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Uzbekistan is part of:
Asia & Pacific · Central Asia · Europe & CIS ·
Water Basins of Uzbekistan:
Amu Darya · Aral Sea · Ferghana Valley · Syr Darya · Vahksh · Zarafshan ·
Facts & Figures edit
Capital Tashkent
Neighbouring Countries Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
Total Area 447,400 km2
  - Water 22,000 km2 (4.92%) / 492 m2/ha
  - Land 425,400 km2
Coastline 0 km
Population 26,593,120 (59 inhab./km2)
HDIA 0.701 (2007)
Gini CoefficientA 36.8 (1995)
Nominal GDPB $26,620 million
GDP (PPP) Per CapitaB $2,700
National UN Presence UNDP, WHO, UNICEF, WB, UNESCO
Land UseC
  - Cultivated Land 47,943 km2 (11.27%)
     - Arable 44,710 km2 (10.51%)
     - Permanent Crops 3,233 km2 (0.76%)
     - Irrigated 42,810 km2
  - Non cultivated 377,457 km2 (88.73%)
Average Annual RainfallD 206 mm
Renewable Water ResourcesE 72.2 km3
Water WithdrawalsF 58.34 km3/yr
  - For Agricultural Use 93%
  - For Domestic Use 5%
  - For Industrial Use 2%
  - Per Capita 2,360 m3
Population with safe access to
  - Improved Water Source 82%
     - Urban population 95%
     - Rural population 75%
  - Improved Sanitation 67%
     - Urban population 78%
     - Rural population 61%
References & Remarks
A UNDP Human Development Report
B CIA World Factbook and Wikipedia
C CIA World Factbook Country Profiles
D Aquastat - FAO's Information System on Water and Agriculture
E CIA World Factbook
F Earthtrends

> Articles | Projects & Case studies | Publications & Web resources | Who is who | Maps
> Sector Assessment | Sector Coordination | Donor Profile

Latest 4 maps for / including Uzbekistan (more..):



Country Profile: Climate, Geography, Socio-Economic Context

Uzbekistan is located in Central Asia, bordered by Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east and Kazakhstan to the west and north. The South Aral Sea, which formed in the late 1980s as the main Aral Sea (a saltwater lake) shrank, lies largely in northern Uzbekistan. The population of around 27 million (2007) occupies a land area of 447,400 km². Uzbekistan is a dry country with a continental climate.

Country Profile: Water Bodies and Resources


Water management may be the single most important issue for Uzbekistan. Forty years of poor management now threaten agriculture, soil quality and availability of water for all purposes. The Government faces difficult political choices. Cotton, a significant foreign-exchange earner, consumes more water in irrigation than can be sustained. (See Chapter 10.) Salinity of soil, surface water and groundwater is increasing to unacceptable levels. Run-off from irrigation is negatively affecting the quality of drinking water from the main water streams. Water is becoming scarce for all purposes.

The main sources of water resources are: the AmuDarya with average long-term withdrawal 2,500 mІ/s, the Syr Darya (1,200 mІ/s), the Zarafshan (164 mІ/s), the Kashkadarya (50 mІ/s), the Surhandarya (52 mІ/s), the Ahangaran (23 mІ/s), the Chirchik (22 mІ/s). The Amu Darya has the largest drainage basin, covering 227 thousand kmІ in the mountain region only, with a water volume of 78 kmі per year (average long-term index, stretch - 1,440 km). The Syr Darya with a water collecting area of 150 thousand kmІ, 2 times less in water volume (36 kmі per year) but it exceeds in stretch (2,140 km). Discharges of the both rivers are formed in contiguous countries - Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. Annual discharge, formed within the republic, makes up 9% of the total water resources being used for needs of national economy. Forecasting supply of ground water is 19 kmі per year. Over 50% is used as a reliable source of drinking water for population, industrial needs, pasture watering and land irrigation.

Transboundary rivers of the region are impacted by pollution of cattle-breeding, domestic, municipal, industrial sewage and collecting, drainage waters. Polluted sewage from more than 5 thousand water using objects go into surface waterways and make up approximately 20% of total water withdrawal in open reservoirs.

There are two river basins in Uzbekistan that form the Aral Sea basin. In addition to this, there are 94 major aquifers, and sporadic rainfall that is unevenly distributed, occurring mainly in the mountainous regions during the winter months. The water resources that are available are in short supply in much of Uzbekistan.

Water in Uzbekistan's Economy

In 1994, the agricultural sector contributed some 36 percent to GDP. In 1996, it employed about 33 percent of the total economically active population. The contribution of crop production to GDP was about 20 percent from irrigated crops and 2 percent from rain-fed crops. Cotton, called 'white gold' in Uzbekistan, vegetables and fruits are the country's principal exports. Uzbekistan is one of the world's largest cotton exporters.

Irrigation in Uzbekistan started more than 2,500 years ago in the seven natural oases. At the beginning of the 20th century, about 1.2 million hectares were irrigated in Uzbekistan. Large-scale development started in the late 1950s, when the Soviet Union decided that Uzbekistan should specialize in the production of cotton. Modern irrigation techniques were then developed in the Hunger steppe in the central part of the country. By 1994, irrigation covered almost 4.3 million hectares, or about 82 percent of cultivated land.

Country Profile: Legal and Institutional Environment

The main legislation governing water management is the 1993 Law on Water and Water Use. Uzbekistan is in the process of adopting a series of measures intended to improve water supply so as to promote employment and better living standards. In 2002, Uzbekistan developed the Concept of Sustainable Water Supply of the Regions of the Republic of Uzbekistan, which sets forth Principal Directions of Water Management and Amelioration Measures for 2008–2011. These directives envisage major improvement in land use through better drainage, an increase in agricultural water supply through modernization of irrigation, and the introduction of integrated water resources management.

Country Profile: Water Sector Coordination

See Sector coordination sub-page for detailed description

Country Profile: Trends in Water Use, Management and Sanitation

During the Soviet period, the sharing of water resources among the five Central Asian republics was based on the master plans for water resources development in the Amu Darya (1987) and Syr Darya (1984) basins. In 1992, with the establishment of the Interstate Commission for Water Coordination, the newly independent republics decided to prepare a regional water strategy while continuing to respect existing principles until the adoption of a new water-sharing agreement in the new water strategy. The surface water resources allocated to Uzbekistan are calculated every year, depending on the climatic situation and existing flows.

Country Profile: Challenges and Opportunities


Recently updated articles on Uzbekistan
  1. Image:Wegerich 2009 Shifting to hydrological boundaries.PDF ‎(1,180 views) . . Aigerim D
  2. Uzbekistan - Support to Water Users Associations ‎(3,593 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Uzbekistan/articles ‎(1,290 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Uzbekistan/projects ‎(1,630 views) . . WikiBot
  5. Uzbekistan/publications ‎(1,333 views) . . WikiBot
  6. Uzbekistan/Maps ‎(1,296 views) . . WikiBot
  7. Uzbekistan/who is who ‎(1,163 views) . . WikiBot
  8. Status and importance of water-relevant international legal instruments for the 5 Central Asian countries ‎(5,314 views) . . Katy.norman
  9. Image:Uzbekistan polMap CIA.jpg ‎(910 views) . . Juerg.staudenmann
  10. Image:Central Asia Region Map.jpg ‎(2,287 views) . . Juerg.staudenmann

See the complete list of WaterWiki articles on Uzbekistan

Projects and Case Studies

Projects in or about Uzbekistan

(this is a list of the 15 most recently updated entries. To see all projects click here)

  1. Amu Darya Assessment of Environment and Security Linkages and Impact ‎(4,502 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Regional Research Network Water in Central Asia (CAWa) ‎(4,598 views) . . Katy Unger-Shayesteh
  3. IWRM in Uzbekistan ‎(3,507 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Setting up a Project Formulation and Coordination Support group for sustainable transboundary management of radioactive waste in Central Asia ‎(1,872 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. A comprehensive study on glacial melting in Central Asia ‎(2,262 views) . . Katy.norman
  6. Central Asia – Regional and National Water Sector Review ‎(19,608 views) . . Juerg.staudenmann
  7. Water Supply and Sanitation Services Investment Program – Project 1, Republic of Uzbekistan ‎(3,315 views) . . Juerg.staudenmann
  8. Water Productivity Improvement at Plot Level ‎(2,560 views) . . WikiBot
  9. Water Flume Metres for Water User Associations ‎(3,014 views) . . WikiBot
  10. The Swiss Support to Hydro-meteorological Services in the Aral Sea basin Project ‎(2,784 views) . . WikiBot
  11. Rural Enterprise Support Project II ‎(2,126 views) . . WikiBot
  12. Regional Rural Water Supply Project (SDC) ‎(2,569 views) . . WikiBot
  13. Integrated Water Resources Management Ferghana Valley ‎(2,967 views) . . WikiBot
  14. Canal Automation in Ferghana Valley ‎(3,184 views) . . WikiBot
  15. Aral Sea Basin Capacity Development Project ‎(7,681 views) . . WikiBot

Case studies in or about Uzbekistan

(by popularity)

  1. Water Conflict and Cooperation/Aral Sea Basin ‎(27,039 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Uzbekistan - Celebrating Communities ‎(22,353 views) . . WikiBot
  3. Facing Water Challenges in the Aral Sea, Uzbekistan:A WWDR3 Case Study ‎(22,336 views) . . WikiBot
  4. Lessons on Cooperation Building to Manage Water Conflicts in the Aral Sea Basin ‎(7,284 views) . . Katy.norman

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented projects in Uzbekistan


5 most recently updated publications on Uzbekistan
  1. United Nations Commission For Sustainable Development Report ch 18 water resources in Uzbekistan ‎(3,373 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Uzbekistan National Environmental Action Plan ‎(4,354 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Uzbekistan Environmental Performance Review ‎(3,195 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Central Asia Regional Environmental Action Plan for Water Pollution ‎(5,086 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. Shifting to hydrological boundaries – The politics of implementation in the lower Amu Darya Basin ‎(3,541 views) . . Aigerim D

5 most popular publications on Uzbekistan
  1. Water Conflict and Cooperation/Aral Sea Basin ‎(27,039 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. Lessons on Cooperation Building to Manage Water Conflicts in the Aral Sea Basin ‎(7,284 views) . . Katy.norman
  3. Central Asia Regional Environmental Action Plan for Water Pollution ‎(5,086 views) . . Katy.norman
  4. Uzbekistan National Environmental Action Plan ‎(4,354 views) . . Katy.norman
  5. Atrof-Muhit Environment Programme Evaluation Report ‎(4,130 views) . . WikiBot

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented publications on Uzbekistan

Who is Who

People working in Uzbekistan
  1. Siegfried Leffler ‎(5,233 views)
  2. Vadim Sokolov ‎(4,402 views)
  3. Christine.roth ‎(6,178 views)
  4. Christina.carlson ‎(4,933 views)
  5. Magdalena Banasiak ‎(4,782 views)
  6. Craig Steffensen ‎(4,281 views)
  7. Fikret.Akcura ‎(3,658 views)
  8. Laura.Rio ‎(3,834 views)
  9. Ulugbek.Dedabaev ‎(2,968 views)
  10. Ajiniyaz.Reimov ‎(3,455 views)

See the complete list of Waterwiki users working in Uzbekistan

Organizations working in Uzbekistan
  1. ICWC ‎(5,587 views) . . Katy.norman
  2. CAREC - Central Asian Regional Economic Cooperation ‎(8,412 views) . . Katy.norman

See the complete list of WaterWiki documented organizations in Uzbekistan


See also

External Resources


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