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Ukraine is part of:
Eastern Europe · Europe & CIS ·
Water Basins of Ukraine:
Black Sea · Cogilnic · Danube · Dnieper · Dniester · Dnipro · Don · Elancik · Kogilnik · Mius · Prut · Sarata · Tisza · Vistula-Wista ·
Facts & Figures edit
Capital Kiev (Kyiv)
Neighbouring Countries Belarus, Hungary, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia
Total Area 603,700 km2
  - Water 0 km2 (0.00%) / 0 m2/ha
  - Land 603,700 km2
Coastline 2,782 km
Population 46,480,700 (77 inhab./km2)
HDIA 0.786 (2007)
Gini CoefficientA 28.1 (1995)
Nominal GDPB $198,000 million
GDP (PPP) Per CapitaB $7,800
Land UseC
  - Cultivated Land 333,847 km2 (55.3%)
     - Arable 324,791 km2 (53.8%)
     - Permanent Crops 9,056 km2 (1.5%)
     - Irrigated 22,080 km2
  - Non cultivated 269,854 km2 (44.7%)
Average Annual RainfallD 565 mm
Renewable Water ResourcesE 139.5 km3
Water WithdrawalsF 37.53 km3/yr
  - For Agricultural Use 52%
  - For Domestic Use 12%
  - For Industrial Use 35%
  - Per Capita 764 m3
Population with safe access to
  - Improved Water Source 96%
     - Urban population 99%
     - Rural population 91%
  - Improved Sanitation 96%
     - Urban population 98%
     - Rural population 93%
References & Remarks
A UNDP Human Development Report
B CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia
C CIA World Factbook Country Profiles
D Aquastat - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
E CIA World Factbook
F Earthtrends



Country Profile: Climate, Geography, Socio-Economic Context

Country Profile: Water Bodies and Resources

The country can be divided into seven major river basins, all of them discharging into the Black Sea except the Northern Buh which flows towards the Baltic Sea:

  • The Dnipro basin, covering about 65% of the country.
  • The Dniester basin, covering 12% of the country. It flows into Moldova before re-entering Ukraine some 50 km before its mouth in the Black Sea.
  • The Danube basin, covering 7% of the country. Ukraine contributes 7.5% to the total flow of the Danube.
  • The coastal basin, covering 7% of the country.
  • The Northern Donetsk basin, covering 4% of the country.
  • The Southern Buh basin, covering 3% of the country. It is an internal river basin, generating about 3.4 km³/year.
  • The Northern Buh basin, covering 2% of the country. The Northern Buh River rises in Ukraine and flows north, forming the border with Poland, and then the border between Poland and Belarus.

The Danube River contributes almost 80 percent of inflow to transboundary rivers. Resources are unevenly distributed throughout the country. Some areas experience water shortages. There are about 3,000 natural lakes in Ukraine, with a total area of 2,000 square kilometres. The largest freshwater lakes have an approximate area of 50 square kilometres and are located in the central and southern parts of the country. In addition, there are about 12,000 square kilometres of swamp (peat soil) in the north.

The IRSWR can be estimated at 50.1 km³/year (Figure 2), while the total surface water resources can be estimated at 136.55 km³/year.

The groundwater resources are estimated at 20 km³/year. Artesian wells are found at an average depth of 100-150m in the north of the country and at 500-600m in the south. The overlap between surface and groundwater resources has been estimated at 17 km³/year.

The water resources used by humans are classified as polluted or very polluted. Drinking water often fails to meet quality standards, which poses a major threat to public health. Lack of sewerage and wastewater treatment facilities also contributes to the poor quality of water in Ukraine.

Country Profile: Legal and Institutional Environment

The government is now focusing on expanding supplies of drinking water. Although nearly 100 percent of the population has access to safe water (in rural areas, mostly through wells), the existing network is overburdened. For this reason, and because of energy shortages, many cities receive water only twice a day for a limited number of hours.

Traditionally, the government has focused on providing water for agriculture. But after 1992 this changed. The shift was caused by a lack of capital and the undefined status of land ownership on large areas. Combined with the lack of fuel to pump water, this explains the recent decrease in irrigated areas.

With regards to transboundary water management, Soviet legislation regarding international water issues is still valid, which means that the agreements with Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania - as well as the internal regulations between former Soviet republics -- are still in force. An agreement between Moldova and Ukraine stipulates that Moldova may use water stored in the Curciugan reservoir, located on a tributary of the Dniester river basin. This tributary forms the border between Ukraine and Moldova before it reaches the Dniester.

Country Profile: Water Sector Coordination

See Sector coordination sub-page for detailed description

Country Profile: Trends in Water Use, Management and Sanitation

Country Profile: Challenges and Opportunities

The lack of permanent access to clean drinking water is an important environmental, as well as a health issue in Ukraine. The Dnipro Basin has been described as a classic example of unsustainable development due to the legacy of attempts to transform an agricultural region into a major industrial one in a few decades. More than ten years ago a number of pollutants made the water undrinkable in many areas. These pollutants derived from inadequate sewage treatment facilities, direct discharge of industrial waste, excessive fertilizers, and untreated animal waste. The river was also contaminated by the runoff from areas affected by the Chornobyl accident. Since independence substantial progress has been made towards cleaning up the river but much remains to be done. One of the obstacles in assessing the situation is that data differs considerably. According to one survey conducted in 1999 by UNICEF and the SSC, 98 per cent of the country’s population had permanent access to safe drinking water. Yet, water samples analyzed that same year showed that the water failed to meet the government’s norms for safe drinking water. A subsequent survey conducted by UNDP concluded that only 64 per cent of respondents had running water in their homes.


Recently updated articles on Ukraine
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Projects and Case Studies

Projects in or about Ukraine

(this is a list of the 15 most recently updated entries. To see all projects click here)

  1. Promoting Replication of Good Practices for Nutrient Reduction and Joint Collaboration in Central and Eastern Europe ‎(3,001 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Improving resilience of the Tisza River basin to fluctuating climatic regimes through development and adoption of a Strategic Action Programme ‎(1,477 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Tisza community-led demonstration regional project for sustainable development and integrated land and water management ‎(2,878 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Integrating multiple benefits of wetlands and floodplains in to a trans-boundary management plan for the Tisza River Basin ‎(2,653 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. Sustainable management of shared water resources in the upper Pripyat basin ‎(1,440 views) . . Katy.norman
  6. UNEP - Sustainable Use of the Mesozoic Transboundary Aquifer System in the Bug River Basin (Belarus, Poland, Ukraine) ‎(2,570 views) . . WikiBot
  7. Reforming Municipal Water Supply Systems in Rural Areas of Crimea ‎(3,010 views) . . WikiBot
  8. Tisza community-led demonstration project for sustainable development and integrated land and water management ‎(4,096 views) . . WikiBot
  9. Strengthening the Implementation Capacities for Nutrient Reduction and Transboundary Cooperation in the Danube River Basin ‎(14,152 views) . . WikiBot
  10. SDC - Forestry programme in Trans-Carpathia, phase III, Ukraine 2003-2005 ‎(1,738 views) . . WikiBot
  11. International Black Sea Day ‎(3,974 views) . . WikiBot
  12. Implementation of The Dnipro Basin Strategic Action Program for the reduction of persistent toxics pollution ‎(2,703 views) . . WikiBot
  13. Crimea Integration and Development Programme ‎(10,380 views) . . WikiBot
  14. Control of eutrophication, hazardous substances and related measures for rehabilitating the Black Sea ecosystem ‎(7,911 views) . . WikiBot
  15. Capacity and Community Building for Industrial Water Stewardship in the Danube/Black Sea region ‎(3,438 views) . . WikiBot

Case studies in or about Ukraine

(by popularity)

  1. Ukraine - Lessons from Community Based Approaches in Water Supply Projects for Multi-ethnic Neighbourhoods in Crimea ‎(57,180 views) . . WikiBot
  2. UNDP/GEF Danube Regional Project ‎(24,017 views) . . WikiBot

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented projects in Ukraine


5 most recently updated publications on Ukraine
  1. Ukraine, Human Development Report 2003 ‎(2,999 views) . . Katy.norman
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  4. 2006 Annual Report on UN Chernobyl Coordination ‎(4,475 views) . . WikiBot

5 most popular publications on Ukraine
  1. Assessment of Development Results Ukraine ‎(5,450 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. 2006 Annual Report on UN Chernobyl Coordination ‎(4,475 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Lessons from Community Based Approaches in Water Supply Projects for Multi-Ethnic Neighbourhoods in Crimea ‎(3,572 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Ukraine, Human Development Report 2003 ‎(2,999 views) . . Katy.norman

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented publications on Ukraine

Who is Who

People working in Ukraine
  1. Bo Libert ‎(5,999 views)
  2. Yegor.volovik ‎(4,972 views)
  3. Lubomyr.Markevych ‎(1,150 views)
  4. Tamara Kutonova ‎(2,640 views)
  5. Christian.Disler ‎(4,264 views)
  6. Elvina.Mustafaeva ‎(3,181 views)
  7. Volodymyr.pigenko ‎(3,956 views)
  8. Sergei.volkov ‎(4,651 views)
  9. Sascha.graumann ‎(992 views)
  10. Andriy.Demydenko ‎(1,191 views)

See the complete list of Waterwiki users working in Ukraine

Organizations working in Ukraine
  1. International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River ‎(4,788 views) . . Katy.norman

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented organizations in Ukraine


See also

External Resources

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