existing development plans and procedures. In addition, legislative changes will be proposed to mainstream climate change risks into development and regional planning. ([11])

Water efficiency programmes and incentives
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

Water infrastructure financing strategies
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

Other strategies [add lines as needed] e.g., IWRM plan, PRSPs, UNDAF, MDG etc
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

Awareness raising and education campaigns


Education programmes on water
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

Dissemination of technologies
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

Gender and marginalised groups problems addressed
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent

Hygiene promotion campaign
No information | Non-existent | Poor (framework only) | Adequate | Excellent



Institutional and administrative structures and procedures

For legislation to be effective, adequate institutional and administrative structures and systems need to be in place to ensure that legal requirements are implemented and enforced. Evaluation of the adequacy of institutional and administrative structures needs a different approach towards the elements involved. A coordination structure that consists only of information exchange or that has been named on paper but never meets in fact would be scored as “poor”. A coordination structure that meets on an ad hoc basis would be considered “adequate”. A coordination structure that has the form of a committee or working group, has specific competences set forth in a regulation or memorandum of understanding and is fully operative (e.g. meets regularly) would be scored as “excellent”.

Institutional issues


Decision making body for taking policy decisions (Ministries
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Reform entailing restructuring of the system is likely to take place in new legislation.


Structures for coordination among relevant government bodies
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Staff in the relevant Ministries assigned responsibility for water issues
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Regulatory body at national or regional level (different from policy decision)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

River basin management authorities
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Local authorities for service provision
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Consultation bodies (national, regional or local) with equitable representation
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Independent institutions in charge of monitoring the right to WSS (human right commission or regulatory agencies ensuring full transparency and accountability)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Administrative structures


Monitoring systems in place to spot water pollution and illegal abstractions (surface and groundwater)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Inspectorates or other structures for enforcement of basic requirements
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Systems for regular reporting to Convention secretariats
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Bodies for cooperation on Transboundary water courses
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Information disclosure (right to know) & public participation

Access to information & dissemination


Provisions requiring authorities or private companies to disseminate information on water issues (pollution and polluters)
'No information' | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Provisions ensuring a right to access to information upon request on water information held by authorities or third parties
'No information' | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Systems for dissemination of information on water pollution (e.g., PRTR in place covering both intentional, unintentional & diffuse releases/transfers)
'No information' | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Administrative systems for prompt responses to requests for information from the general public
'No information' | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Guidelines on information held by authorities and how to request access to that information
'No information' | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Secure data management systems to handle commercially sensitive information and personal data
'No information' | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Guidelines for authorities on how to apply commercial confidentiality requirements, including when to disclose because of public interest
'No information' | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Technical capacity

This section is to be used for assessing the technical capacity of various stakeholders to implement a HRBA to WSS. The stakeholders have been divided into governmental officials at central level and local level; civil society, farmers and industry. It is intended to be a first step towards identifying needs for technical assistance, including training and investment in equipment and infrastructure.

Infrastructure


Waste water treatment plants
No information | Nothing in place | Poor conditions | Adequate | Excellent
  • With rapid industrialization and urbanization, domestic waste, hospital waste and industrial waste have become a threat to soil purity. Legislative action was not taken until 1993 and is not being implemented. Much of the waste is dumped in rivers, streams and the sea, even though this is forbidden by law. ([12])

Water infrastructures to convey water to urban areas
No information | Nothing in place | Poor conditions | Adequate | Excellent
  • The National Development Strategy for 2007-2013 clearly states the need to “identify the urban infrastructure requirement in the entire country towards protecting the environment, an urban infrastructure master plan and financing strategy, which will determine the infrastructure needs such as drinking water, sewer system, wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal facilities of municipalities, will be prepared”. ([13])

Water infrastructure to convey water to rural or isolated areas
No information | Nothing in place | Poor conditions | Adequate | Excellent

Private wells
No information | Nothing in place | Poor conditions | Adequate | Excellent

Capacity at national level


Central/national laboratory for testing of chemicals in water
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Monitoring instruments for surface and groundwater
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Computers and internet access for all officials responsible for water management
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Databases of information on chemicals and priority substances, polluters
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Officials trained in HRBA (human rights standards) and water issues
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Trained inspectorates and enforcement authorities
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Capacity at regional & local levels


Regional and Local authorities trained on HRBA to WSS
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Databases of information on chemicals and priority substances, polluters
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Computers & internet access for local officials responsible for chemicals management
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Local laboratories for testing drinking water
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Transportation & communication equipment to enable monitoring/ inspection/enforcement
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Civil Society


Civil society aware of their rights and how to exercise them
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Civil society organised and active (providing training, participating, advocacy activities)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Computers with internet access
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Information on low cost technologies
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Water services providers


Low cost technologies
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Water treatment technologies (primary, secondary)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Monitoring equipment
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Farmers & agricultural workers


Training on safe pesticide management, including waste management and access to information on alternative pest control methods
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Awareness on impact of agricultural and farming practices in water (private wells)
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Industry (including industry workers)


Training on impacts of industrial activities on water
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Capacity (equipment, skills) to self-monitor releases of chemicals
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Wastewater treatment in place
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Health practitioners


Doctors & other health workers trained to identify cases of water born diseases
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

Monitoring of health issues related to poor access to WSS and reporting
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent
  • Ministry of Health is the competent authority for ensuring the protection of human health having the responsibility at central level and through the provincial network for the implementation and enforcement of quality standards of water for bathing and recreational purposes, according to the Public Hygiene Law no 1593 and decree 181 on the Law on the “Organization and the duties of the Ministry of Health”.

Computers with internet access / access to Internet-based health information
No information | Nothing in place | Poor | Adequate | Excellent

References

See also

External resources

Attachments

 Country Assessment.Turkey.June2008.pdf

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