UNDP WatSan Workspace

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This is the workspace for the development and implementation of the "UNDP Water & Sanitation Programme Identification" project inception phase. You will find the full project description in due time on the related project-page) in due time.
Juerg 11:41, 3 April 2008 (CEST)

Contents

Inception Report

Full report
 UNDP WatSan Review Inception Report Final - June 2008.doc

Introduction

The terms of reference for this assignment (see [1]) are to conduct needs assessments in water and sanitation services (WatSan) beginning in 8-10 developing countries and to assist UNDP in delineating a new global WatSan program. The MDGs on water and sanitation have set a global target that is a key driver service improvement in developing countries. With less than 7 years to go before 2015, there is a need to escalate international support to assist those countries falling behind in meeting these international goals (see  UNDP WatSan Review Inception Report - Annex C WatSan Access Figures - June 2008.doc). The essence of this program is to help neglected countries accelerate the extension of sustainable WatSan services.

UNDP’s renewed support for a global WatSan program is timed specifically to provide such assistance. The [[HDR 2006|2006 UNDP HDR Report (Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and the Global Water Crisis)" emphasizes the role of governance in mitigating the endemic human crisis as a result of lack of access to WatSan services. UNDP has the comparative advantage of being designated, within the UN reform initiative, the leading multilateral coordinating agency. As such, UNDP has high level entry into National development planning processes and can lead UN coordination. Its emphasis on capacity building, governance, and the convening role of the regional representatives means that UNDP is well placed to provide the strong coordination role required in the fragmented water sector.

This inception report briefly sets out the consultant’s perspective to this assignment. It lays out the objectives, reviews each region from the point of view of WatSan needs, sets out the considerations for design of a UNDP global intervention in WatSan activities, makes proposals for country selection, outlines a methodology for country field work and partnership development and provides an indicative work programme.

The country selection proposed in this inception report has been developed in consultation with UNDP Regional Technical Advisers, who, in April 2008, undertook a dialogue with UNDP country offices on the fit between this global initiative and UNDP’s country priorities and capacity.



Objectives

The overall objective of the assignment is to design a global WatSan initiative starting in 8-10 countries, through which UNDP may further the achievement of WatSan MDGs and support UN country teams and partners to accelerate client actions. Specifically this assignment will:



Regional Overview

Latin America and the Caribbean

In Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), 89 percent of the population has access to improved drinking water supply, and 74 percent has access to improved sanitation. Coverage in urban areas has expanded significantly. Building on the significant achievements in water infrastructure development, the main challenge is to scale up efforts to reach the poor in rural areas and informal settlements, and create momentum in some neglected countries. Within the region Central America, the Caribbean and the Andean countries generally have lower levels of service coverage. Key challenges are to:


  • Enhance decentralization of WatSan service delivery by strengthening the capacity of municipalities to manage, maintain, and expand services, and by reviewing instances where divestiture from national or regional companies to municipalities has resulted in a loss of economies of scale, reduced potential for cross subsidization, excessive politicization, and decreased attention to small urban and rural areas;


Arab States

In the Arab States in the Middle East and North Africa, 88 percent of the population has access to water supply and 75 percent has access to sanitation. Despite significant progress in increasing access to WatSan services, the slow pace of policy and institutional reforms has had a negative impact on overall quality of service. Weak policy and institutional frameworks perpetuate problems that may result in intermittent supply and impose substantial health, social, and financial costs on consumers. In most developing Arab states countries, the decision-making processes are divided among different institutions that do not typically coordinate their actions.

Moreover, existing policies are directed toward increasing supply in a region where the resource is scarce, instead of prioritizing demand management. The sector is also characterized by inadequate cost recovery, while the poor often lack access to WatSan services (and thus pay higher prices to water vendors with increased risk of water borne diseases). Finally, subsidies are pervasive and nontransparent and, more often than not, only benefit those already connected to networks. A diverse and conflict-prone region, the region offers a small range of countries engaged with international development assistance. The key challenges are to:

  • Reform policy and institutional frameworks for WatSan (e.g., improve utility governance, institute incentive structures for improved performance, increase accountability of utility managers) and improve sector coordination.
  • Ensure sustainable financing of operations and maintenance and improve the cost effectiveness of WatSan solutions.
  • Fairly allocate limited water resources to different user groups.



Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)

Africa is facing an ongoing, endemic water and sanitation crisis that debilitates and kills in large numbers, limiting economic growth, educational access, and life opportunities. Africa lags significantly behind the rest of the world, in terms both of absolute access to water and sanitation, and relatively in terms of progress towards achieving the MDGs. Most at risk are the poor, especially women and children in rural areas and growing informal settlements/slums in urban areas. Service development cannot keep up with the pace of population growth, and overall, numbers of the un-served are increasing. Only 62% of Africans have access to safe water: the UN Millennium Project reports that SSA is the region most off-track with respect to achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in WatSan access. Just 37% of the population has access to adequate sanitation.

The challenges facing WatSan development in SSA are complex and diverse: much of Africa is arid to semi-arid, and while rapidly urbanizing, rural populations are generally very poorly served. Informal urbanization presents many WatSan issues, data is inadequate and service development strategies for the urban poor are generally not effective. The country profile includes fragile and post-conflict situations, as well as massive governance and capacity problems. External assistance is significantly skewed towards a minority of reforming states.

Achieving the MDGs in Africa requires a significant acceleration of support. The rate of institutional reforms that have been initiated in many African countries needs to quicken. New strategies need to be developed in fragile environments where governments are not in a position to lead. Governments need to prioritize WatSan services in poverty reduction strategies (PRS), improve clarity in institutional responsibilities, strengthen sector governance and transparency, improve sector information systems, strengthen service provider and oversight roles and increase service efficiency through applying business principles. Current financing is inadequate and mechanisms are unsustainable  external aid accounts for over 80% of sector investments and internal revenue frequently cannot maintain existing services. While the sector retains the expectation of government service delivery, public sector capacity is desperately weak at many levels. This results in Africa’s poor mostly obtaining water and disposing of excreta through household, community, or small-scale private sector initiatives.



Europe and Central Asia

There are wide variations in the level and quality of WatSan services among countries in Europe and Central Asia (ECA). While 91 percent of the population has access to water supply and 82 percent has access to sanitation, in the Caucasus and Central Asia intermittent supply of dubious quality is the norm.

As a whole, the WATSAN sector faces a badly maintained infrastructure, much of which is over 40 years old and approaching the end of its design life. Few countries have moved to the cost-covering tariffs that induce efficient consumption. Effective approaches to rural water supply have also not been developed and sector coordination is a frequent problem. The combination of these factors has led to the current challenges:

  • Inefficient operations, characterized by high system physical and commercial losses and high operating costs
  • Institutional and regulatory weaknesses, including governance and coordination issues
  • Water quality problems due to malfunctioning treatment plants and equipment;
  • Lack of financial viability due to poor commercial practices, low tariffs, and limited government subsidies;
  • Water resource scarcity and pollution.


The region faces the challenge of mitigating these problems amidst intense competition for limited budgetary resources and increasing social, political, and economic pressures, including the requirements that come with impending European Union accession in some countries.



Asia and Oceania/the Pacific

The Asia-Pacific region is a vast diverse region containing some of the world’s fastest developing countries alongside some of the poorest. In East Asia and the Pacific, 24 percent of the population lacks access to improved water supply and 52 percent lacks access to sanitation, equal to 465 million and 705 million people, respectively. This average hides large variations. Of the 52 percent without access to sanitation, a full 65 percent are in rural areas and only 27 percent in urban. Likewise, lower-income countries lag behind lower middle-income countries -- for example 85 percent of Filipinos have access to improved water but only 34 percent of Cambodians.

In South Asia, 84 percent of the population has access to water supply and 35 percent has access to sanitation. South Asia, in particular India, has made significant strides in improving access to physical infrastructure, but slow progress in institutional (especially cost recovery) and policy reforms have resulted in declining service quality. Continued urban population growth is likely to further increase the gap between the served and unserved. Mass behaviour change programmes in Bangladesh and India have recently considerably improved sanitation access.

Some of the key challenges that the region faces in expanding access to water supply and sanitation (WSS) are
  • Rapid urbanization -- with urban populations in East Asia doubling from 665 million today to 1.2 billion by 2030.
  • Huge investment needs partly met by growing public sector investment -- but there are few creditworthy borrowers or sources of finance, and insufficient attention is paid to addressing water resource management issues (such as declining ground water and water quality)
  • Very slowly reforming public sector service providers – Whilst absorbing large increases in finance many service providers suffer from poor governance and incentives, with low efficiency in both operations and in the use of existing and planned assets and poor service sustainability.
  • Decentralization of WSS responsibilities - leading to large numbers of clients with weak capacity.



Positioning a Renewed UNDP Global WatSan Initiative

See also Joakim's "Food for Thought"-Paper:  Food for thought on UNDP's comparative advantage.doc


Crowded Field

UNDP is scaling up its engagement in a sub-sector, which, whilst urgently needing more support, is a field with many well-established and expanding international initiatives. UNICEF manages a $160m program of water and sanitation expertise in over 90 countries and is seeking to move upstream into policy support. The Water and Sanitation Program of the World Bank has knowledge exchange, coordination and policy support operations in about 40 countries. The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council has recently announced a $50m+ Global Sanitation Fund which will focus on 14 countries. UN-Habitat, WHO, Wateraid, Care, Plan International and many other agencies also have global and reasonably large-scale sector initiatives. The World Bank, regional development banks such as the AfDB and ADB, and philanthropic ventures (such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation) also have expanding investment and knowledge development programs in the WatSan sector. Water management has gained greater prominence on corporate agendas.


UNDP Comparative Advantages

In this context UNDP needs to position itself strategically to add value. As suggested in the introduction, UNDP’s comparative advantages in the water and sanitation sector include:

  • Playing a leading coordinating role in the UN and with a convening and coordinating mandate
  • High level entry into national development planning processes
  • An existing focus on capacity building and governance
  • Global reach and representation in the poorest and most neglected countries.

UNDP’s financial resources are modest in comparison with others and its existing regional and country water experts have a stronger focus on water resource management. Improved water resource management, whilst vital for economic growth, poverty reduction and environmental management, is in general not on the critical short term path to water and sanitation service improvement. Specific WatSan expertise is needed in order to make a difference in this sub-sector and will involve acquiring new skills sets within the UNDP water family.


; Skewed Country Support and the Opportunity in Fragile States Notwithstanding a clear commitment by the external support agencies to improve their alignment and coordination, the distribution of existing WatSan support is highly skewed. Reforming countries can attract substantial external resources, support from many agencies, including technical assistance and coordination support, whilst many other countries are neglected and are effectively donor orphans.

A new frontier in MDG support in the WatSan sector is to accelerate sustainable service access in fragile states. It is currently estimated that around one third of people without access to safe drinking water live in ‘fragile environments’. Access to sanitation is at desperately low levels in most fragile states. An estimated 20% of African countries have failed to take any significant steps that will reduce the numbers of households without access to water and sanitation services.

While these areas of fragility impact on regional stability and poverty, they are often associated with regional or internal conflict, and it is notable that many development agencies are absent or have withdrawn, leaving civil society and humanitarian organisations to do what they can, on an ad hoc basis in isolated, under-resourced projects. If this trend continues, poor households in these donor orphans will be excluded from the benefits of international support aimed at achieving the MDGs, exacerbating the poverty and fragility that caused their exclusion. Meanwhile opportunities exist (through specialized trusts, community or civil society engagement or through the domestic private sector) to fast track service development by means which do not depend (but can complement) major public sector service reform. The simple development of a national strategy and plan and support to regular coordination in a country without sector leadership can make an enormous difference.

A global WatSan program focusing on fragile states is likely to add significant value to complement other global initiatives. UNDP would bring new impetus to these neglected countries and play a leadership role in a sub-sector where a small focused initiative could have high impact. UNDP’s convening role is also comparatively stronger than other agencies in many fragile environments and it could play a strategic role bridging humanitarian and development initiatives.

An OECD/DAC fragile states group which tracks aid flows to fragile states has identified four categories of fragile states, a categorization which might be helpful in fragile state country selection:

  1. Countries receiving less aid than would be predicted given their high levels of need compared to countries with similar policy and institutional performance ratings. These include: Guinea, Uzbekistan and Yemen
  2. Countries of high levels of need and weak governance/low capacity: Central African Republic, DRC, Myanmar, Somalia, Togo and Zimbabwe
  3. Countries with Improving Aid Levels: Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Eritrea, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Niger, Sierra Leone and Tajikistan
  4. Countries with a limited number of donors: Central African Republic, Cote d’Ivoire, Liberia, Republic of Congo, Comoros and Papua New Guinea


Working in Partnership

The international WatSan community is renewing its global coordination efforts. Any new global initiative would need to retain strong linkages to other initiatives to reduce overlap, improve cohesion and increase impact.

It is recommended that, at the outset of this initiative, UNDP establish an advisory group comprising the other major global WatSan initiatives and country clients. This will bring additional advice to the initiative, root the initiative in country demand, build cohesion, help resource mobilization, consolidate a strong place for UNDP in the WatSan family and avoid surprises. The global advisory group would complement country consultative groups (either to be established specifically for this initiative or grafted to existing sector country stakeholder and coordination groups).



Thematic Framework

As the above regional analysis suggests, the crisis in WatSan development is effectively a crisis of stalled reforms, inadequate governance, weak management and inadequate and unsustainable investment. There is a central principle at stake here which falls fully within the UNDP mandate. This is to promote the voice of water users seeking access to basic water and sanitation needs, in the context of a human rights perspective, and to amplify the response of government and management to this. The range of country settings is diverse and there are many possible entry points to support the sector, some filled by local capacity or support and others not.

Within this context, the consultant’s opinion is that the essence of this initiative, 7 years before the MDG target, should be to stimulate and accelerate sustainable WatSan services in neglected areas. Different situations in the complex water sector will require a range of specific entry points. The thematic framework of the program is defined by four interrelated characteristics which give it overall coherence.


Key Recommendation 1

<strike> It is recommended that, at the outset of this initiative, UNDP establish an advisory group comprising the other major global WatSan initiatives and country clients. This will bring additional advice to the initiative, root the initiative in country demand, build cohesion, help resource mobilization, consolidate a strong place for UNDP in the WatSan family and avoid surprises.


1 Focus on neglected states with low WatSan coverage
Notwithstanding the commitment by the external support agencies to improve their alignment and coordination, the distribution of existing WatSan support is highly skewed. Some reforming countries can attract substantial external resources and support from many agencies, including technical assistance and coordination support. Many other countries are neglected and are effectively donor orphans. Yet these countries are often the critical ones if regions are to meet the MDGs.
A new frontier in MDG support in the WatSan sector is to accelerate sustainable service access in fragile states. It is currently estimated that around one third of people without access to safe drinking water live in ‘fragile environments’. Access to sanitation is at desperately low levels in most fragile states. An estimated 20% of African countries have failed to take any significant steps that will reduce the numbers of households without access to water and sanitation services.
While these areas of fragility impact on regional stability and poverty, they are often associated with regional or internal conflict, and it is notable that many development agencies are absent or have withdrawn, leaving civil society and humanitarian organisations to do what they can, on an ad hoc basis in isolated, under-resourced projects. If this trend continues, poor households in these donor orphans will be excluded from the benefits of international support aimed at achieving the MDGs, exacerbating the poverty and fragility that caused their exclusion. Meanwhile opportunities exist (through specialized trusts, community or civil society engagement or through the domestic private sector) to fast track service development by means which do not depend (but can complement) major public sector service reform. The simple development of a national strategy and plan and support to regular coordination in a country without sector leadership can make an enormous difference.
Providing specific attention to neglected states with the lowest service coverage within regions is likely to add significant value to complement other country support initiatives. UNDP would bring new impetus to these neglected countries and play a leadership role in a sub-sector where relatively modest resources might have a higher impact. UNDP’s convening role is also comparatively stronger than other agencies in many fragile environments and it could play a strategic role bridging humanitarian and development initiatives.


2 Guided by country priorities
Water is a sensitive, localized, fragmented and often highly politicized sector. Countries are at different stages of development and, even within countries, the focus of problems can change quite quickly. The keys to making an impact on the ground are: responsiveness to local priorities, quality of support and ownership of solutions. This requires support to be located close to country clients, to be timely and to be tailored to specific country demands and requests.


3 Strengthening Governance, Leadership, Coordination, and National MDG Strategies, including Financing and Monitoring Systems
Lack of governance, leadership, coordination, MDG planning, sector monitoring and financing and local capacity are all common and inter-related sector problems. Within this framework, it is recommended that UNDP select suitable entry points based on country demand and in consultation with local stakeholders. Common strands and opportunities for comparative engagement between countries and in the program as a whole are bound to emerge. The program will undoubtedly develop sub-themes, based on local breakthroughs, policy innovations and progress on the ground. These can be used to assist in knowledge-sharing and joint problem-solving. This flexible, joint, field-based approach is likely to be more sensitive to local priorities and create more impact than the a priore selection of one specific program focus area.
A flexibility approach will allow more opportunity to develop local partnerships, both strategic and financial, since it can take into account partner priorities. This local responsiveness is also a strategy for growth toward building a many-partnered, locally –rooted global program.


4 Alignment with Ongoing regional/country UNDP water initiatives
A critical internal success factor is alignment with UNDP priorities, leadership, capacity and related initiatives. Country office support in needed to position the country dialogue, use the stature of the office of the UNDP Resident Representative for co-ordination and in providing administrative and logistical support to a new WatSan activity. Synergies with other UNDP country infrastructure, water, governance, environment, gender or capacity building initiatives would help sustain a country WatSan program.


Criteria and Country Selection

Criteria

The criteria for selection of countries where field studies will be carried out to fulfil the TOR are as follows:

Global Spread
Initiate activities in each of UNDP’s regions (two countries per UNDP region).
Support from UNDP Country Offices
The country selection should be supported by relevant UNDP country and regional operations, including UNDP regional technical advisors. There should be capacity, interest from the country office and compatibility between this initiative and other UNDP country priority support areas.
Service Need
Selected countries should have overall low levels of WatSan service coverage and require support to help the country meet the MDGs.
Assessment Need
Selected countries would not have recently country assessments recently completed
Support Space
Selected countries would be those where there is a need for UNDP to enter the WatSan field and that their potential role is not already been competently filled by established agencies (UN, RDBs, bilaterals etc). Selected countries are likely to be more neglected by other agencies with a high proportion of fragile states.
Impact
Given UNDP’s resource base and comparative advantage, initiatives need to be selected which have the potential for UNDP to have a significant impact. The selection should take account of country size and complexity and give preference to countries in which UNDP could make an impact in say a four year period of operation, and certainly by 2015.
Resource Mobilization Opportunities
Opportunities for using UNDP seed money to raise additional resources to support an expanded country program.
Opportunity and fit within Program framework
Selected countries would appear to have the potential for viable points of entry and support needs in the overall frame of sector governance, leadership, coordination, planning, monitoring and capacity building


Selection Process

The process for country selection has been:

  1. RTAs have in consultation with the consultant selected a long list of potential countries based on these criteria above, generally about 6 to 8 per UNDP region
  2. RTAs contacted UNDP country offices and sought their comments on the opportunity of additional WatSan support and made an assessment on their level of interest and compatibility with other UNDP concerns
  3. The consultant reviewed other information sources on country suitability.


Recommended Short List

There are many countries in which UNDP could provide support. There are no “right” countries and no countries without risk. The long list of countries that were considered is attached in Annex 2.

The recommended short list that follows is of 12 countries on which the UNDP WatSan initiative should focus. The selection was made by applying the selection criteria (see table below) and consultation with RTAs and UNDP Country Offices. Some additional queries are raised which need to be finalized.


Issue
There is a budget implication in moving from 8-10 to 12 countries.

Africa

Contacts: Akiko Yamamoto | Abdoulaye Ndiaye

Four countries (2 from Eastern/Southern and 2 from Western) are selected for further investigation of which 2 to 3 will be retained for in depth field work, depending on budget. The selection gives an even balance of Francophone and Anglophone countries. Madagascar is country largely ignored by development agencies and which has emerged from a period of instability. Service access is very low and there is good opportunity for UNDP to assist government to accelerate sector improvements in coming years. The UNDP CO has given strong support to a WatSan initiative in the country. Mali is a water-stressed country, with limited external support, strong country demand in which there are opportunities to build on development bank investments. Sierra Leone is an example of a post-conflict state where a level of stability has been achieved enabling support agencies to add value, but much remains to be done in the WatSan sector. Zambia has struggled with sector co-ordination and has surprisingly low rural coverage, notwithstanding the presence of longstanding sector support.


Issue
Do we eliminate 1 or 2 from this list, or expand the budget to include an additional 2 countries


Arab States

Contacts: Mirey Atallah | Elie Kodsie | Iyad Abumoghli

This selection focuses on two Arab countries that rank amongst the poorest countries in Africa. Sudan is a populous country emerging from conflict and regional division with very low service levels and institutional capacity. There is high demand for support and to help build institutional capacity and effective sector approaches. The UN has a strong presence in the Sudan and this initiative would complement other water sector activities. Considering the scale of the challenge against the available resource base, a focus on selected states in South Sudan might be appropriate. Sudan would be expected to take the majority of resources in the assignment and follow-up activities in this region. Djibouti is a small (<1m) country, neglected by most development agencies. Whilst its urban service levels are reasonable for Africa, its institutional capacity and sector documentation are weak and the country has little external support.


Issue
The scale of effort and resource allocation will be very different between Djibouti and Sudan. In Sudan the program will need to select priority focus areas.


Asia - Pacific

Contacts: Anna Tengberg

  • Mongolia
  • Cambodia

Mongolia faces climatic extremes and has relatively low sector coverage for the region, especially in rural areas. UNDP CO has shown strong interest in a WatSan initiative in Mongolia. Cambodia had some of the lowest coverages in the world and some excellent recent successes. Whilst there are several well established donors, greater support is necessary, especially in rural areas.


Europe and Central Asia

Contacts: Juerg Staudenmann | Vladimir Mamaev

The European selection draws from different sub-regions - South Eastern Europe and the independent states of Central Asia – which add to the diversity of the portfolio. Tajikistan is a poor and poorly serviced country by any standards and one where a WatSan project would well complement other UN (UNDP IWRN, HRBA regional programme and projects and EUWI pilot) and other agency efforts. An entry into Tajikistan might lead on to other initiatives in the poor countries of Central Asia. Service levels in Bosnia and Herzegovina, although reported as being not at the same low standard, show significant gaps and needs for intervention, and there is strong interest from the government and UNDP to strengthen water & sanitation dialogue and portfolio. A good opportunity exists to work in support of the UNDP/Spanish MDG fund. In both countries the WatSan initiative will complement UNDP’s support to Human Right-Based Approaches to Water Development. - More info can be found via the HRBA Toolkit:

edit  ·  Toolkit Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA) to Water Governance
UNDP Regional HRBA to Water Programme for Europe & CIS

Detailed documentation: Background | Regional aspects | Regional Programme | Methodology
PHASE 1: Checklist (Bosnia and Herzegovina | Georgia | Moldova | Tajikistan | Turkey | Ukraine)
PHASE 2: Country Sector Assessments and Proposed Projects (Bosnia and Herzegovina | Tajikistan | Kosovo | Serbia) | Bibliography

Legal Framework: The Rights to Water and Sanitation in International Law | Regional Law | National Law
WaterWiki-resources:Rights to Water and Sanitation: A Handbook for Activists | UN Human Rights Council Resolution on Water and Sanitation | UN Recognises Access to Clean Water as a Basic Human Right | Human Rights-Based Approach | Applying a HRBA to Water:A Case Study | Water-related Legislation and Conventions | The Right to Water - WHO Publication | A UN Convention on the Right to Water - An Idea Whose Time Has Come | International Conference on the Right to Water and Sanitation in Theory and Practice | Q&A: The Right to Water | General Comment 15 (2002) | Q&A: Water Governance | Water and Health | Equitable Access to Water and Human Rights | European Union Water Framework Directive | Essay: What exactly is “The Right to Water”? | Protocol on Water and Health | Protocol on Water and Health/Q&A | Lessons Learned From Rights-Based Approaches in the Asia-Pacific Region | Human Rights-Based Approach Strategies adopted by UNICEF Laos | Utility Privatisation through the Lens of Human Rights | The Right to Water - From Concept to Implementation | The Human Right to Water:Translating Theory into Practice | Report of the Seminar on Human Rights and MDGs, May 2009
External resources: HRBA and Water Governance Fast Facts - UNDP | Applying a HRBA to Developing Cooperation and Programming (UNDP, 2006) | COHRE Manual on the Right to Water and Sanitation | Protocol on Water and Health - Full Document) | COHRE Monitoring Implementation of the Right to Water: A Framework for Developing Indicators | Sub-commission guidelines for the realisation of the right to drinking water and sanitation (2005) | UNFPA - A HRBA to Programming, Practical Implementation Manual and Training Materials (2010) | Operational Guidelines for Implementing a Rights-Based Approach in Water and Sanitation Programming (CoHRE,2008) | COHRE Monitoring Implementation of the Right to Water: A Framework for Developing Indicators | FAQs on a HRBA to Development Cooperation | The Human Rights-Based Approach to Development - The Right to Water | UN Independent Expert Report on the issue of human rights obligations related to water and sanitation 2009 | UN Independent Expert Report on MDGs and right to water and sanitation 2010
Websites: The Rights to Water and Sanitation Information Portal | UN Independent Expert on Right to Water and Sanitation Webpage

Moldova is a "classic" WSS country for intl. donor support, as well a pilot country for the protocol on Water & Health "project facilitation mechanism", and thus interesting also for UNDP. The CO shows great interest and support.


Issue
Bosnia and Herzegovina whilst having strong support from UNDP country and regional offices, stands out from other program countries given its developed country service levels and may have quite a different focus from other countries.
Responses re BiH (Juerg 17
44, 15 July 2008 (CEST)):
  • An new MDG-F project is currently being launched in Bosnia and Herzegovina entitled "Mainstreaming environmental governance: linking local and national action in BiH". -  MDG-F Environment Joint Programme Document 07-03-2008.pdf.
  • This would be an excellent opportunity for the WatSan Initiative pilot to explore (a) mainstreaming WSS into national programming (b) under a UNCT / One-UN approach. - Preliminary inquiries with Goran Vukmir have indicated that the CO would be interest to participate as pilot country in this initiative.
Further remarks re Tajikistan
  • A regional IWRM project is currently under prep including Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as a national IWRM "twin-project" in Uzbekistan. (Rural) WSS has been identified as overarching priority in Tajikistan, while Kyrgyzstan is already "covered" with WatSan activities and projects.

Latin America

Contacts: Paula Caballero | Nick Remple

The selection process in LAC reviewed 7 countries. Bolivia was considered as a country of low sector access, weak sector co-ordination and significant water and climate change challenges. Guatemala holds the opportunity to strengthen the WatSan component of the MDG fund and the UNDP CO interest in environmental issues. Honduras was considered for the opportunity was to build on the new water law and the MDG fund. Nicaragua and Ecuador were also considered.

The selection is not a clear cut choice in Latin America because of the high interest from several UNDP COs. On reviewing the best use of UNDP’s limited resources the selection of a neglected country each from South and Central America – specifically Paraguay and El Salvador - are recommended. Paraguay has lower rural coverage than its neighbours, receives limited external assistance, has requested support in institutional development which UNDP is well placed to support. The current political climate also presents an opportunity to build sector momentum. El Salvador is highly vulnerable to climate changes and amongst the most neglected Central America countries, with lower than average rural water and sanitation coverage. Water is a key component of UNDAF strategy in El Salvador and a focus on WatSan would complement this focus.


The table below ranks the recommended countries and gives further information relevant to their selection.

 UNDP WatSan Review Inception Report - country selection table - June 2008.doc

Key Recommendation 2

<strikeIt is further recommended that the first phase of this assignment be amended, so that the consultant undertakes further telephone/email discussions to confirm country demand, UNDP country office and partner support.

Work Programme

 UNDP WatSan Review Inception Report - Work programme - June 2008.doc

Recommendations

Partner Advisory Group

It is recommended that, at the outset of this initiative, UNDP establish a partnership advisory group comprising the other major global WatSan initiatives and country clients. The first meeting might be held at the Stockholm WWW in August.


Country Selection

The following 12 countries are recommended to be selected:

Africa
  • Madagascar
  • Zambia
  • Sierra Leone
  • Mali
Arab States
  • Sudan
  • Djibouti
Europe and Central Asia
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Tajikistan
Latin America
  • Paraguay
  • El Salvador
Asia - Pacific
  • Mongolia
  • Cambodia


The final list needs to be confirmed. This increase to 12 countries will have a budget implications. Also there remain some queries with regard to final country selection which need to be resolved. The assignment will commence in countries where there is greater consensus on the appropriateness of selection.


Thematic Focus

It is recommended that the central focus of the program should be to accelerate MDG achievement in neglected areas. It will seek to do this by using UNDP’s comparative advantage in co-ordination, leadership and sector governance, including promoting the voice of water users seeking access to basic water and sanitation needs, in the context of a human rights perspective, and to amplify the response of government and management to this.

It is recommended that the articulation of this focus be achieved through concentrating on four specific areas:

  • Focus on neglected states with low WatSan coverage
  • Guidance by country priorities
  • Strengthening Governance, Leadership, Coordination, National MDG Strategies including financing an monitoring systems
  • Alignment with Ongoing regional/country UNDP water initiatives


Naming and Communicating the Initiative

To build the coherence of this initiative, make for ease of communications and enhance UNDP’s influence, it is recommended that this UNDP WatSan initiative develop a program title and a communications strategy. The positioning of the name requires consultation and UNDP internal buy-in. Options that the consultant has considered include:

  • The UNDP Water GOLD Programme – Accelerating Governance through improving Governance, Leadership and Development
  • The UNDP Water MDG Plus Programme – Accelerating Water and Sanitation Achievement in Neglected Areas
  • UNDP Voice and Response in Global Water Governance, or VARIGLO.


Timescale

The timescale has been amended to reflect development of the outputs in a fully consultative manner at country level.



Further Readings - References - Links

 DFID-Governance in Water Services (Background paper to policy)-AndyHudson Apr08.doc

Source(s)

 MDG WSS DATA BASE COMPLETE JAN 15 08 RBEC ANALYSIS.xls

 HDR WSS Data Corrected 17 July 20072.xls

 TORs WatSan - 13 Dec-2 7 January 08.doc

 UNDP Water Governance Programme - Funding Proposal to Sweden for 2008-2011 16 Jan 08.doc


June 2008

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