Turkmenistan

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Turkmenistan is part of:
Asia & Pacific · Central Asia · Europe & CIS ·
Water Basins of Turkmenistan:
Amu Darya · Aral Sea · Atrak · Caspian · Ferghana Valley · Hari-Harirud · Murgab · Vahksh ·
Facts & Figures edit
flag_Turkmenistan.png
Capital Ashgabat
Neighbouring Countries Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan
Total Area 488,100 km2
  - Water 0 km2 (0.00%) / 0 m2/ha
  - Land 488,100 km2
Coastline 0 km
Population 4,833,266 (9.9 inhab./km2)
HDIA 0.728 (2007)
Gini CoefficientA 40.8 (1995)
Nominal GDPB $28,820 million
GDP (PPP) Per CapitaB $5,800
National UN Presence UNDP, UNHCR, WHO, UNICEF, WB
Land UseC
  - Cultivated Land 22,696 km2 (4.65%)
     - Arable 22,013 km2 (4.51%)
     - Permanent Crops 683 km2 (0.14%)
     - Irrigated 18,000 km2
  - Non cultivated 465,403 km2 (95.35%)
Average Annual RainfallD 161 mm
Renewable Water ResourcesE 60.9 km3
Water WithdrawalsF 24.65 km3/yr
  - For Agricultural Use 98%
  - For Domestic Use 2%
  - For Industrial Use 1%
  - Per Capita 5,475 m3
Population with safe access to
  - Improved Water Source 72%
     - Urban population 93%
     - Rural population 54%
  - Improved Sanitation 62%
     - Urban population 77%
     - Rural population 50%
References & Remarks
A UNDP Human Development Report
B CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia
C CIA World Factbook Country Profiles
D Aquastat - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
E CIA World Factbook
F Earthtrends

> Articles | Projects & Case studies | Publications & Web resources | Who is who | Maps
> Sector Assessment | Sector Coordination | Donor Profile

Latest 4 maps for / including Turkmenistan (more..):

Contents

News

Country Profile: Climate, Geography, Socio-Economic Context

Country Profile: Water Bodies and Resources

The river runoff originating in the country is estimated at 1.0 km³/year. Several rivers are found in Turkmenistan, most of them flowing into the country from its neighbours. The agreement among the five Central Asian republics stipulates that on average 22 km³/year are to be reserved for Turkmenistan (of which 0.68 km³/year are IRWR) and 22 km³/year for Uzbekistan. It has been considered that the latter comes into Turkmenistan before being used downstream in Uzbekistan.

During the Soviet period, water resources sharing among the five Central Asian republics was on the basis of master plans for water resources development in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya basins. In 1992, with the establishment of the Interstate Commission for Water Coordination, the newly independent republics agreed (18 February 1992) to prepare a regional water strategy, and to continue to respect the existing principles until the adoption of a new water sharing agreement to be proposed by this new water strategy.

The part of the Amu Darya flow allocated to Turkmenistan is 50% of the actual river flow at the Kerki gauging station, the other 50% being allocated to Uzbekistan. The Turkmen allocation corresponds to 42.27% of the part of the Amu Darya surface water resources on which agreements have been concluded. The agreements are calculated on the basis of about 67% of the total amount of flow produced in the Amu Darya basin (78.46 km³/year on average). The surface water resources allocated to Turkmenistan are thus calculated every year, depending on the importance of the current flows. On average, it can be considered that the water resources allocated to Turkmenistan in the Amu Darya basin are about 22 km³/year.

As far as the Tedzhen and Atrek waters are concerned, the treaty signed in February 1926 between Iran and Turkmenistan remains in force. This treaty stipulates that Turkmenistan receives each year a quantity equal to 70% of the total Tedzhen average runoff, and 50% of the total Atrek average runoff. This corresponds to an average of 0.75 km³/year for the Tedzhen River and 0.06 km³/year for the Atrek River.

The largest and most important waterway in Turkmenistan is the Kara Kum canal. This canal was constructed in the 1950s and is, with its some 1 300 km, the longest canal in the world. The canal capacity is estimated at 630 m³/s. Its inlet at the Amu Darya River is located just after the river enters Turkmenistan from Uzbekistan. It brings water to Ashkhabad and to the oases in the south.

The renewable groundwater resources are estimated at 3.36 km³/year, of which about 3 km³/year are estimated to be infiltration from rivers, including surface water resources generated in upstream countries. In 1994, the existing equipment enabled a groundwater abstraction of 1.22 km³/year.

The total IRWR are thus estimated at 1.36 km³/year, and the total ARWR at 24.72 km³/year.

Country Profile: Legal and Institutional Environment

Country Profile: Water Sector Coordination

See Sector coordination sub-page for detailed description

Country Profile: Trends in Water Use, Management and Sanitation

Country Profile: Challenges and Opportunities

Articles

Recently updated articles on Turkmenistan
  1. Turkmenistan, Millennium Development Goals Report ‎(2,562 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Turkmenistan/sector assessment ‎(4,235 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Turkmenistan/projects ‎(1,180 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Turkmenistan/publications ‎(973 views) . . WikiBot
  5. Turkmenistan/who is who ‎(1,211 views) . . WikiBot
  6. Turkmenistan/articles ‎(1,134 views) . . WikiBot
  7. Turkmenistan/Maps ‎(883 views) . . WikiBot
  8. Status and importance of water-relevant international legal instruments for the 5 Central Asian countries ‎(5,314 views) . . Katy.norman
  9. Image:AtrekRiver ENVSEC.jpg ‎(1,257 views) . . Juerg.staudenmann
  10. Image:Caspian CC Natural Hazards ENVSEC.jpg ‎(1,236 views) . . Juerg.staudenmann


See the complete list of WaterWiki articles on Turkmenistan

Projects and Case Studies

Projects in or about Turkmenistan

(this is a list of the 15 most recently updated entries. To see all projects click here)

  1. East-Caspian Assessment of Environment and Security Linkages and Impact ‎(3,215 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Amu Darya Assessment of Environment and Security Linkages and Impact ‎(4,502 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Regional Research Network Water in Central Asia (CAWa) ‎(4,597 views) . . Katy Unger-Shayesteh
  4. Harmonization and Approximation of Water Standards and Norms in Central Asia ‎(4,289 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. Promoting Replication of Good Practices for Nutrient Reduction and Joint Collaboration in Central and Eastern Europe ‎(3,001 views) . . Katy.norman
  6. A comprehensive study on glacial melting in Central Asia ‎(2,262 views) . . Katy.norman
  7. Central Asia – Regional and National Water Sector Review ‎(19,608 views) . . Juerg.staudenmann
  8. The Swiss Support to Hydro-meteorological Services in the Aral Sea basin Project ‎(2,784 views) . . WikiBot
  9. CEP/Grants Projects ‎(5,519 views) . . WikiBot
  10. Water-Energy Nexus in Central Asia ‎(2,888 views) . . WikiBot
  11. Water Governance in Central Asia ‎(3,395 views) . . WikiBot
  12. Towards a Convention and Action Programme for the Protection of the Caspian Sea Environment, Phase II ‎(3,043 views) . . WikiBot
  13. Restoring Depleted Fisheries and Consolidation of a Permanent Regional Environmental Governance Framework in the Caspian Sea ‎(3,161 views) . . WikiBot
  14. Regional Environment Programme ‎(2,131 views) . . WikiBot
  15. Enhancing regional exchange of water resource information (CAREWIB phase II) ‎(2,742 views) . . WikiBot


Case studies in or about Turkmenistan

(by popularity)

  1. Water Conflict and Cooperation/Aral Sea Basin ‎(27,039 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Lessons on Cooperation Building to Manage Water Conflicts in the Aral Sea Basin ‎(7,284 views) . . Katy.norman


See the complete list of WaterWiki documented projects in Turkmenistan

Publications

5 most recently updated publications on Turkmenistan
  1. Central Asia Regional Environmental Action Plan for Water Pollution ‎(5,086 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Politics of Water in Post-Soviet Central Asia ‎(3,652 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. UNDP 2003: Water-related legal and institutional structures in Central Asia ‎(3,564 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Water Conflict and Cooperation/Aral Sea Basin ‎(27,039 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. Lessons on Cooperation Building to Manage Water Conflicts in the Aral Sea Basin ‎(7,284 views) . . Katy.norman


5 most popular publications on Turkmenistan
  1. Water Conflict and Cooperation/Aral Sea Basin ‎(27,039 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Lessons on Cooperation Building to Manage Water Conflicts in the Aral Sea Basin ‎(7,284 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Central Asia Regional Environmental Action Plan for Water Pollution ‎(5,086 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Politics of Water in Post-Soviet Central Asia ‎(3,652 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. UNDP 2003: Water-related legal and institutional structures in Central Asia ‎(3,564 views) . . WikiBot


See the complete list of WaterWiki documented publications on Turkmenistan

Who is Who

People working in Turkmenistan
  1. Siegfried Leffler ‎(5,233 views)
  2. Vadim Sokolov ‎(4,402 views)
  3. Hamidreza Ghaffarzadeh ‎(3,730 views)
  4. Tim.turner ‎(5,263 views)
  5. Melina.seyfollahzadeh ‎(2,706 views)
  6. Hamid.ghaffarzadeh ‎(4,555 views)
  7. Christine.roth ‎(6,178 views)
  8. Christina.carlson ‎(4,933 views)
  9. Ardalan.sotoudeh ‎(1,518 views)
  10. Magdalena Banasiak ‎(4,782 views)


See the complete list of Waterwiki users working in Turkmenistan

Organizations working in Turkmenistan
  1. UNRCCA ‎(3,913 views) . . WikiBot
  2. ICWC ‎(5,587 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. CAREC - Central Asian Regional Economic Cooperation ‎(8,412 views) . . Katy.norman


See the complete list of WaterWiki documented organizations in Turkmenistan

References

See also

External Resources

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