UNDP-GEF International Waters Performance Report 2007 - 2008

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Summary

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Executive Summary

A total of 25 MSP and FSP projects were included in the 2007-2008 UNDP-GEF International waters PIR reporting cohort, representing $159.8 m. in GEF funding plus $510.6 m. in co-finance (amounts at CEO endorsement), an overall co-financing to GEF ratio of 3.19. A summary of key results includes:

  • 3 projects supported implementation of governance reforms and stress reduction measures to address nutrient overenrichment (Black Sea), depleted fisheries (W/C Pacific) and persistent toxics pollution (Caspian Sea). As a result of GEF’s 15 years of catalytic support to both foundational (TDA/SAP) work and implementation of agreed reforms and investments in the Danube/Black Sea basin, the overall burden of nutrient and other pollution to the Danube/Black Sea basin system has been reduced and the Black Sea ecosystem is showing measurable progress in recovery including virtual elimination of the large dead zone once prevalent over much of the northwest shelf of the Black Sea and the return of several species only recently considered locally extinct.
  • 5 foundational projects involving 32 countries (Lake Chad, GCLME, Niger River, FrePlata, Yellow Sea) reported substantial progress in development of their TDAs and SAPs, including several SAPs adopted at ministerial level (Niger, Chad, GCLME).
  • Several projects (Nubian, Okavango, Yellow Sea LME) reported strong progress in the establishment and utilization of inter-ministerial committees (IMCs) as key vehicles for cross-sectoral participation in the TDA and SAP processes.
  • Several projects made important progress towards financial and institutional sustainability including through institutional reforms and assessments (Niger River, Lake Chad), governments taking full ownership (Lake Manzala Engineered Wetlands), preparation and initial implementation of sustainability plans (IW:LEARN), and generally solid country performance in meeting their financial and other obligations to their transboundary water institutions (Niger, PEMSEA, Black Sea, W/C Pacific Fisheries).

Issues, Project Portfolio and Results

Issue overview and strategy

Issues and Global Environmental Benefits

As highlighted in Part Two, Section 3, the 2007-2008 IW cohort of reporting projects is principally focused on addressing the 4 issues contained within the GEF-4 Strategic Programs, along with a component dedicated to portfolio learning:

  1. Depleted fisheries – 5 projects
  2. Nutrient overenrichment – 6 projects
  3. Conflicting water uses – 8 projects
  4. Persistent toxic substances – 2 projects
  5. Portfolio Learning – 4 projects

The principal global environmental benefits under each of these thematic/issue areas include:

  1. Reducing overexploitation of shared fish stocks and associated livelihoods impacts; reducing biodiversity loss from by-catch and inappropriate fishing methods; reducing marine ecosystem degradation through trophic impacts of overharvesting.
  2. Reducing releases of transboundary contaminants (nutrients) and reducing the transboundary extent and frequency of large scale eutrophication in key marine ecosystems and associated impacts on biodiversity and livelihoods.
  3. Reducing demand and inefficient use of shared surface and groundwater resources through improved governance; protecting downstream globally significant aquatic biodiversity and associated livelihoods through protection of required environmental flows.
  4. Reducing emissions and livelihoods impacts of long-lived transboundary aquatic contaminants such as POPs and mercury, from agriculture, industry and artisanal gold mining through improved governance systems, awareness raising, capacity building and technology demonstrations and transfer.
  5. Improving global capacities for effective transboundary water governance through exchange of knowledge, good practice and experience between stakeholders through both virtual and face-to-face approaches.

In addition, global benefits more generically across areas (a) – (d) include:

  • Building and sustaining the capacity of national governments and regional waterbody institutions to jointly manage shared/transboundary water and marine/coastal resources
  • Assisting governments that share key transboundary waterbodies to develop regional legal frameworks aimed at the long-term sustainable management of these waterbodies.

UNDP-EEG Strategy to address issues

UNDP-GEF IW portfolio applies the overall strategic approach first articulated by the GEF in the Operational Strategy which is designed to address the priority environmental and water resource issues of the world’s major shared waterbodies through joint fact finding (TDA - agreeing on TB issues, their impacts, and immediate and root causes) and development of regional action programmes (SAP) of agreed regional and national legal, policy and institutional reforms, and investments, targeting the priority TB issues at root cause level. UNDP’s approach to improving the governance of transboundary water systems falls under the broad category of mainstreaming through the integration of transboundary water issues into national, regional and global governance frameworks. Barrier removal, through awareness raising, demonstrations, legal/policy reform, institutional strengthening and other mechanisms, is also a key element of UNDP’s approach in the focal area. Lastly, in many cases UNDP’s IW portfolio directly or indirectly facilitates major market transformation, such as through the catalytic development of a new global market for ballast water treatment technologies (estimated at $10 billion/year), through the introduction and application of ecosystem-based fisheries management to one-half of the world’s tuna stocks in the West and Central Pacific, and through policy advocacy related to the global market for mercury metal (Global Mercury Project).

Contribution of key partners to delivering results

Forging and sustaining effective partnerships continues to be a key strategic focus of UNDP-GEF’s International waters programme and a vital component towards effective delivery and sustainability of project results. Of the 2008 PIR reporting cohort, 16 of 25 projects or 64% involve partnerships (implementation, execution) between one or more of the GEF agencies (WB, UNEP, UNIDO, FAO). UNDP also partners with non-GEF UN agencies with ‘comparative advantage’ in selected areas, such as the IAEA for groundwater, UN-DOALOS for marine/coastal capacity building, and IOC-UNESCO for Large Marine Ecosystems. In addition, UNDP partners with and through a number of intergovernmental organizations to enhance project implementation quality and leverage financial and human resources; in current PIR cohort, these include the Forum Fisheries Agency, Caribbean Environmental Health Institute, Lake Chad Basin Commission, OMVS, and the Niger Basin Authority. Lastly, UNDP’s IW portfolio has contributed to the creation of several new regional and global waterbody institutions such as the PEMSEA Resource Facility, Lake Tanganyika Management Authority, the Benguela Current Commission, IMO Ballast Water Office, Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission and the Tehran (Caspian) Convention Secretariat; as the experience and capacity of these nascent institutions grows, several are likely to ‘graduate’ to qualified implementation partners in the coming years.

Progress in implementing recommendations and incorporating lessons learned from previous annual monitoring reports

The GEF IW community, with extensive support from UNDP, has taken significant steps to ‘mainstream’ project learning including incorporating AMR and FE/MTE lessons and experience into the learning platform. Through the multi-agency (UNDP, UNEP, WB) IW:LEARN programme, the GEF International Waters community has developed a publication series entitled “IW Experience Notes” which is made available to the entire GEF IW portfolio through the IW:LEARN web site. Experience Notes are organized under 8 major categories and a number of sub-themes, the major categories include Process, Participation, Performance, Technical, M&E Process Indicators, M&E Stress Reduction Indicators, M&E Environmental Status Indicators and Other Areas. The Experience Notes draw from the annual PIR/AMR and the results of project mid-term and final evaluations to derive, codify and disseminate valuable lessons, experience and good practice to a wide range of portfolio stakeholders. A sizeable fraction (16/30 or 53%) of the Experience Notes prepared to date have derived from UNDP’s IW portfolio and the development of Experience Notes has been fully ‘mainstreamed’ into the portfolio through requiring all ongoing and future projects to include delivery of one or more Experience Notes in their logframes.

Project Portfolio Overview

UNDP-GEF 2007 - 2008 IW Portfolio

Other Financing and Leveraged resources

Results Delivered

Focal Area results

The 25 projects reporting to the 2007-2008 IW PIR represent total GEF financing of $159.8 m. supported by co-finance of $510.6 m. (co-finance at time of CEO endorsement). The active portfolio supports each of the GEF-3 Strategic Priorities with the largest portion of projects and financing allocated to SP2, Foundational projects, including portfolio learning:

The 2007-2008 PIR cohort of projects supports achievement of each of the GEF-3 IW focal area Internal Targets as follows:

IW-1
SAP Implementation
  1. Double number of representative TB waterbodies for which GEF has catalyzed resource mobilization for implementation of Stress Reductijon measures and reforms – 3 projects
IW-2
Foundational/Capacity Building
  1. Increase by at least one-third the global coverage of representative waterbodies with country-driven, science based joint management programs – 11 projects
  2. Almost one half of ten largest freshwater basins will have country-driven management programs for addressing transboundary priorities with GEF assistance – 7 projects
  3. Almost one half of 27 developing country [Large Marine Ecosystems|LMEs]] will have country-driven, ecosystem-based management programs developed with GEF assistance – 4 projects
IW-3
Innovative Demonstrations
  1. GEF will have demonstrated technology innovations to address 3-4 different global water issues – 5 projects (water scarcity, nutrient pollution, mercury pollution, IWRM)
  2. GEF will have catalyzed development of a global agreement on minimizing exchange of harmful alien species in ship ballast water – achieved through GEF-UNDP-IMO GloBallast Programme
  3. GEF will have successfully leveraged finance to begin 3-4 pilot demos of innovative finance in harnessing the private sector or testing PPP in the water sub-sectors – 1 project
Additional FA targets
  1. 90% of all LDCs and 90% of all SIDS will have received assistance from GEF in addressing at least one transboundary water concern consistent with GEF Ops – 8 projects
  2. GEF will have contributed to and increased by 1/3 the establishment/strengthened capacity of management institutions for representative TB waterbodies – 11 projects

While there are no GEF-4 projects reporting yet in this year’s PIR cohort, there is still very strong coherence between the active UNDP-GEF IW portfolio and the 4 GEF-4 Strategic Programs. This reflects the fact that the (4) transboundary issues prioritized under the GEF-4 IW Strategic Programs, such as nutrient overenrichment and depleted fisheries, are each long-standing global waters issues which have also emerged as priorities in the vast majority of GEF IW transboundary projects through the joint fact finding and issue prioritization (TDA) processes each GEF IW project goes through during its foundational stage.

GEF-3 SP1 – SAP Implementation Projects

  • Pacific OFM project reported that most staff positions at the WCPFC Secretariat have been recruited and filled. One of the remaining non-parties, the United States, ratified the WCPFC Convention in July 2007. Indonesia was granted a continuance of its status as a Co-operating Non-member at WCPFC4, Dec 2007; founding members encouraged Indonesia to move quickly towards full membership. There remain a few instances of arrears in payments to the Commission as was observed in 2007. WCPFC related legal, policy & institutional reviews progressed further in Pac SIDS. As of Dec 2007, the project had established its SC & subsidiary bodies including Specialist working groups for Biology, Ecosystem & By-catch, Fishing Technology, Methods, Statistics and Stock Assessment. The Commission adopted data submission protocols outlined in “Scientific Data to be Provided to the Commission”, a binding agreement on protocols for fisheries data collection & provision). Target stocks remain within limits agreed by the WCPFC but a reduction in fishing mortality rate for bigeye and yellowfin is proposed with limits yet to be agreed.
  • Black Sea project (completed) reported that progress had been made on revision of the LBSA protocol to the Bucharest Convention; the Protocol was prepared for planned adoption at a 2009 Ministerial Conference. A feasibility study was also completed on proposed ICZM Protocol which includes short-term application of ‘soft law’ documents (such as Code of Practice) given the likely lengthy time frame to adoption of the ICM protocol. Progress was made in update of SAP to be completed in 2008 with 5 of 6 countries (except Russia) having fully agreed on text and content; the SAP specifically accounts for legislative developments in each of the Black Sea countries. Discussion on broader update to Black Sea Convention was initiated. Countries agreed to increase their contributions to BSC/PS by 25% following an institutional review. Over 120 events organized and 20,000 branded materials produced for distribution in 6 Black Sea countries for International Black Sea Day; campaign audience estimated at 10-13 million people. The pilot project on Vessel Traffic Oil Pollution Information System (VTOPIS) pilot project has been successfully completed. All developed products are now installed at the Bulgarian Maritime Administration. Finally, the BSERP Exit Strategy was approved by the last Steering Committee meeting of BSERP and was being implemented including grant to BSC, transfer of computer and office equipment, as well as special research and monitoring equipment. Possible future sources of support to BSC are being identified among international donors, trans-national industries and national banks (Turkey).

GEF-3 SP2 – Foundational/Capacity Building and Structured Learning Projects

The implementation of the BCLME Programme has now been effectively completed. It has had a very successful year achieving many of its targets and objectives including the establishment of the Benguela Current Commission. One of the main highlights has been the formal signing of the Benguela Current Commission by the three countries and the completion of many of the sub-projects under the three Activity Centres. During the last six months, many of the project outputs and recommendations have been synthesised into easily understandable summaries according to priority activities and policy actions needed. Outputs have been categorised into management tools, baseline assessments and recommendations for policy actions under various thematic sectors. For example, a regional aquaculture policy has been developed and adopted, management plans have been prepared for marine biodiversity conservation within the region, an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAF) has been developed and incorporated into national decision making policy; key recommendations have been made in terms of pressing fisheries policy, socio-economic and legal issues; transboundary surveys of fish stocks are taking place and various working groups have been established. A state of the ecosystem report has been produced including status of top predators as indicators of ecosystem health and state of the fish stocks report which will be completed and updatd annually. The State of the Ecosystem Information System (SEIS) has been developed as a practical tool for managers and will be updated regularly to provide easily understood summary data for decision making. An early warning system has been established including a network of coastal instruments, satellite remote sensing products and models developed to provide information of oceanographic processes driving the environmental variability including Benguela Nino events and low oxygen water. Other key outputs include the production of water quality guidelines for the region, a base-line on land-based sources of marine pollution, guidelines on responsible seabed mining, a regional oil spill contingency plan assessment, mitigation of impacts of longlines on seabirds pelagic sharks and turtles and an assessment of the MARPOL convention.

  • Nile TEAP reported that a draft NTEAP Phase out and Sustainability plan has been established for all NTEAP components including the networks.
  • ASCLMEs reported that the project Inception Meeting and the first Steering Committee meeting was held in January 2008 and was deemed to be very successful by the countries. Since then the project has concentrated on developing country ownership through the adoption of National Project Coordination Groups, on adopting the 2008 research cruise schedule, and on training national scientists on ecosystem assessment. The major 2008 cruise started in August 2008 (to be reported in PIR2009). The Project is also focusing on networking with other Projects in the region (including the two ASCLME Sister Projects of WIO-LaB and SWIOFP) and, to this effect, is planning a major Regional Project Coordination Forum in mid-to-late 2008. All staff posts are now effectively filled including the new position of Policy and Governance Coordinator.
  • Nubian Aquifer project reported that each country has established its inter-ministerial committee. Regional Causal Chain Analysis and governance analyses were developed and reviewed as inputs to the SADA process. A national stakeholder analysis was conducted. Agreement was reached in regards to a joint (4-country) database to be hosted at the Joint Authority headquarter in Tripoli.
  • Okavango River Project reported that following an independent external evaluation, project implementation has been fully reactivated taking a number of the recommendations of the evaluation into account. Progress has been made in each of the three countries in establishing both National Coordination Units and Inter-Ministerial Committees. The Okavango Basin Steering Committee Thematic Technical Team has met and agreed on priority trans-boundary issues and developed a Table of Contents for the TDA.
  • Lake Chad reported completion of the TDA and ministerial adoption of the SAP, preparation of NAPs by Lake Chad IMCs, endorsement of a data sharing protocol by Lake Chad Council of Ministers (CoM) and completion of a Lake Chad Institutional Assessment and its endorsement by CoM. In support of MDG Indicator 7.9.26, all existing protected areas within the Lake Chad Basin have been identified and a Protected Area Strategy has been adopted. Reflecting strong public participation, the Lake Chad project reported that 49 NGOs, CBOs and Local Government authorities are working at the local, national and regional levels partnered with LCBC and the project in implementation of project activities.
  • Guinea Current LME reported that a new LBA protocol was prepared and will be presented for endorsement at the next ministerial meeting in November 2009.
  • Niger River basin project reported that the TDA was adopted by SC, and the Niger basin SAP was adopted at ministerial level. Catalytically, the Niger Basin Authority (NBA) is being strengthened through a series of institutional reforms. Through the broader NBA shared vision process, legal documents, institutional reviews, etc. are under preparation. The shared vision objective is to define long-tem objectives and commitment to a program of action for sustainable development of the basin. It will also provide a framework to address some of the key UN MDGs, & objectives of NEPAD & the WSSD. Financial contributions to the NBA Secretariat are presently up to date from all riparians, an improvement on the previous year when several were in arrears.
  • Yellow Sea LME reported that the TDA has been finalized and accepted by governments; IMCs continue to be operational in both countries, and the SAP was agreed by PSC, and is now under review by governments for endorsement.
  • D-LIST reported that as of June 2008, a total number of 680 users are registered, a 28% increase over 2007. A total number of 1,333 people have also been signed up for the DLIST newsletter – as a way to create broader awareness of DLIST activities and partners. As of June 2008, the D-LIST portal has been improved and has more functionality (9 functions including the e-newsletter) and is being maintained constantly to meet the demands and needs of the coastal players. In total, 234 students have gone through DLIST supported courses, exceeding the end-of-project target of 200.
  • IW:LEARN (completed) workshops trained over 130 staff from ~30 GEF IW projects, 4 continents and 3 island regions during the 2007-08 PIR reporting period. A key catalytic outcome of IW:LEARN’s partnership with InWEnt was enlarging basin network to forge first pan-African network of freshwater and marine GEF IW projects. The partnership with InWEnt lead to replication of D2 Petersberg Process in new GEF IW UNDP MSP (approved & launched Sept 2007) in support of AMCOW and Africa Water Vision 2025 which builds on basin dialogues to engage parliamentarians and media, integrate groundwater and climate considerations, and test lake systems twinning. IW:LEARN coordinated the successful delivery of 4th Biennial GEF IW Conference in August, 2007; the conference featured 318 participants from approximately 68 countries and ~70 GEF-supported IW projects. Participants considered GEF IWC4 a success with an overall rating of 3.9/5. Lastly, IW:LEARN’s sustainability plan draft was completed, provided to SC in June 2008; presented in July 2008, with next revision pending inputs from UNEP-IW:LEARN and and finalization contingent upon approval of SC.
  • Train-Sea-Coast reported that a total of 19 Standard Training Packages are now available in the TSC catalogue against a project target of 12 (e.g. target exceeded by 58%). A total of 80 deliveries of all TSC courses have been made during the project period. A total of 2,160 trainees (vs. 1,800 target) have benefitted from training since project inception of which 41% are female. A total of 7 new Course Development Units (CDU) have been established and remain active vs. target of 6. Two new courses on “Developing and Implementing Ecosystem Approaches to the Management of Ocean-related Activities” and “Development, implementation and management of marine protected areas” were developed and delivered in 2007-2008. A TSC brochure has been completed, development and update of the TSC website is ongoing, and wider dissemination of information about what TSC can offer is provided at almost all intergovernmental meetings attended by OLA/DOALOS staff. With regard to programme sustainability, 5 professionals now staff the Central Support Unit (CSU) on a permanent basis (vs. target of 3) with other professional staff according to needs; the TSC Coordinator (SPA P5 level) is also DOALOS Deputy-Capacity building Coordinator to promote synergies and coordination.
  • The Improved Municipal Wastewater Management in Coastal Cities in ACP Countries (MSP) project reported that 9 training courses supporting 200 trainees from 5 African countries and 10 Caribbean (8) and Pacific (2) SIDS were delivered in English. Two training courses were delivered in Arabic to 55 participants from 15 Arab countries. Two courses were delivered in Portugese in Mozambique (40 trainees), and one course was delivered in Dutch in Suriname (30 trainees). An expert group consisting of UNEP and UNESCO-IHE staff as well as a consultant has formed in order to develop the course on Multi Year Financial Planning for Municipal Infrastructure Investments (MYFP). Feedback from 270 course participants suggests a paradigm shift in the understanding and acceptance of the concept and benefits of systematic stakeholder involvement in the planning process, while confirming the baseline assumption of low institutional tradition of systematic stakeholder involvement in all stages of the planning process. The website of the UNEP/GPA training programme was completely redesigned and converted into a content management system. This website has been developed specifically for users with slow internet connections and differentiated web statistics reveal a good share of users come from ACP countries and Asia & Pacific.

GEF-3 SP3 Global/Regional/National Demonstration Projects

  • PEMSEA (completed) reported that at the regional level, the PEMSEA Partnership Council remains fully operational (since Dec 2006), the PEMSEA Resource Facility is established, operational and fully financed by (3) PEMSEA countries.
PEMSEA ICM Demonstration Sites
  • A Coastal Strategy Implementation Plan for Chonburi (Thailand) demo site was updated for 2008-2011 and the ICM Action Plan was adopted and incorporated into the Municipal Development Plans and Provincial Environmental Management Plan.
  • Danang (Vietnam) site reported development of a 3 year work program for implementation of the Danang Coastal Strategy 2008-2010. Catalytically, the Prime Minister of Vietnam approved the Master Plan on Basic Survey and Management of Marine Resources and Environment until 2010 and Vision until 2020.
  • Manila Bay (Philippines) Environmental Management Project was mainstreamed in the Department of Environment and Natural Resources’ structure through Administrative Order No. 2007-27 and placed under River Basin Control Office. A Pollution Reduction Investment Plan for Bulacan (Marilao-Obando-Meycauyan River) developed to support implementation of Philippine Clean Water Act in this watershed draining to the Bay.
  • In Sihanoukville (Cambodia), access to sanitation facilities and safe drinking water was improved through the implementation of the SGP-PEMSEA Joint Communiqué; a 5-hectare freshwater reservoir in Stung Hav District is being rehabilitated to provide freshwater supply for small-scale agricultural production. Communities indicated that the rehabilitation of the reservoir resulted in significant increase in the volume of groundwater from their wells. The project benefits about 2,000 families in Stung Hav.
  • Lastly, a Comprehensive Management Plan for the Bohai Sea (China) is being developed with government financial input being identified.
  • Caribbean SIDS IWCAM Project reported that several of the demos – Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, St. Lucia, Tobago – have established robust environmental status baselines to support monitoring or project impacts on the ground. St. Lucia has adopted a new Land Policy which integrates the IWCAM approach and Saint Lucia acceded to the Cartagena Convention’s Land Based Sources of Marine Pollution Protocol on 30th January 2008. St. Lucia has also established and operationalized the Watershed Management Committee for its demonstration site. Other Environmental Legislation is being drafted and/or revised with IWCAM input, including Environmental Management Act, Biodiversity Act, EIA Regulations, St. Lucia Forest Act and the Management of Containers Act. Thirty Rainwater Harvesting Systems totaling 50,000 gallons have been installed (water pumps, water level devices, first flush, water tanks, filters, and non-return valves) and a tool was developed to monitor user preference, water quality, and economic impact. A Cabinet approved National Intersectoral Committee (NIC) to oversee the Tobago demo has been established and operationalized. An extensive public awareness campaign on behalf of the Courland Bay and its drainage watershed has been completed.

Despite severe implementation challenges (discussed elsewhere), theSolutions and environmental control of the Bay of Havana Havana Bay project reported important Parallel/Catalytic Outcomes through a Bilateral Project between Cuba and Spain. The sewer and aqueduct network in the San Isidro quarter of Old Havana is being improved through the supply of infrastructure and development of new solutions (US$564,837 – 2008). In addition, the Executive Committee of the Ministries Council approved the Integral Plan for the Sanitation of the main bays of Cuba including Havana Bay. Also, the project remains one of few projects to regularly monitor and report Environmental Status Indicators – N, P, BOD, SS, hydrocarbons – most are stable, some even showing improvements, reflecting the diversified approach the government is taking towards restoration of this highly degraded waterbody.

  • Global Mercury Project (completed) reported that all 6 pilot countries were using the GMP developed UN guidelines on reforming gold mining legislation. The countries are using the UN guidelines as a checklist for inspectors and as a method to enforce best practices; the guidelines include technical suggestions on methods that must be banned (such as amalgamation of the whole ore) and methods to be promoted (such as use of retorts far away from villages). Tanzania remains the most active GMP country in incorporating GMP recommendations into their mining legislation. The project has left over 320 locally trained trainers on cleaner gold mining. Transportable Demonstration Units (TDU) have been installed in all 6 countries and are being used to train miners and communities, but with varying impacts due to logistic challenges in some countries. The methodology of recognizing and identifying the needs of the miners and focusing on one site instead of dispersing the activities all over the country has been recognized as very successful and is being been used as the basis for the next phase of the project. Related to stress reduction, about 4,200 miners trained in Brazil have fully adopted 7 of the 20 cleaner procedures taught by the GMP team; this removed an estimated 1,000 kg of mercury from being released to the local rivers annually. Lastly, the UNEP Global Mercury Partnership area on ASM in which the GMP team has a lead role promotes collaboration between International Organisations, National Governments, NGOs and all stakeholders involved in the sector to achieve the goals of the global partnership’s business plan: reduce by 50% the emissions of Hg from the sector by 2017.

In final steps towards institutional, operational and financial sustainability, the Lake Manzala project (completed) reported that the National Water Research Center has assumed responsibility for operation and management of the facility from its own governmental resources since late 2007. Catalytically, two additional constructed wetlands were added in 2007-2008 bringing the total in the Port Said governorate to four and underscoring the high demonstration value of the project in promoting local replication.

PEMSEA PPP MSP has developed a website and training manual on PPP for environmental investments. A series of workshops brought forward the Puerto Galera sewage and WWT facility PPP investment project which was approved by the local legislative, municipal development and provincial development councils and a bidding process initiated in August 2008.

Monitoring of Progress

See UNDP-GEF International Waters Performance Report 2007 - 2008/Monitoring Progress

Lessons Learned

Consolidated lessons from the programme

Drawing from its experience with the Biennial GEF IW Conferences, IW:LEARN observed that projects can structure their workshops and training activities to include more interactive learning approaches such as conversation tables and peer-to-peer clinics, which increase active participation and learning outcomes from such events.

  • Carib SIDS IWCAM noted that available human capacity within SIDS can be a critical success factor in project implementation. In islands with small populations and limited numbers of professionals, it is important to design the projects such that this constraint does not become a limiting factor. Even with funding available for hiring of personnel, there are in many cases not enough persons to consider locally for hiring. It may defeat the purpose of a national demonstration if the staff needs to be recruited/hired from outside of the local environment.
  • IWCAM also identified the lesson that demonstration projects that have dedicated project funds (as distinct from counterpart funding) set aside for the project manager’s salary have generally resulted in more effective and efficient project implementation, as the project manager is generally able to work full-time on the project rather than having to also work on other jobs within a particular ministry.
  • PEMSEA observed the lesson that project design can only be effective if the following key ingredients are present: 1) a clear shared vision, 2) inclusive, multi-level partnerships, 3) active stakeholder participation sustained through appropriate incentive mechanisms, 4) adequate funding streams marked with resource counter parting, 5) science-based management support, 6) purposive capacity building and organizational strengthening, and 7) active communication and advocacy. Moreover, the mission must be well-articulated and widely owned at both the local and national levels (such as the SDS-SEA). The role of partnership building must be given importance at all times and fostered at all levels. Participation, not mere consultations, needs to be ensured and sustained through both financial and non-monetary incentives such as mechanisms to foster team building, community spirit and concern for the common good. In addition, partnership development should be supported by resource mobilization from all partners that are both willing and able to contribute to the advancement of PEMSEA’s development and immediate objectives. PEMSEA’s deliberate strategy of promoting both vertical and horizontal integration promotes an inclusive partnership that harnesses the indigenous knowledge of local communities, the creative savvy of modern practitioners, and the enabling strengths of well established institutions.
  • GCLME observed that political commitment to the project at the highest level (Ministerial and Presidential) is very critical for sustainability. At least at the Ministerial level Project Officers (National Directors and Programme Assistants) should interact continuously with political leaders. The Inter-Ministerial Steering Committees should be encouraged to meet regularly and give feedbacks to their respective Ministers. The high turnover or changes in Ministerial appointments and the relocation of the environment portfolios affect progress in project implementation at a certain level

Conclusions and Recommendations

The 2007-2008 IW PIR focal area report demonstrates excellent progress in the reporting year in advancing improved multi-country governance of several of the world’s key shared water systems. Key milestones related to ministerial level adoption of regional policy frameworks (SAPs) were achieved in Lake Chad, Niger River and the Guinea Current LME. The portfolio strongly supports achievement of each of the GEF-3 IW targets and is also closely aligned with the new GEF-4 Strategic Programs; the net result is a significant commitment to the achievement of the global environmental benefits associated with the IW focal area. Strong results were shown in the area of additional resource mobilization with the average project at mid-term or later stage mobilizing an additional $11.5 m. or 94% beyond that committed at CEO endorsement. The continued strong results delivered by the portfolio also underscore the continued effectiveness and relevance of the IW focal area’s stepwise, strategic approach to strengthening and reforming multi-country governance of shared water systems. Building, nurturing and sustaining effective partnerships with other UN and Bretton Woods Institutions, NGOs, and the private sector remain an integral component of the UNDP-GEF IW portfolio approach.

Overall, 84% and 88% of projects received satisfactory or highly satisfcatory progress towards objectives (DO) and progress in implementation (IP) ratings, respectively. Corrective steps are being taken in projects receiving ratings of MU or below. The portfolio showed very positive trends related to project cycle ‘elapsed times’, both for pipeline to WP entry and for WP entry to effectiveness which bodes well for future strong and efficient project cycle management in line with the new GEF-4 project cycle policies. A number of useful lessons were learned at the project level and, more importantly, the IW focal area, with significant input from UNDP-GEF, has succeeded in ‘mainstreaming’ project learning throughout the portfolio through such mechanisms as IW Experiences Notes and the biennial GEF IW conferences. Lastly, the UNDP-GEF risk rating system, while providing useful ‘flags’ for at risk projects, requires additional refinement and awareness raising to serve as a truly effective tool for project risk management.

Additional Information

See UNDP-GEF International Waters Performance Report 2007 - 2008/Annex Graphs for further useful graphical information.

References

See Also

External Resources

Attachments

See Full Report as Word Doc UNDP-GEF 2008 IW PIR Focal Area Report - final.doc

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